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Introduction to airphoto interpretation

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Chapter 3 Introduction to airphoto interpretation Introduction to Remote Sensing Instructor: Dr. Cheng-Chien Liu Department of Earth Science National Cheng-Kung ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Introduction to airphoto interpretation


1
Chapter 3
  • Introduction to airphoto interpretation
  • Introduction to Remote Sensing
  • Instructor Dr. Cheng-Chien Liu
  • Department of Earth Science
  • National Cheng-Kung University
  • Last updated 16 April 2003

2
3.1 Introduction
  • Airphoto interpretation
  • raw data ? human brain processing ? information ?
    communicate
  • History
  • Balloon photographs (1858)
  • WWI ? military reconnaissance tool
  • WWII ? CD film
  • After WWII ? wide spread

3
3.2 fundamentals of airphoto interpretation
  • Photo interpreter
  • Training
  • Experience
  • Keen power of observation coupled with
    imagination patience
  • Thorough understanding of the phenomenon
  • Knowledge of the geographic region
  • Supporting materials
  • Maps
  • Field observations

4
3.2.1 elements of airphoto interpretation
  • Airphoto interpretation departs from daily image
  • The portrayal of features from an overhead, often
    unfamiliar perspective
  • l outside visible range
  • Unfamiliar scales and resolutions
  • Basic characteristics
  • Shape
  • Size
  • Pattern

5
3.2.1 elements of airphoto interpretation (Cont.)
  • Basic characteristics (cont.)
  • Tone
  • Texture
  • Shadows ? topographic variations ? geologic
    landform
  • Site aid in the identification of vegetation
    types
  • Association e.g. a ferris wheel ? amusement park

6
3.2.2 Photo interpretation strategies
  • Direct recognition
  • e.g. identification of highway interchange
  • Inference of site conditions
  • e.g. infer the buried gas pipeline ? light-toned
    linear streals
  • e.g. infer the type of crop ? crop calendar
  • Detective ? put all evidence ? solve a mystery
  • The interpreter uses the process of convergence
    of evidence to successively increase the accuracy
    and detail of the interpretation

7
3.2.3 Airphoto interpretation keys
  • Help the interpretation in an organized and
    consistent manner.
  • Two basic parts
  • A collection of annotated or captioned
    stereograms
  • A graphic or word descrioption
  • Two general types
  • Selective key
  • Elimination key ? more positive answer but may
    result in erroneous answers.
  • Dichotomous key (Fig 3.1)

8
3.2.3 Airphoto interpretation keys (cont.)
  • More easily constructed and more reliably
    utilized for cultural feature identification than
    for vegetation or landform identification
  • Crop , tree identification ? region-by-region,
    season-by-season.

9
3.2.4 Film-filter combinations
  • Affect the amount of information that can be
    interpreted from the image

10
3.2.5 Temporal aspects of photo interpretation
  • Vegetative growth, soil moisture ? vary during
    the year
  • Observe several time ? better result

11
3.2.6 Photo scale
  • Table 3.1 typical scales and areas of coverage
  • Small150,000medium112,000large
  • Small ? reconnaissance mapping, large area
    resource assessment, general resource management
    planning
  • Medium ? identification, classification, mapping
    of tree species, agricultural crop type,
    vegetation community and soil type
  • Large ? intensive monitoring of the damage caused
    by plant disease, insects or tree blowdown,
    emergency response to hazardous waste sills and
    for the intensive site analysis of hazardous
    waste sites.

12
3.2.6 Photo scale (cont.)
  • NHAP I
  • 19801985, 158,000, 180,000, 13200m, leaf-off
  • NHAP II
  • 19851987 , leaf-on.
  • NAPP
  • 140,000, leaf-on, -off

13
3.2.7 Approaching the interpretation process
  • Photographic materials, interpretation equipment,
    goals of the interpretation ? no single right way
    to do.
  • Examples of requirement
  • Identify and count
  • Identify anomalous conditions
  • Delineate discrete areal units
  • Classification system or criteria ? separate
    categories
  • Minimum mapping unit (MMU) (Fig 3.2)
  • From higher contrast one to lower one
  • From the general to the specific
  • delineate photographic regions. (tone, texture.)

14
3.2.8 photo preparation and viewing
  • Important factors
  • Relevant collateral sources of information (maps,
    field reports, .)
  • Good lighting access to equipment
  • Systematically labeled and indexed
  • Boundary delineations
  • Fiducial marles, road intersections ? registration

15
3.2.8 photo preparation and viewing (cont.)
  • Effective areas
  • Definition central, bounded by lines bisecting
    the area of overlap with every adjacent
    photograph
  • Advantages
  • Cover entire photo without duplicate effort.
  • The least relief displacement
  • Construction ? transfer points
  • Disadvantages of lelineating effective areas on
    each photos ? need twice efforts
  • Sometimes, only for every other photo

16
3.3 Basic photo interpretation equipment
  • 3 purposes
  • Viewing
  • Making measurements
  • Transfer interpreted information to base maps or
    digital databases

17
3.3 Basic photo interpretation equipment (cont.)
  • Binocular vision ? stereoscopic view ? 3-D view
  • Stereopairs, stereograms
  • Simple lens stereoscope (Fig 3.3)
  • Test stereoscopic vision (Fig 3.4) (Table 3.2) ?
    elevation
  • One-weak eyesight
  • Cannot get stereoscopic view
  • But still can be a good interpreter ? monocular
    view
  • Viewing the stereogram without a stereoscope

18
3.3 Basic photo interpretation equipment (cont.)
  • Lens stereoscopes
  • Fig 3.3
  • Pros portable, cheap
  • Cons cannot view the entire photo
  • Lens spacing 4575mm
  • Lens magnification typically 2 power

19
3.3 Basic photo interpretation equipment (cont.)
  • Mirror stereoscopes
  • Fig 3.5
  • Pros broader view, a pair of 240 mm photos,
    measurable.
  • Cons large and costly
  • Magnification 24 power

20
3.3 Basic photo interpretation equipment (cont.)
  • Scanning mirror stereoscope
  • Fig 3.6
  • Built-in provision
  • Magnification 1.54.5 power
  • Zoom stereoscope
  • Fig 3.7
  • Continuously variable magnication of 2.510(520)
    power.
  • Image in each eyepiece ? rotate 3600
  • Expensive, precision, high resolution

21
3.3 Basic photo interpretation equipment (cont.)
  • Light table
  • Fig 3.8
  • For transparency
  • Balance the spectral characteristics of the film
    and lamps for optimum viewing condition
  • Color temperature 3500k ? black body heat at
    3500k
  • Noon daylight5500k
  • Indoor tungsten bulb 3200k
  • Distance measurement
  • Low accuracy ? cheaper
  • e.g. a triangular engineers scale or metric scale

22
3.3 Basic photo interpretation equipment (cont.)
  • Area measurement
  • Extremely accurate measurement
  • see 4.9, 4.10
  • Direct measurement
  • Error sources ? measuring device, relief, tilt ?
    better to use vertical photos with low relief.
  • Dot grid (Fig 3.9)
  • Polar planimeter (Fig 3.10)
  • Electronic coordinate digitizer (Fig 3.11)

23
3.3 Basic photo interpretation equipment (cont.)
  • Interpretation information map
  • Different size (map and photo)
  • Zoom Transfer Scope (Fig 3.13)
  • Color additive viewer (Fig 2.42)

24
3.4 Land use/ land cover mapping
  • Land cover
  • The type of feature present on the surface of the
    earth
  • Land use
  • Human activity or economic function associated
    with a specific piece of land.
  • A knowledge of both land use and land cover can
    be important for land planning and land management

25
3.4 Land use/ land cover mapping (cont.)
  • USGS land use and land cover classification
    system
  • Land use and land cover should not be intermixed
    , but practically, land cover ? land use
  • but also need some additional information sources
  • Use categories rather than specific information

26
3.4 Land use/ land cover mapping (cont.)
  • USGS land use and land cover classification
    system (cont.)
  • Designed criteria
  • 85 accuracy
  • Same accuracy for the several categories
  • Repeatable from one time of sensing to another
  • Applicable over extensive areas
  • Infer land use

27
3.4 Land use/ land cover mapping (cont.)
  • USGS land use and land cover classification
    system (cont.)
  • Designed criteria (cont.)
  • Use for different time of a year
  • Divisible categories
  • Aggregation of categories
  • Comparison with future data
  • Recognize multiple uses of land

28
3.4 Land use/ land cover mapping (cont.)
  • USGS land use and land cover classification
    system (cont.)
  • Table 3.3 level I, II
  • Also provide level III IV, but it is intended to
    let the local users to design level III, IV. (Fig
    3.14)
  • Reviewing and revising ? more wetland classes
  • Table 3.4 Representative image interpretation
    formats for various classification levels.
  • General relationship, not restriction.
  • Minimum size of land use/land cover units mapped
    at various classification levels.
  • The smallest representative area on a map 2.5mm x
    2.5mm.

29
3.4 Land use/ land cover mapping (cont.)
  • Level I classes
  • Urban or built-up land ? take precedence
  • Agricultural land ? drained wet lands for
    agriculture
  • Rangeland
  • Forest land ? tree-crown areal densitygt10
  • If has wet land characteristics ? wet land
    category
  • Water

30
3.4 Land use/ land cover mapping (cont.)
  • Level I classes (cont.)
  • Wetland
  • Shallow water with submerged ? vegetation water
    class
  • Short-lived wetness or flooding ? wetland
  • Cultivated wetlands ? agricultural land
  • Uncultivated wetland ? wetland
  • Drained wetland for other purposes ? other
    classes
  • Barren land vegetation or other cover lt1/3
  • Tundra treeless regions beyond the geographic
    limit of the boreal forest and above the
    altitudinal limit of trees in high mountain
    ranges.
  • Perennial snow or ice areas

31
3.4 Land use/ land cover mapping (cont.)
  • USGS land use/land cover classification system
    maps
  • 1250,000
  • For most categories a minimum map unit 16 ha
  • Some ? 1100,000
  • Digital data
  • vector format
  • raster format (grid cell size 4 ha)

32
3.5 Geologic and soil mapping
  • Complex and variable earth surface
  • Topographic relief and material composition
  • Reflect the bedrock, unconsolidated materials,
    agents of charge.
  • Rock type, fracture, effects of internal
    movement, erosion,
  • Bear the imprint of the processes that produced
    them

33
3.5 Geologic and soil mapping (cont.)
  • Geomorphological principles
  • Airphoto interpretation geological and soil
    mapping
  • Identify and evaluate materials and structures.
  • Geological mapping
  • History of development 1913, 1920, 1940..
  • Identify landforms, rock types, rock structure,
    portray geological units and structure and
    spatial relationship.
  • explore mineral resource.
  • Far below the surface and inaccessible region
  • R.S. ? potential area ? drill holes

34
3.5 Geologic and soil mapping (cont.)
  • Geological mapping (cont.)
  • Multistage image interpretation
  • 1250,000, 1100,000 ? 158,0001130,000 ?
    120,000
  • Lineaments regional linear features ? linear
    alignment of regional morphological features ?
    streams, escarpments, mountain ranges, tonal
    features (fractures or fault zones).
  • Scales a few hundreds of km
  • Important in mineral resource studies ? ore
    deposition
  • Detection ? angular relationship. (Fig 3.16)

35
3.5 Geologic and soil mapping (cont.)
  • Geological mapping (cont.)
  • Ronchi grid
  • A diffraction grate 78 lines/cm
  • grid ? suppressed
  • ? grid ? enhanced.
  • Lithologic mapping
  • The mapping of rock units
  • Stereoscopic viewing ? enhance
  • See 3.15

36
3.5 Geologic and soil mapping (cont.)
  • Geological mapping (cont.)
  • Geobotany
  • The relationship between a plants nutrient
    requirements and 2 interrelated factors the
    availability of nutrients in the soil and the
    physical properties of the soil, including the
    availability of soil moisture indirect indicator
  • Distribution of vegetation ? (indirect indicator)
    ?
  • composition of the underlying soil and rock
    materials
  • Geobotanical approach to geologic mapping ?
    Cooperative effort among geologists, soil
    scientists and field-oriented botanists
  • Identification of vegetation anomalies related to
    mineralized areas.

37
3.5 Geologic and soil mapping (cont.)
  • Geological mapping (cont.)
  • Geobotany (cont.)
  • Geobotanical anomalies
  • Anomalous distribution of species and/or plant
    communities
  • Sturted growth and/or decreased ground cover
  • Alteration of leaf pigment and/or physiographic
    process that produce leaf color changes.
  • Anomalous charges in the phenologic cycle.
  • e.g. early foliage change senescence in the
    fall.
  • alteration of flowering periods,
    late leaf flush
  • Taking photos several times during the year.
  • Establishing normal condition ? identify
    anomalous
  • Band 1.6 um 2.2 um are important for mineral
    exploration and lithologic mapping.

38
3.5 Geologic and soil mapping (cont.)
  • Soil mapping
  • Soil survey ? resource information ? land use
    planning
  • Trained scientists extensive field works
    airphoto interpretation ? identify soil
    delineate soil boundaries.
  • Airphoto interpretation ? 1930s Panchromatic
    aerial photos 115,840140,000

39
3.5 Geologic and soil mapping (cont.)
  • Soil mapping (cont.)
  • Agricultural soil survey (Fig 3.17, Table 3.6)
  • USDA, 1900s.
  • 1957 ? publish
  • 1980s ? many counties ? line maps or digital form
  • Purposes
  • Estimating crops
  • Evaluating rangeland suitability
  • Determine woodland productivity
  • Assessing wildlife habitat conditions
  • Judging suitability for various recreational uses
  • Judging suitability for various development uses

40
3.5 Geologic and soil mapping (cont.)
  • Soil mapping (cont.)
  • The reflection of sunlight from bare soil
    surfaces
  • Soil moisture content
  • Soil texture
  • Surface roughness
  • Iron oxide
  • Organic matter content

41
3.5 Geologic and soil mapping (cont.)
  • Soil mapping (cont.)
  • Plate 8 different appearance of one field during
    one growing season
  • Soil parent materials glacial meltwater deposits
    of stratified sand and gravel overlain by 45150
    cm of loess (wind-deposited silt)
  • (a), (b), (c)
  • corn plants 10 cm
  • 2.5 cm rain fall
  • uniform ? patchiness
  • dry ? high infiltration slight mound
  • wet ? low infiltration receive runs off

42
3.5 Geologic and soil mapping (cont.)
  • Soil mapping (cont.)
  • Plate 8 (cont.)
  • (d), (e), (f)
  • corn plants 2m
  • little rain fall
  • dry ? leaves and stalks drying out and turn
    brown.
  • wet ? continuing to grow and still green
  • Soil scientist ? four classes. (Fig 3.18 Table
    3.7)
  • Certain times of the year are better suited to
    aerial photography for soil mapping purposes than
    others.

43
3.6 Agricultural applications
  • Big picture direct application
  • Crop type classification (and area inventory)
  • Spectral response and photo texture? identify
    crop type
  • Require a knowledge of the developmental stages
    of each crop in the area to be inventoried?
    crop calendar
  • Use photographs taken on several dates during the
    growing cycle for crop identification
  • Color infrared films are better than
    panchromatic film

44
3.6 Agricultural applications (cont.)
  • Crop type classification (cont.)
  • Stereoscopic coverage ? plant height ?
    discrimination
  • Table 3.8 dichotomous airphoto interpretation
    key? use single-date panchromatic photography ?
    only broad classes of crops are to be
    inventories.
  • Fig 3.19 demonstrate the importance of date of
    photography, photo tone and texture, and
    stereoscopic coverage.

45
3.6 Agricultural applications (cont.)
  • Crop condition assessment
  • Large scale airphotos ? documenting deleterious
    conditions ? crop disease, insect damage, plant
    stress, disaster damage.
  • Table 3.9 typical crop management information
    potentially obtainable from large scale color
    infrared aerial photographs.

46
3.6 Agricultural applications (cont.)
  • Crop condition assessment (cont.)
  • Detailed within field interpretations of soil and
    crop condition? fertilizer spreaders and
    irrigators? crop management activities ?
    fn(geolocation)
  • Detected plant diseases
  • detected insect damage
  • other detected damage
  • A difficult task ? finer differences in spectral
    response

47
3.6 Agricultural applications (cont.)
  • Crop yield estimation
  • Simple straightforward ? area yield/area ?
    yield
  • Complex ? soil moisture, soil fertility, air and
    soil temperature, disease, insect stress,..
  • Crop yield prediction ? climatic meteorological
    conditions.
  • Traditional approach area yield/area
  • (airphoto interpretation) (field
    inspection)
  • Direct approach ? historical information ?
    deviation

48
3.6 Agricultural applications (cont.)
  • Other applications
  • Determine areas ? erosion control, weed control
    fertilizing, replanting, fencing or other
    remedial measures
  • Taxation real estate purposes
  • Assessment of irrigation systems
  • Farm livestock surveys

49
3.7 Forestry applications
  • 1/3 of the worlds land area
  • Tree species identification
  • More complex than crop identification.
  • Complex mixture ? more uniform
  • Forest understory
  • Step 1 elimination
  • Step 2 establish groups
  • Step 3 identify individual species
  • Shape size
  • Fig 3.20 Silhouettes of forest trees
  • Fig 3.21 Aerial views of tree crowns.
  • Pattern Shadows

50
3.7 Forestry applications (cont.)
  • Tree species identification (cont.)
  • Tone ? relative tones
  • Texture ? tufted, smooth, billowy
  • Fig 3.22, Fig 3.23
  • Black spruce
  • coniferous, slender crowns, pointed tops.
  • even height or change gradually
  • carpetlike appearance
  • Aspen
  • deciduous, rounded crowns
  • widely spaced, variable in size and density
  • Balsam fir
  • symmetrical coniferous, sharply pointed tops
  • thicker than black spruce
  • erratic changes in size ? uneven and irregular
    pattern

51
3.7 Forestry applications (cont.)
  • Tree species identification (cont.)
  • Fig 3.22, Fig 3.23 (cont.)
  • Fig 3.22 Black spruce ? Aspen
  • Fig 3.23 Balsam fir ? Black spruce (mixture)
  • Art
  • Scale does matter
  • Table 3.10, 3.11? Airphoto interpretation key
  • Phenological correlations
  • Changes in the appearance in the different
    seasons of the year
  • e.g. separation of deciduous and evergreen trees
  • e.g. difference in the time at which species leaf
    out

52
3.7 Forestry applications (cont.)
  • Timber cruising
  • Objective determine the volume of timber that
    might be harvested from an individual tree of a
    stand of trees
  • To be successful ? skilled interpreter aerial
    and ground data
  • Photo measurements
  • Tree height or stand height ? measuring relief
    displacement or image parallax.
  • Tree-crown diameter ? distance measurements
  • Density of stocking
  • Stand area

53
3.7 Forestry applications (cont.)
  • Timber cruising (cont.)
  • Photo volume tables
  • Multiple regression (extracted data, ground data)
  • Volume of individual trees fn(species, crown
    diameter, height)(Table 3.12)
  • For large scale photos, scattered trees in open
    areas.
  • Table 3.13 stand volume table

54
3.7 Forestry applications (cont.)
  • Assessment of disease and insect infestations
  • Panchromatic photos ? often used
  • Medium and large scale color and color infrared
    photos ? most successful surveys
  • Tree disease
  • Insect damage
  • Forest damage
  • Plate 9 gypsy moth defoliation of hardwood trees.

55
3.7 Forestry applications (cont.)
  • Additional applications
  • Success ? high quality reference data

56
3.8 Rangeland applications
  • Definition see 2.4
  • Provide forage, support land use (agriculture,
    recreation housing)
  • Range managers use air photos in much the same
    way as do foresters.
  • Main concern vegetation change over time
  • Forage yield estimation.

57
3.9 Water resource applications
  • Water resources irrigation, power generation,
    manufacturing, recreation,
  • Airphoto ? monitor ? quality, quantity,
    distribution
  • Interaction of sunlight and water
  • Absorptionfn(l)
  • near-infrared ? a few tenths of a meter ? dark
    tone
  • 0.480.6um ? best penetration (1520m) ?
    underwater haze
  • red ? few meters

58
3.9 Water resource applications (cont.)
  • Analysis of underwater features
  • White sand bottoms
  • normal color film ? blue-green
  • color infrared (yellow filter) ? blue
  • Fig 3.24 color and color infrared photos for
    Hanauma Bay

59
3.9 Water resource applications (cont.)
  • Water pollution detection
  • Polluted water ? impurities ?? limit its use
  • Natural sources of pollution
  • e.g. minerals leached from soil and decaying
    vegetation
  • Point source
  • e.g. industrial outfalls
  • Non-point source
  • e.g. fertilizer and sediment runoff.

60
3.9 Water resource applications(cont.)
  • Water pollution detection (cont.)
  • Materials (excessive amounts) ? water pollution
  • Organic wastes
  • Infections agents
  • Plant nutrients
  • Synthetic-organic chemicals
  • Inorganic chemical and mineral substances
  • Sediment
  • Radioactive substances
  • temperature

61
3.9 Water resource applications(cont.)
  • Water pollution detection (cont.)
  • Air photo
  • ? type and concentration?
  • ? discharge point dispersion
  • in some instances ? it is possible to make valid
    observations about sediment concentrations using
    quantitative photographic radiometry coupled with
    the laboratory analysis of selective water
    samples.
  • Fig 3.25 dispersal plume of silt-laden water
    flowing into a lake
  • Air photos ? enforcement of antipollution law
  • Oil film on water (Fig 3.26)
  • Oil slicks
  • Oil sheens
  • Oil rainbows

62
3.9 Water resource applications(cont.)
  • Lake eutrophication assessment
  • Trophic state
  • Eutrophic state (nutrient rich)
  • Oligotrophic (low nutrient, high Oxygen)
  • Eutrophication the general process by which
    lakes age
  • Different people ? different levels of
    eutrophication that can be accepted
  • Air-photo ? mapping aquatic macrophytes
  • Table 3.14 interpretation key
  • Algae concentration ? good indicator of a lakes
    trophic status

63
3.9 Water resource applications(cont.)
  • Flood damage estimation
  • Fig 3.27 multi-date sequence and aftereffects.
  • A. normal appearance
  • B. peak of a flood.
  • C. 3 weeks after flooding
  • D. 6 weeks after flooding
  • Crop damage
  • Streaked pattern of light-toned lines ? direction
    of flood flow.
  • Fig 3.28
  • For flood damage assessment
  • B is clean than a
  • Refer to Fig 6.12b for satellite image

64
3.9 Water resource applications(cont.)
  • Other Applications
  • Vegetation index
  • Ground water location
  • Groundwater discharge areas ? well
  • Groundwater recharge zone ? protect
  • Hydrologic watershed assessment
  • Reservoir site selection
  • Shoreline erosion studies
  • Snow cover mapping
  • Survey of recreational use of lakes and rivers

65
3.10 Urban and regional planning applications
  • Timely, accurate and cost-effective sources of
    data (requirement)
  • Population estimates.
  • Air-photo ? dwelling units of housing type
  • Housing quality studies
  • Statistical analysis of a set of environmental
    quality factors. e.g. house size, lot size,
  • Traffic and parking studies
  • Traditional on-the-ground vehicle count
  • Air-photo ? shows distribution ? area of
    congestion

66
3.10 Urban and regional planning applications
(cont.)
  • Various factors RS photo ? data ? GIS Analysis
  • Transportation route location
  • Sanitary landfill site selection
  • Power plant sitting
  • Transmission line location
  • Fig 3.29 urban change detection

67
3.11 Wetland mapping
  • Significance of wetland
  • Retain water
  • Reduce flood level
  • Trap suspended solids and attached nutrients ?
    clear lake
  • For wildlife (drinking and stopping)
  • Species diversity and food web.
  • Biological record
  • recreation

68
3.11 Wetland mapping (cont.)
  • Purpose (multi-or single-) ? inventory
  • 3 basic elements for identifying wetland
  • Hydrophytic vegetation
  • Hydric soils
  • Wetland hydrology
  • Fig 3.30 color infrared photo for wetland mapping
  • Fig 3.31. Wetland vegetation map
  • Table 3.15 airphoto interpretation key.

69
3.12 wildlife ecology applications
  • Wildlife
  • Wildlife ecology
  • Wildlife conservation
  • Wildlife management

70
3.12 wildlife ecology applications (cont.)
  • Wildlife habitat
  • Combination of climate, substrate and vegetation
  • Niche
  • All mapping techniques are applicable
  • edges delineation
  • GIS
  • Fig 3.32 Wildlife habitat types in Sheboygan
    Marsh
  • 9 vegetation classes ? 5 wildlife habitat types
  • Muskrat hut ? in AV area, 100 white spots

71
3.12 wildlife ecology applications (cont.)
  • Wildlife censusing
  • Ground survey aerial visual observation
  • Problems of counting
  • Quick decision?
  • Aggregation?
  • Low-flying aircraft ? disturb
  • Best method vertical aerial photography
  • Accurate counting
  • Normal patterns of spatial distribution
  • Permanent record
  • Prolonged study ? more information
  • Only valid for those open areas during daytime

72
3.12 wildlife ecology applications (cont.)
  • Wildlife censusing
  • Scalefn(animal size)
  • Film-filter ? high contrast (Fig 2.18)
  • Digitize ? computer-aid counting
  • Fig 3.33 Prairie dog colony
  • Fig 3.34 Beluga whales
  • Calve
  • Number length
  • Bachelor group

73
3.13 Archaeological application
  • Airphotos ? locate sites whose existence has been
    lost to history
  • Both surface and subsurface features
  • Surface features
  • Visible ruins e.g. Stonehenge, castles, Indian
    dwelling.
  • Mounds e.g. bird-shaped and serpent-shaped
    Indian mounds.
  • Rock structures e.g. Bighorn Medicine Wheel,
    mounds
  • Fig 3.35 Nazca lines

74
3.13 Archaeological application (cont.)
  • Subsurface features
  • e.g. buried ruins of buildings, ditches, canals,
    roads
  • Tonal anomalies in soil moisture, crop growth,
    ephemeral difference in frost patterns
  • Fig 3.36 ancient city of Spina
  • A city of canals and waterways.
  • Dark-toned linear feature ? dense vegetation ?
    wet location ? former canals
  • Light-toned rectangular areas ? sparse vegetation
    over sand ? brick foundation
  • Light-toned linear feature ? present-day drainage
    ditches.

75
3.13 Archaeological application (cont.)
  • Subsurface features
  • Fertile loess soils over the white chalk bedrock
    (foundation)
  • Fig 3.37 deep winter plowing ? scraped the
    foundation ? brought up chalk
  • Fig 3.38
  • recent conversion from pasture to cropland ? few
    fertilizer
  • over the foundation ? light toned.

76
3.14 Environmental assessment
  • Human activities ? adverse environmental effects.
  • U.S. NEPA (1969)
  • Environment impact statements
  • Key items
  • Environmental impact
  • Cannot-avoided impact
  • Alternatives
  • Relationship(short- long-term)
  • Irreversible and irretrievable commitments

77
3.14 Environmental assessment (cont.)
  • Principal biophysical effects of human activity
    on environment
  • Change natural drainage conditions
  • Change water turbidity temperature
  • Chemical pollutants
  • Change in vegetation
  • Change wildlife population and distribution
  • US. RCRA

78
3.14 Environmental assessment (cont.)
  • Airphotos
  • EPAs principal remote sensing tools
  • e.g. emergeray response photography to the
    spillage of hazard materials
  • e.g. site analyses of waste sites
  • Historical photos
  • Drainage conditions
  • e.g. site analyses of waste sites
  • Historical photos
  • Drainage conditions
  • e.g. locate potential sites for drilling and
    sampling of hazardous wastes
  • e.g. identification of failing septic systems

79
3.15 Principles of landform identification and
evaluation
  • Significance of terrain characteristics
  • Airphotos ?
  • Bedrock type
  • Landform
  • Soil texture
  • Site drainage conditions
  • Susceptibility to flooding
  • Depth of unconsolidated materials over bedrock
  • Slope of land surface.

80
3.15 principles of landform identification and
evaluation (cont.)
  • Soil characteristics
  • Definition
  • e.g. 10m deposit (C) 9m unaltered (B) 1m
    weathered (A)
  • Engineering ABC
  • Soil science (pedological) AB
  • Soil horizon
  • A horizon surface soil topsoil
  • 060cm, 1530cm
  • Weathered horizon
  • Most organic matter
  • B horizon subsoil
  • 0250cm, 4560cm
  • Fire-textured particles from A horizon
  • C horizon parent material

81
3.15 principles of landform identification and
evaluation (cont.)
  • Soil characteristics (cont.)
  • Three origins of soil materials
  • Residual soils
  • Transported soils
  • Organic soils
  • Table 3.16 soil particle size designations.
  • Siltclay 50fine texture
  • Sandgravelgt 50 coarse texture
  • For residual soil texture ? BC
  • For transported soil texture ? parent material
  • USDA soil drainage classes (7 classes) ? natural
  • Artificial drainage

82
3.15 principles of landform identification and
evaluation (cont.)
  • Land use suitability evaluation
  • Topographic characteristics
  • For subdivision development
  • 26
  • Steep enough for good surface drainage
  • Flat enough ?no site development problems
  • 02 ? may have some drainage problems
  • 612 ? more interesting but more costly
  • gt12 ? problem in street and lot design, as well
    as domestic sewage disposal
  • gt20 ? severe limitation
  • For industrial park and commercial site ? lt 5
  • Soil texture and drainage conditions
  • Well-drainedcoarse texture soils ? few limitation

83
3.15 principles of landform identification and
evaluation (cont.)
  • Land use suitability evaluation (cont.)
  • Groundwater tables
  • Shallow ? problems in septic tank
  • At least 2m
  • Depth of bedrock
  • Prefer gt 2m
  • 12m may be feasible in some cases
  • Soil-slope condition
  • Slope stability analysis ? not discussed
  • Incipient landslide failure ? detectable using
    airphoto

84
3.15 principles of landform identification and
evaluation (cont.)
  • Elements of airphoto interpretation for landform
    identification and evaluation
  • Topography
  • A distinct topographic change at the boundary
    between two different landforms.
  • Drainage pattern and texture
  • Indicators of landform, bedrock, soil, drainage
    conditions
  • Fig 3.39 six basic drainage patterns ? destruct
    ional from erosion
  • Dendritic
  • Rectangular
  • Trellis
  • Radial
  • Cantripetal
  • Deranged

85
3.15 principles of landform identification and
evaluation (cont.)
  • Elements of airphoto interpretation (cont.)
  • Drainage pattern and texture (cont.)
  • Fig 3.40
  • Coarse-textured?good internal drainage
  • Fine-textured?poor internal drainage
  • Erosion
  • Gullies
  • The smallest drainage feature from airphotos
  • A meta wide and a hundred meters long
  • Formation rainfall?not percolate
    ?rivulets?runoff?enlarge
  • Fig3.41
  • V-shape sand gravel
  • U-shape silty soils
  • Long with gently rounded silty clay, clay

86
3.15 principles of landform identification and
evaluation (cont.)
  • Elements of airphoto interpretation (cont.)
  • Photo tone
  • Brightness
  • Use relative tone values
  • Fig 3.54
  • Lighter tone ? higher position
  • Varying soil moisture content ? different
    sunlight reflection ? mottled tonal pattern
  • Capillary action ? tonal gradients ? boundary
    sharpness
  • Color or color infrared ? same principle

87
3.15 principles of landform identification and
evaluation (cont.)
  • Elements of airphoto interpretation (cont.)
  • Vegetation and land use
  • Indicator, but in many cases, they are obscured
  • The airphoto interpretation process
  • Initially ? consider all elements
  • After some experience ? subconsciously
    instantaneously
  • Humid climates ? gt50 cm rainfall per year
  • Arid climates ? lt50 cm rainfall per year
  • Airphoto interpretation ? field operation
  • Verify
  • suggestion

88
3.16 Bedrock landforms
  • Horizontally bedded sandstone
  • Airphoto identification
  • Topography
  • Drainage and erosion
  • Photo tone
  • Vegetation and land use
  • Fig 3.43

89
3.16 Bedrock landforms (cont.)
  • Horizontally bedded shale
  • Airphoto identification
  • Topography
  • Drainage and erosion
  • Photo tone
  • Vegetation and land use
  • Fig 3.44

90
3.16 Bedrock landforms (cont.)
  • Horizontally bedded limestone
  • Airphoto identification
  • Topography
  • Drainage and erosion
  • Photo tone
  • Vegetation and land use
  • Fig 3.45

91
3.16 Bedrock landforms (cont.)
  • Horizontally bedded granitic rocks
  • Airphoto identification
  • Topography
  • Drainage and erosion
  • Photo tone
  • Vegetation and land use
  • Fig 3.46

92
3.16 Bedrock landforms (cont.)
  • Horizontally bedded lava flows
  • Airphoto identification
  • Topography
  • Drainage and erosion
  • Photo tone
  • Vegetation and land use
  • Fig 3.47

93
3.17 Aeolian landforms
  • Sand dunes
  • Formation
  • Fig 3.48

94
3.17 Aeolian landforms (cont.)
  • Sand dunes (cont.)
  • Airphoto identification
  • Topography
  • Drainage and erosion
  • Photo tone
  • Vegetation and land use
  • Fig 3.49

95
3.17 Aeolian landforms (cont.)
  • Loess
  • Airphoto identification
  • Topography
  • Drainage and erosion
  • Photo tone
  • Vegetation and land use
  • Fig 3.51

96
3.18 Glacial landforms
  • Formation
  • Repeated advances of glacial ice over 30
  • Glaciation forms
  • Valley glaciation
  • Continental glaciation
  • Ice move ? abrade and pluck
  • Glacial drift
  • Materials deposite by glaciation

97
3.18 Glacial landforms (cont.)
  • Till landforms
  • Repeated advances of glacial ice over 30
  • Glaciation forms
  • Valley glaciation
  • Continental glaciation
  • Ice move ? abrade and pluck
  • Glacial drift
  • Materials deposite by glaciation

98
3.18 Glacial landforms (cont.)
  • End moraines
  • Airphoto identification
  • Topography
  • Drainage and erosion
  • Photo tone
  • Vegetation and land use
  • Fig 3.53

99
3.18 Glacial landforms (cont.)
  • Basal ground moraine area
  • Airphoto identification
  • Topography
  • Drainage and erosion
  • Photo tone
  • Vegetation and land use
  • Fig 3.54

100
3.18 Glacial landforms (cont.)
  • Drumlins
  • Airphoto identification
  • Topography
  • Drainage and erosion
  • Photo tone
  • Vegetation and land use
  • Fig 3.55

101
3.18 Glacial landforms (cont.)
  • Eskers
  • Airphoto identification
  • Topography
  • Drainage and erosion
  • Photo tone
  • Vegetation and land use
  • Fig 3.56

102
3.18 Glacial landforms (cont.)
  • Outwash sediments
  • Airphoto identification
  • Topography
  • Drainage and erosion
  • Photo tone
  • Vegetation and land use
  • Fig 3.57

103
3.18 Glacial landforms (cont.)
  • Glacial lakebeds
  • Airphoto identification
  • Topography
  • Drainage and erosion
  • Photo tone
  • Vegetation and land use
  • Fig 3.58

104
3.18 Glacial landforms (cont.)
  • Beach ridges
  • Airphoto identification
  • Topography
  • Drainage and erosion
  • Photo tone
  • Vegetation and land use
  • Fig 3.59

105
3.19 Fluvial landforms
  • Formation
  • Flowing water ? erosion transportation
    deposition
  • fn(water velocity, particle size)
  • Stream competence the maximum-size particles a
    stream can transport at a given velocity
  • Stream capacity the maximum amount of materials
    the stream can transport and is related to stream
    volume

106
3.19 Fluvial landforms (cont.)
  • Alluvial fans
  • Airphoto identification
  • Topography fan shape
  • Drainage and erosion
  • excellent internal drainage
  • limited surface drainage with few gullies
  • Numerous distributary channels
  • Photo tone
  • Generally light, but distributary channels may be
    darker
  • Vegetation and land use
  • Lack of vegetation
  • May be heavier vegetation at base

107
3.19 Fluvial landforms (cont.)
  • Alluvial fans (cont.)
  • Fig 3.60
  • Slope apex (10) ? valley (12) ? base (8)
  • Darker tone and vegetation near the base of fan

108
3.19 Fluvial landforms (cont.)
  • Floodplain
  • Airphoto identification
  • Topography
  • Generally level with small downstream gradient
  • Natural levees slightly higher position
  • Slack water deposits in lowest position
  • Drainage and erosion
  • Principal stream flow
  • Wide floodplain ? second stream
  • High groundwater table
  • Photo tone
  • Point bar deposits, natural levee ? light tone
  • Slack water deposits ? darker tone
  • Oxbow ? uniform gray tone
  • Vegetation and land use
  • Often agricultural use

109
3.19 Fluvial landforms (cont.)
  • Alluvial fans (cont.)
  • Fig 3.61
  • Present channel (PC)
  • Abandoned channel (AC)
  • Point bar deposits (PB)
  • Oxbow lake (OX)
  • Slack water deposit (SW)

110
3.19 Fluvial landforms (cont.)
  • Delta
  • Type
  • Arcuate delta e.g. the Nile Delta
  • Birdfoot delta e.g. the Mississippi Delta
  • Fig 6.13

111
3.20 Organic soils
  • Formation
  • Continuous water saturation ? limit the
    circulation of O2 ? decomposition of organic
    matter? ? accumulation ? organic matter gt
    mineralization ? muck or peat
  • Characteristics
  • Typically begins in lakes or ponds
  • Poor foundations for construction activities
  • If over drain ? irreversible hardening
  • If too dry ? fire hazard

112
3.20 Organic soils (cont.)
  • Airphoto identification
  • Found
  • Topographic depressions (moraine, ground moraine,
    floodplain, oxbows)
  • Depression between sand dunes, beach ridges
  • Limestone sinkhole
  • Kettle hole
  • Topography
  • Very flat, often sharp contrast with surrounding
    material

113
3.20 Organic soils (cont.)
  • Airphoto identification (cont.)
  • Drainage and erosion
  • Poorly drain, few gullies
  • Farm ? artificially drain
  • Photo tone, vegetation and land use
  • Bare soil ? dark tone
  • Drained agricultural areas ? distinctive pattern

114
3.20 Organic soils (cont.)
  • Fig 3.62
  • Organic soils
  • Glacial till, drumlin
  • Well drained, cultivated
  • 2m 5m Fibrous peat in a former glacial lakebed
  • 8095 organic matter, 520 mineral matter
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