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Western Europe in the Middle Ages

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Western Europe in the Middle Ages European Middle Ages Early / Post-Classical the Dark Ages disorder, disunity, despair High Middle Ages Rise of crown, commerce ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Western Europe in the Middle Ages


1
Western Europe in the Middle Ages
2
European Middle Ages
  • Early / Post-Classical
  • the Dark Ages disorder, disunity, despair
  • High Middle Ages
  • Rise of crown, commerce cities
  • Late Middle Ages
  • 3 disasters church scandal, 100 years
    war BLACK DEATH

3
Post-Classical/ Early Middle Ages
  • 550 900 CE fragmented chaotic
  • Catholic church only source of intellectual
    development literacy
  • Church power
  • Manorialism
  • Feudalism

4
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5
The Franks
  • tribes unified (by Clovis)
  • Converted to Christianity (by Clovis)
  • Muslims/Moors halted at Tours (732 Charles
    Martel)
  • Aided the Pope
  • Charlemagne - strong but brief Empire
  • Crowned Holy Roman Emperor
  • Split / Viking invasions/ disunity

6
The Angles Saxons
  • Invaded Britain (which was defended by King
    Arthur?)
  • Small kingdoms
  • Adopted Christianity 7th century
  • 9th century Alfred the Great
  • Danes / Vikings
  • Became known as England (land of the Angles)

7
Transition
  • Europeans were newer to civilization than the
    Middle East
  • Decline of Islamic and Mongol influence
  • Important changes in West

8
High Middle Ages
  • The Rise of a Medieval Urban Culture

9
Feudal Monarchies and Political Advances
  • primogeniture
  • Holy Roman Emperor
  • Capetian kings
  • Norman conquest
  • More stability

10
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11
10th century out of the ruins of the Frankish
empire
  • W. - France
  • new hereditary monarchy established
  • Hugh Capet Capetian dynasty
  • E. - German States Holy Roman Empire
  • Develops as an elected emperor under the Pope

Greater Stability
12
Limited Government
  • Church main authority
  • Aristocrats vs. monarchical power /Magna Carta
  • 1st English parliament
  • Three key estates
  • Conflicts church
  • Kings

13
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14
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15
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16
The Wests Expansionist Impulse
  • Reasons
  • Pop growth
  • Memory of Rome
  • Religious zeal
  • Reconquest of Spain
  • Vikings
  • Crusades
  • ?cultural diffusion trade

17
Western Civilization
  • Christianity was unifying element
  • Little classical thought before 1000
  • Crusades ? classical works
  • Aristotle especially

18
Trends
  • warming in Europe
  • food production
  • population
  • strong monarchies
  • travel
  • trade
  • towns
  • urban culture

19
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20
  • Rise of Trade, Towns, Cities

21
Role of Italy
  • Italian towns had not decayed to same degree as
    rest of W. Europe
  • Italys location trade cities
  • Crusades resulted in trade of goods luxury
    items from the east middle east
  • Connection between Mediterranean trade system
    rest of Europe

22
Flanders
  • Belgium and N. France
  • Textile capital of Europe
  • woolen industry
  • Center of trade in European Northern Coast
    across France, down Rhine River and across
    English Channel

23
Medieval City in Flanders
24
Hanseatic League
  • Trading towns along Baltic Coast
  • 70 member cities
  • Established permanent trading
    routes
  • Traded in fur, timber, fish, grain
  • Violators punished by boycott or war

25
  • Medieval Fairs
  • Champagne (France) had the best known fairs

lasted 4-6 weeks and were held several times per
year
26
Role of Medieval Fairs
  • Goods from all over world were exchanged (at
    first by barter then by money) at fairs
  • Trade items from East spices, medicine,
    perfume, dyes, gems, silk, cotton, linen, gold,
    silver, ivory
  • Trade items from Middle East textiles, rugs,
    grains, fruit
  • And exchange of ideas!

27
  • Development of Money Economy
  • led to decline of feudal system emergence of
    market economy
  • Capital wealth earned, accumulated and invested
  • Coinage silver, then gold
  • Banking - Italian banca money changers
    table
  • European traders less wealthy than Islamic
    counterparts

28
Growth of Cities and Towns
  • Resulted from
  • the revival of trade
  • serfs leaving manor
    for opportunities
  • strong monarchies
  • Developed Where?
  • Near well-traveled roads, transfer points or
    waterways

29
  • Conditions in Towns
  • Crowded (epidemics spread quickly)
  • filthy (sewage/stench of animals)
  • violent, noisy (dont go out after dark!)

But provided opportunities...
30
Guilds Business Organization of Merchants and
Artisans
  • set quality standard
  • loans to members
  • ill / disabled members
  • Protected businesses
  • set prices /conditions
  • prohibited competition
  • supervised training

31
Apprentice System of Craft Guild
  • Apprentice worked for master without pay to
    learn skills
  • Journeyman worked for daily pay submitted work
    to guild for approval to become master could
    work in other towns
  • Master artisans who owned their own shops
    tools employed less-skilled workers as helpers

32
  • Charters kings nobles granted charters to
    townspeople - documents that gave them right to
    control their own affairs not under local lord

33
Universities Develop
  • Begin as learning guilds (an association of
    people organized for the purpose of learning and
    teaching)
  • Limited to specific subjects (ex theology, law,
    medicine)
  • Academic degrees develop (B.A., M.A. PhD)

34
Scholasticism
  • Intellectual movement that attempted to reconcile
    faith reason
  • Faith Church teachings
  • Reason Aristotles logic
  • Scholastic philosphers

35
Thomas Aquinas
  • 13th century Italian priest
  • Wrote Summa Theologica
  • reason was Gods gift
  • church doctrine could be supported through logic
  • Proposed 5 logic proofs of the existence of God...

36
Proof 1 Argument of Motion
  • Everything is in motion and what is in motion
    must be moved by some mover. Thomas concluded
    that reason demands that there must have been a
    first mover or unmoved mover and this is God.

37
Vernacular Literature
  • Vernacular language of everyday speech
  • people spoke the language that had developed in
    their own countries from Latin or German roots
    (Eng, Fr, Ger, Ital, Span)
  • each kingdom a distinct identity
  • literature more accessible

38
Vernacular Writers
  • Dante Alighieri The Divine Comedy, epic poem in
    Italian that describes an imaginary journey
    through hell, purgatory and heaven

39
  • Geoffrey Chaucer
  • Canterbury Tales
  • English narrative poems that described a group of
    pilgrims who tell stories to amuse one another on
    their way to Thomas Becketts shrine

40
Gothic Architecture
  • Characteristics walls high thin, flying
    buttresses supported weight of roof, large
    stained-glass windows, pointed arches
  • Symbolism
  • ground plan in shape of a cross
  • with high walls and pointed arches, everything
    appeared to be reaching towards heaven

41
Cruciform plan
42
Flying Buttresses
Clerestory Windows
43
Chartres the nave
44
Illuminated Page
45
  • The Rise of a Middle Class leads to the decline
    of Medieval Feudalism
  • The kings will use the Middle Class to weaken the
    nobility / aristocracy
  • revival of trade will lead to the more rapid
    exchange of everything including the Black Death

46
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47
Global Connections Medieval Europe and the World
  • Europe seemed threatened by outsiders, yet
    adopted many of their ideas and trade

48
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49
Decline of the Old Order
  • Byzantium and Abbasid fall (rise of Ottoman Turks
    and Mongols)

50
Rise of the West
51
Sources of Dynamism Medieval Vitality
52
Imitation and International Problems
53
Secular Directions in the Italian Renaissance
54
Human Values and Renaissance Culture
55
Iberian Spirit of Religious Mission
56
Western Expansion The Experimental Phase
57
Early Explorations
58
Colonial Patterns
59
Outside the World Network
60
Political Issues in the Americas
61
Expansion, Migration and Conquest in Polynesia
62
The Problem of Ethnocentrism
63
Isolated Achievements by the Maoris
64
Adding Up the Changes
65
Problems for Europe
  • Black Death (1348)
  • Avignon Papacy / Great Schism
  • Hundred Years War

66
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67
Global Connections 1450 and the World
  • Changes and continuities were present
  • Muslims still active
  • Mongols offer new contacts
  • Decline Mongols returns attention to Indian Ocean
    trade
  • Southeast Asia drawn into trade
  • African merchants connected to Middle East

68
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