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Information Technology For Management 5th Edition

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Chapter 6 Mobile, Wireless, and Pervasive Computing Information Technology For Management 5th Edition Turban, Leidner, McLean, Wetherbe Lecture Slides by A. Lekacos, – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Information Technology For Management 5th Edition


1
Chapter 6
Mobile, Wireless, and Pervasive Computing
  • Information Technology For Management 5th Edition
  • Turban, Leidner, McLean, Wetherbe
  • Lecture Slides by A. Lekacos,
  • Stony Brook University
  • John Wiley Sons, Inc.

2
Learning Objectives
  • ????????????????? ????????? mobile computing ???
    m-commerce.
  • ?????????????????????????? mobile computing.
  • ????????????????????????????????????????? mobile
    computing.
  • ??????????????????? wireless ??? transmission
    networks.
  • ???????? m-commerce applications ?? financial
    ????????????? ? advertising, ??? providing of
    content.
  • ??????????????????????? m-commerce
    ????????????????
  • ???????????? B2B ??? supply chain
    ????????????????? m-commerce.

3
  • ?????? consumer ??? personal applications ???
    m-commerce.
  • ?????? non-Internet m-commerce applications
  • ????????? location-based commerce (l-commerce).
  • ???????? key characteristics ??? current uses ???
    pervasive computing.
  • ????????? major inhibitors ??? barriers ???
    mobile computing ??? m-commerce.

4
Food Lion Excels with Wireless Innovations
  • Problem
  • Food Lion grocery ???? supermarket chain (1,200
    stores) ?????????????????????????????????????????
    ???? Wal-mart ??????? ??????? ????????????????????
    ?????
  • Solution
  • Mobile checkstand
  • ??????????????????? (POS) ????????????????
    ????????????????????????????????? ????????????
  • Personal scanner
  • ????????????????????????????? scan barcode
    ????????????????????????????????????????
    ????????????????????????? ??????? ???
    ??????????????????????????????????????????????????
    ???????????? download ??????????? cash register
    ???

5
  • Employee handheld devices
  • ??????????????????????????????????????????
    ??????????????????? ????? tag ??????????????
    ????????????????????????? ????????????????????????
  • Cart-mounted tablet PC
  • ???????????????????????????????
    ???????????????????????????????????
    ????????????????? ??? ????????????????????????????
    ?
  • Tablet PCs for Employee
  • ???????????????????????????? ???????/?????????????
    ???????????????????? ?????????????????????????????
    ????? wireless ??????????????????? PDS ???? Smart
    phone ????????????????????

6
  • Mobile manager
  • ???? portable device ??????????????????
    ???????????????????????????????? ??? ??????????
  • Wi-Fi access
  • ???????? Wireless Lan (WLAN) ????????????

7
  • Results
  • ??? Check out ??????????????????????????????
  • ????????????????????????????????????????????
  • ?????????????????????????????????????
    ?????????????????????????????????
  • ??????????? (productivity) ?????????????
  • Lessons learned
  • ????????????? 211

8
6.1 Mobile Computing and Commerce Overview,
Benefits, and Drivers
  • ??????????????????????????????????????????????????
    ?????????????????????? ??????????????????
    ????????????????????? ????????????????????????????
    ??????????? ??????????? ????????????????
    ?????????????? ??????????????????
  • ?????? Mobile Computing (???????
    ????????????????????????????????????)
  • ???????? ?????????????????????????????????????????
    ??????? ?????????? Mobile devices
    ??????????????????? Laptop ???????????????????????
    ????????? ? ???????????? PDA (Personal Digital
    Assistants) ?????????? ???????????????
    ?????????????????????????????(???????????)????????
    ?????????? Desktop Computer ???
    ??????????????????????????????????
    Synchronization (????????????? Sync) ???????
    cradle (???????)

9
  • ??????????? ????????? mobile computing
    ??????????????????? ????????????? ??????????????
    ??????????????? ???? wireless communication
    media.
  • ??????????? ????????????????????????? ???????????
    ?????????? mobile devices ??????????????????????
    (??????????? wireless mobile computing ???????)
    ????????????????? ????????????????????????????????
    (real-time connection) ??????? mobile device
    ????? ??? computing environments.
  • ?????????????????????????
  • Mobile computing ??????? ????????????????????????
    ??????????????? ???????? ?????????????????????????
    ???????????????????? ???? ??????????????????
  • Mobile Device ??????? Portable computer ???? ?
    ???? PDA ??? ????????????????? ?

10
  • Wireless mobile computing ???????????????????
    mobile device ????? ???????????
    ???????????????????? (wireless environment)
  • Ubiquitous Computing ???????????????????????????
    ?????????????????????

11
Mobile Commerce
  • Mobile commerce (M-commerce ???? M-business) ???
    e-commerce ??? ???????? ??????????????????????????
    ?? ???????????????????????? Internet ????????????
    6.1 ???????????????????????
  • ???????????????????????????
  • Financial applications
  • Inventory management
  • Field Service management
  • Product locating
  • Real Estate
  • etc

12
(No Transcript)
13
Mobile Computing Basic Terminology (1)
  • Global Positioning System (GPS) ???????
    ?????????????????????? ?????????????
    ?????????????????????????????
  • Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) ??? ??????
    ???????????????????? (wireless computer)
  • Short Messaging Service (SMS) ??????? ?????????
    ???????????????????????????????????????? ?
    ????????????????????????????
  • Enhanced Messaging Service (EMS) ???????
    ??????????? SMS ????????????????????????? ?
    ?????????????? ???? ???????? ?
  • Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS) ???? next
    generation ??? wireless messaging ????????????
    media ?????????????????????????

14
Mobile Computing Basic Terminology (2)
  • Bluetooth ??????????????? (Chip technology)
    ???????????????????????? (???? data ???
    voice)??????? wireless device ???????
    ?????????????? ??? ?????????????????? ???????????
    (??????????????)
  • Wireless Application Protocol ( WAP)
    ????????????????????????????????????? (set of
    communication protocol) ??????????????????????????
    ??????????????? ?????? ???????????????????????
    mobile network ???????????????????????????????????
  • Smartphone ??????? ??????????????????????????????
    ??????????????? ??????????? ?????????????????????
    ?????????????????? (mobile application) ???
  • Wi-Fi (short for Wireless Fidelity)
    ?????????????? 802.11b ??? WLAN ???? ??? run
    ?????? wireless device ???? ?

15
Mobile Computing Basic Terminology (3)
  • WLAN (wireless local area Network) ??????????????
    wireless version ??? Ethernet networking standard

PDA
WLAN
GPS
16
Attributes and drivers of mobile computing
  • ??????????????????? ????????????????? EC
    ??????????????????????????????????? 4 ???????????
    m-commerce ?????????? ???????????????????
    ?????????????????? m-commerce ????????
  • The Specific Attributes of Mobile Computing and
    M-Commerce
  • Mobile computing ???????????????? 2
    ???????????????? computing ??????? ? ??? mobility
    ??? broad reach
  • 1) Mobility (?????????????????? portability)
    ?????????????????????? mobile device ???????????
  • 2) Broad reach ??????? ???????????????????????????
    ???
  • ???????????????????????? ????????? five
    value-added attributes ???????????????????
    ????????????? 5 ???? ??????

17
The Attributes of M-computing cont
  • Ubiquity (??????? ????????????? ? ??)
    ??????????????????????????????????????????????????
    ????????????? ???????? (real time)
    ???????????????????????????
  • Convenience ??? instant connectivity ??????????
    web, intranets, ??? mobile device ???? ?
    ???????????????????????????????? ??????????
    booting up PC ??????????????? ????????????????????
    ????
  • Personalization ?????????????????????????????????
    ?????????????????????????? SMS.
  • Localization ???????????????????????????
    ?????????????????????????????????????
    ??????????????????

18
Drivers of M-computing and M-commerce
  • ???????????????????????????????????
    ??????????????????????????????????? mobile
    computing ??? m-commerce ??????
  • Mobile devices ???????????????????????????????????
    ????????????
  • ??????????????? PC ?????????????????????????????
  • ????????? ?????????????? (Cell Phone Culture)
    ???? ???????????????????? SMS ???????
  • Vendor Marketing ?????????????????????????????????
    ?????????????????? ???
  • ??????????????????????? ? ????????????????????????
    ????????????????
  • ???????????????????? Bandwidth

19
M-Commerce Value Chain and Revenue Models
  • M-commerce ???????????????????????????????????????
    ????????????????????? ???? ?????? ??????
    ???????????????? mobile ???????
  • ??????????????????????? (Value-added service)
    ?????? mobile portal, advertiser, software
    vendor, content provider, mobile network operator
    ???????
  • ??????????????? (Revenue model) ?????? access
    fee, subscription fee, pay-per-use, advertising,
    transaction fee, hosting, payment clearing, point
    of traffic ???????
  • ????????????????

20
The landscape of mobile computing and commerce
21
Wireless Local Area Networks and Wi-Fi
  • The Wi-Fi Revolution
  • ??????????????????????????????????? ?????
    Wireless access point (WAP) ??????????????????????
    ??? LAN ????????
  • Wireless LAN(WLAN) ???? local area network (LAN)
    ??????????????????? ?????? ??????/????????????????
    ????????? (airwave)
  • Wireless access point ???????????????????????
    mobile device ( Laptop or PDA) ??????? wired
    local area network.
  • Hotspot ????????????????????????????(????????????)
    ????????? wireless access point
    ???????????????????????????????
  • 802.11b ??????????????????? IEEE ????????? WLAN
    ????????????? ?????????????? ?????? 11 mbps.
  • (Wi-Fi) wireless fidelity ????????????????????????
    ?????? 802.11b ??? WLAN ???? ??? run ????

22
(No Transcript)
23
  • Wireless Personal Area Networks (WPAN)
    ????????????????? WLAN ????????????????????
    (??????????????????????)
  • Illustrate Application of Wi-Fi
  • ???????????? 6.2 ???? 218
  • Barriers to Commercial Wi-Fi Growth
  • ??????????????? ? ????????????????????????????
    Wi-Fi ??? Cost ??? Security
  • ?) Cost as a Barrier to Commercial Wi-Fi Growth
  • ???????????????????????????????????????????????
    ???????????????????????????? ??? access
    ????????????????????????
  • ?????????????????????????????????????????????????

24
Barriers to commercial Wi-Fi growth
  • ?????????????????????? access internet ???
    ????????????????????????????????????? ??????
    (???? ?????????????????????????????)
    ???????????????????????????????????????
    ?????????????????????????????????????? ??????
    access wireless ??? ?????????? ?????????? War
    chalking ??????????????????????????????????????
    ?????????????????? access ??? ????? War driving
  • ?) Security as a Barrier to Commercial Wi-Fi
    Growth
  • ??????????? War Driving ???????????????????????
    ??????????????????????????? Wi-Fi Hotspot
    ????????????? ?????????????????????????????????
    ????????????????????? ????????
  • ?????????? Wireless Encryption Protocol (WEP)
    ?????? encrypt ????????????????? client machine
    ??? wireless access point ????????????????
    ???????????? weak encryption ?????????????????????
    ?????????????? ???????????????????????????????????
    ????????????

25
6.2 Mobile Application in Financial Service
  • ????????????????????? Finance ???????? ??? ????
  • Mobile Banking and Stock trading
  • Wireless Electronic Payment Systems
  • Micropayments ??????????????????????? ??? (lt10)
    ???? ?????????????? ??????????????? ???????
  • Mobile (Wireless) Wallets
  • Wireless Bill Payment

26
Wireless Bill Payments
27
Purchasing movie tickets with WAP Solo
28
6.3 M-shopping, Advertising, and Content-Providing
  • ????????????????????? m-commerce ????????????? ?
    ??? retailing shopping, advertising, providing
    customer services
  • Shopping from Wireless Devices
  • ????????????????????????????? wireless device ???
    ???? mobile.yahoo.com ???? amazon.com ???????
  • Targeted Advertising
  • ???????????????
  • A close look 6.1Wireless Advertising in Action
    page 222
  • Getting paid to listen to advertising, page 221

29
  • Mobile Portals ??? ???????????????????????????????
    ???????????????

30
Voice System for M-Commerce
  • Voice Portal (?????????? Vortal) ???
    ????????????????????????????????? (audio
    interface) ????????????? ?????????????????????????
    ??? ???? ?????????????????? ???????????? ?????
    ???????

31
??????????????? Voice Portal
32
6.4 Mobile Enterprise and Intrabusiness
Applications
  • Mobile Enterprise application
  • 1) In retailing
  • 2) Sales force automation (SFA)
  • 3) Hospitals
  • 4) In Operations
  • 5) Tracking Employees

33
  • 6) Wearable Devices ??????????????????????????????
    ????? mobile workers ?????? wearable devices ????
    Screen, Camera, Touch-panel display, Keyboard,
    ??? Speech Translator
  • ??????????????? Wearable Devices for Bell Canada
    Workers, page 226

34
  • 7) Job Dispatch
  • Mobile device ???????????????????? work flow
    application ????????????????????? ????????????
    ??????????? dispatch functions ????
    ???????????????????????????????? ?????????????
    ??????????????? (?????????????????) ????
    ??????????????? ??? ???????? field
    ??????????????????? ???????
  • 8) Supporting other types of work
    ?????????????????????? 226-227
  • Customer Support and CRM
  • ??????????????? A Close Look 6.2 Mobile
    application for Sports, page 228

35
Wireless Intrabusiness Application Intrabusiness
Workflow Application
Before Wireless With Wireless
Work orders are manually assigned by multiple supervisors and dispatchers Work orders are automatically assigned and routed within minutes for maximum efficiency..
Field service technician commute to dispatch center to pick up paper work orders Home-based filed services technicians receive first work order via mobile terminal and proceed directly to first assignment.
Manual record keeping of time, work completed, and billing information. Automated productivity tracking, record keeping and building updates
Field service technicians call for new assignments and often wait because of radio traffic or unavailable dispatcher. Electronic transmittal of additional work orders with no waiting time
Completed work orders are dropped off at the dispatch center at the end of the day for manual entry into the billing tracking system. Uncompleted orders are manually distributed to available technicians. Overtime changes often result. Technicians close completed work orders from the mobile terminals as they are completed . At the end of shift. The technicians sign off and go home.
36
  • Mobile B2B and Supply Chain Applications
  • 1) ????????????????? ????????????????????
  • CRM with Mobile Technologies
  • SFA (Sales Force Automation) ?????????????????????
    ???????????? CRM
  • 2) ?????????????? Supply chain
  • Mobile Supply Chain Management (mSCM)

37
6.5 Mobile Consumer Services and Entertainment
  • Mobile Entertainment
  • Mobile Games
  • Hotel Services Go Wireless
  • Wireless Telemedicine
  • ???????????????????
  • 1) ?????????????????????????? ????????????????????
    ??? ?
  • 2) ?? Video conference ??? real time ???????
    ????? ????????????? ?????????? ????
    ?????????????????? ???????????

38
  • Other Mobile Computing Services for Consumers
  • ?? Case study ?? mobileinfo.com
  • Non-Internet Mobile-Computing Application for
    Consumers
  • ??????????????? IT at Work 5.3 The highway 91
    project, page 217

39
6.6 Location-Based Commerce
  • Location based commerce (l - commerce) ???????
    M-commerce transactions ??????????????????????????
    ???????????????????????? ?. ???????????????
    ?????????? l-commerce ?????????? 5 ???????? ? ???
  • 1) Location
  • 2) Navigation
  • 3) Tracking
  • 4) Mapping
  • 5) Timing
  • Providing location- based services requires the
    following technologies.
  • Position- determining equipment (PDE)
    ??????????????????????????????????????? mobile
    device.

40
L-commerce Technologies
  • Mobile positioning center (MPC) MPC
    ?????????????????????????????????????
    ??????????????????????????????? PDE
  • Location-based technology ???????????????????????
    ??????????????????????? ????????????
    ????????????????????????????????????????????
    geographic- ??? location- specific content
    ????????????????????? l-commerce
  • Geographic content Geographic content ??????????
    streets, road map, addresses, routes, landmarks,
    land usage , Zip codes ??? ???????? ?
    ?????????????????????????????
  • Location-specific content Location-specific
    content ?????????????????????? geographic content
    ?????????? location of particular services.

41
Smartphone with GPS system in l-commerce
42
GPS and GIS
  • Global Positioning Systems (GPS). Wireless system
    ??????????????????????????? ??????????????????????
    ????????????????? ??????????????????????????
  • Geographical Information System (GIS).
    ????????????? GSP data ??????? digitized map
    displays.

43
???????? GPS
GPS ???????? Global Positioning System
??????????????????????? 24 ??? ??????????????????
?? ??????????? 8 ?????? ???????? 3 ???
44
GPS ?????????????????????
  • ????????? ???????????????????? ????????
    ?????????????????? ????????? ??????????????
    ???????????????????????????? ????????????????????
    ??????? ???????????????????? GPS ??
    ???????????????????????????????? ?

45
  • ???????????????????????????????????????????
    ????????????????????????? ????????????????????????
    ?????? ??????? ??????????????????????????????????
    ???????????????????? ?????????????????????????????
    ?? (???????????????????? ?????????????????????

46
  • ????????????? ???????????????????????
    ??????????????????????????????????????
    ??????????? ??????????????????????? ??????
    ??????????????????????????????? (??? ??
    ??????????????)

47
  • ??????? ??????????????????????? ???????????????
    GPS ?????????? ????????????????? ???????????????
    ?? ?????????????????????? ?????? X,Y,Z ????
    ??????????? ???????

48
???????????????????
49
Latitude ??? Longitude
  • ?????????????????????????????????
    ??????????????????????????????????????? ???????
    ????????????? ?????????????

50
???????? GIS
  • Geography ??? ?????????????? ?????????????????????
    ??????? ????????? ?????????????????
    ???????????????????????????
  • GIS ??? ?????????????????? ????????? ???
    ?????????????? ????????? geography

51
?????????????? GIS ??????? 3 ??? ???
  • 1) The Database View ????????????????? GIS
    ?????????????????????????????? ???? ????????
    geographic database (geodatabase) ???????????
    "Information System for Geography ???????

52
  • 2) The Map View ????????????????? GIS ?????
    ???????? intelligent maps ??? ???????????
    ????????????????????????????????
    ?????????????????????????? ?????????????
    ?????????????????????? geovisualization.

53
  • 3) The Model View ???????????? ?????? GIS
    ??????????????????????????? ??????
    ????????????????????? (information transformation
    tools) ??????????? geographic datasets
    ???????????????? datasets ?????????
    ??????????????????????? geoprocessing functions

54
?????????? Digital Map ??? ?????
  • ??????????????????????????????????????????????????
    ??????????????? ?????????? ?????????????? PDA

55
??? GPS ???????????????????????????
PDA ???????????(??????????????????????????
(?????)) ???? Plot ???????????????????????????
?????????? ???????????????????
56
Location-based Services Solutions
??????????????? IT at Work 6.3 NextBus A Superb
Customer Service ???? 235
57
NextBus
58
  • E-911 Emergency Cell Phone Calls
  • Telemetry Applications
  • Telemetry ??? ????????????????????????????????????
    ??????????????? wireless transmission ??? remote
    source (???? ???????) ?????????????
  • Barriers to L-commerce
  • ?????????? (Accuracy)
  • ????????????????? cost- benefit
  • ????????????? GSM networks
  • ???????????????????????????

59
6.7 Pervasive Computing
  • ???? pervasive computing ???????????????????
    ubiquitous computing, embedded computing ????
    augmented computing.
  • Pervasive computing ??????? Computing ??????????
    ???????????????????????????? ?????? ????
    ????????????? ??????????? ???????
    ???????????????? ???????????????? ????
    ?????????????????????????????? RFID ?????
  • (RFID) radio frequency identification
    ????????????? ? ???????????????????????
    ??????????????????????? ?

60
??????????????? RFID
RFID
61
Contextual Computing and Context Awareness
  • Contextual computing ?????????????????????????????
    ???????????????????????????????????????
    ?????????? ????????????????? ?????????/???????????
    ?????????????????????????????????????????
  • Context awareness refers to capturing a broad
    range of contextual attributes to better
    understand those needs.
  • ??????????????? IT at Work 6.4 Context-Aware
    Environment at Carnegie Mellon University, page
    239

62
Applications of Pervasive Computing
  • Smart homes
  • Smart cars
  • RFID A potential revolution but consider the
    risks
  • ??????????????? IT at Works 6.5 Illustrative
    Examples of RFID Use ???? 243
  • ??????????????? A close look 6.3 RFID and
    Privacy and Other Risks ???? 244
  • Large Scale Pervasive Systems
  • ??????????????? page 244-246

63
6.8 Managerial Issues
  • Inhibitors and barriers of mobile computing
  • The usability and other technical problems
  • Ethical and legal issues
  • Failures in mobile computing and M-Commerce
  • ??????????????? page 246-247

64
Technical and other limitations of mobile
computing
Limitation Description
Insufficient bandwidth Sufficient bandwidth is necessary for widespread use and it must be inexpensive. It will take a few years until 3G is in many places .Wi-FI solves some of the problem.
Security standards Universal standards were not available in 2003 . It may take 3 or more years to have them .
Power consumption Batteries with long life are needed for mobile computing . Color screens and Wi-FI consume more electricity , but new chips are solving some of the power-consumption problems.
Transmission interferences Weather and terrain problems as well as distance-limited connection exist with some technologies . Reception in tunnel and some building is poor
GPS accuracy GSP may be accurate in a city with tall buildings
WAP limitations According to mofileinfo.com, in 2002 there were only about 50,000 WAP sites (compared to millions of Web sites) . WAP still is a cumbersome process to work with.
65
Potential health hazards Potential health damage from cellular radio frequency emission is not known yet . However, more car accidents are related to drivers who were talking (some places bar the use of cell phones while you drive ) also, cell phones may interfere with sensitive medical devices.
Legal issues Potential legal issues against manufactures of cell phones and against service provides exist, due to the potential health problems
Human interface with device Screen and keyboards are too small and uncomfortable and tedious for many people to use
Complexity Too many optional add-ons are available (e.g., battery chargers, external keyboards, headset, microphone, cradles) . Storing and using the optional add-ons can be a problem
66
  • Comparing wireless to synchronized mobile
    devices.
  • ?????? ????? ???????????????????????????? docking
    device ????
  • 1) Timetable.
  • ?????????? m-commerce ??????? ?????????????????
    large-scale mobile computing applications
    ????????????????????? ??????????? e-banking,
    stock trading, emergency services ??? ??????? B2B
    ?????????????????????????????????
  • 2) Setting applications priorities.
  • ?????????????????????? applications
    ???????????????? organizations e-strategy ??????
    location-based advertising ????????????
    ????????????????????????? ????????????????????????
    ??????????????????????????????????????????????????
    ??????????????????????

67
  • Just a buzzword?
  • ?????????? mobile computing, m-commerce, ???
    especially l-commerce ????????????????????????????
    ???????????????? ???????????? ?????????????
    ?????????????????????? ???????????????????????????
    ????????????????????????????????????
  • 3) Choosing a system.
  • ???????????????? ?????????? ??????????????????????
    ????????????????????????? ????????????????????????
    ?????????????? mobile computing
    ?????????????????????????????? (bias) ????????????

68
??????????? 6
  • ????? ..
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