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Main Themes in Microbiology

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Title: Main Themes in Microbiology


1
Main Themes in Microbiology
  • Chapter 1

2
Humans are outnumbered
  • We have 10 trillion cells in our body
  • We have 100 trillion foreign cells in/on our
    body!!
  • Tiny life forms are called microorganisms

3
What is a microorganism?
  • Could be
  • Bacteria
  • Viruses
  • Protists
  • Protozoa and algae
  • Helminthes
  • Worms

4
What is microbiology?
  • Microbiology is a special area of biology that
    deals with tiny life forms not readily observed
    without magnification
  • Little guys are called
  • Microorganisms
  • Microbes
  • Germs
  • Bugs

5
Can I do this for a living?
  • Geomicrobiologist- roles of microbes in the
    development of the earths crust

6
  • Marine microbiologist- study the oceans and its
    smallest inhabitants

7
  • Medical technologists- do tests to diagnose
    pathogenic microbes and their diseases

8
  • Nurse epidemiologists- analyze the occurrence of
    infectious diseases in hospitals

9
  • Astrobiologist- study the possibility of
    organisms in space

10
What do we focus on?
  • Genetics
  • Physiology
  • Appearance and survival
  • and characteristics
  • Environmental interaction
  • Host interaction
  • Uses in industry/agriculture

11
How long have these guys been around?
  • Practically forever!
  • Life on Earth started 3.5 billion years ago!
  • Prokaryotes came first
  • Then eukaryotes

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13
Good or bad?
  • Both!
  • Weve been using microorganisms for thousands of
    years!

14
Good Microbes
  • Yeast (microscopic fungi) bread
  • Penicillin (moldy bread) first aid

15
Biotechnology
  • Industry applications
  • Bacteria that can mine metals!

16
Genetic Engineering
  • Manipulates genetics to make new products and
    genetically modified organisms
  • Microbes can make drugs, hormones, and enzymes

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18
Bioremediation
  • Fixing environmental problems with microorganisms

19
Bad Microbes
  • Pathogens- agents that cause disease
  • Over 2000 types of microbes that cause disease!
  • WHO says over 10 BILLION infections caused by
    microbes worldwide

20
Top Causes of Death in US
21
Bad microbes
  • Malaria
  • Actually a microbe (protist)

22
Malaria Prevention
  • Malaria nets cost 3-5
  • 1/3 world population makes lt1/day
  • Which kid will sleep under the net tonight?

23
The subtle side of microbes
  • Associated with
  • Gastric ulcers
  • Heliobacter
  • Cancer
  • HPV
  • Hepatitis viruses
  • Diabetes
  • coxsackievirus
  • schizophrenia
  • MS
  • OCD
  • Coronary artery disease
  • Infertility
  • Chlamydia

1st golden age of microbes over, 2nd just started
24
General Microbe Characteristics
  • TINY
  • Millimeters (mm), micrometers (µm), and
    nanometers (nm)

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26
  • Prokaryotic or eukaryotic

27
  • 1 or a few cells

28
  • Free-livinglive independently
  • Parasiticmicrobes harbored and nourished inside
    host

29
  • Could be viruses
  • NOT ALIVE
  • NOT CELLS
  • Small amount of hereditary material wrapped up in
    a protein coating
  • Obligate intracellular parasites

30
Viroids are smaller viruses
31
  • Adenovirus

32
Rhinovirus
33
Rhinovirus
34
Where does life come from?
  • Meat makes maggots

35
  • Shrooms spring from spruce

36
  • Rats from rotting refuse

37
Spontaneous Generation
  • The idea that life can arise from non-living
    matter
  • Aka abiogenesis
  • Competing theorybiogenesis
  • Life can only arise from living things of a
    similar nature

38
How can we prove or disprove this hypothesis?
  • Francesco Redi (1668)
  • Hypothesis Flies produce maggots on meat.
    Lay small eggs
  • Set up a controlled experiment to test his
    hypothesis
  • Found that by keeping flies away from meat, no
    maggots appear

39
Variables
  • Controlled variable
  • Jar, meat, location, temperature, time
  • Independent or Manipulative variable
  • Gauze covering the meat jars
  • Dependant (responding) variable
  • Whether maggots appear

40
John Needham 1745
  • Hypothesis spontaneous generation occurs under
    the right conditions
  • Boiled chicken broth and then sealed flask
    (thought heat would kill)
  • Animalcules swarmed after a few days
  • Therefore, he felt his hypothesis was right.

41
What was wrong with Needhams hypothesis? Was it
flawed?
  • He assumed all the animalcules would be killed by
    heat

42
Louis Jablot
  • Hypothesis even microscopic organisms must have
    parents
  • Boiled hay infusions very similar to Needhams
    work
  • However, his uncovered WAS contaminated with
    growth

43
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44
Lazzaro Spallanzani
  • 1776
  • Attempted to disprove Needhams work.
  • Took 4 flasks with broth in them
  • Left open went cloudy
  • Sealed but not boiled went cloudy
  • Boiled but left open went cloudy
  • Sealed then boiled stayed clear
  • Microbes were not found in this one but in all
    the other ones

45
What would have been Spallanzanis hypothesis?
  • Microorganisms form not from air but from other
    microorganisms.
  • When broth was boiled and then sealed, no air
    could get in for organisms to reproduce.

46
What was wrong with what Spallanzani assumed?
  • No air

47
Louis Pasteur - 1859
  • Tested Spallanzanis work by using a
  • curved neck flask to prevent microbes from
    entering flask but would let air in
  • Boiled broth of control and experimental flasks.
  • Result No growth in curved neck flask.

Microbes collecting in bend
48
Pasteurs broth in the curved necked flask stayed
sterile for years until he tilted it and the
airflow carried the microbes into the broth
49
  • Conclusion
  • Contamination is due to microbes in the air.
  • Spontaneous generation theory died here!!

50
  • John Tyndall
  • Heated hay infusions for various times.
  • Found 2 kinds of bacteria 1. Those
    readily killed by heating
  • 2. Heat resistant forms (endospores)
  • Between 1875 1918, most of the
    disease-causing bacteria were identified.

51
The Microscope
  • Antonie von Leeuwenhoek

Father of Microbiology
52
The Microscope
  • Leeuwenhoek looked at a drop of water and saw
    moving things
  • Called them animacules
  • Bacteria and protozoa

53
The Pillar of Science The scientific method
  • Origin in the 1600senough of the superstition!!

54
  • The Scientific Method
  • Ask a question
  • Do some research
  • Propose a hypothesis
  • Conduct a controlled experiment
  • Collect data and make observations
  • Analyze data
  • Make a conclusion
  • Possibly, write a theory

55
Scientific method
  • NEEDS a testable hypothesis
  • Use the deductive approach
  • Ifthen (because)
  • Test, test, and retest that hypothesis!

56
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57
Do you know where bees come from?
  • Recipe for Bees
  • Kill a bull during the first thaw of winter
  • Build a shed
  • Place the dead bull on branches and herbs inside
    the shed
  • Wait for summer. The decaying body of the bull
    produces bees
  • Words from a Roman poet about 2000 years ago

58
Know the jargon
  • Hypothesis- tentative explanation for what has
    been observed
  • Theory- very well supported idea
  • Many hypotheses and experiments
  • NOT A FACT
  • Law- principle of science
  • Super accurate

59
Germ theory of disease
  • Louis Pasteur
  • Human diseases could arise from infection
  • Robert Koch
  • Kochs Postulates
  • Verified germ theory
  • Showed anthrax caused by bacterium

60
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61
Aseptic Technique
  • Joseph Lister
  • Goal reduce microbes in a medical setting and
    preventing wound infections
  • No handwashing prior to surgery before Lister!!

62
Taxonomy
  • Whats in a name?

63
  • Taxonomy- formal system for organizing,
    classifying, and naming organisms
  • Carl von Linnie
  • Aka Carolus Linnaeus
  • Standardized
  • Keeps names short and consistent
  • Binomial system of nomenclature

64
Binomial Nomenclature
65
The major classification levels,from most
general to most specific (several of these have
subdivisions)
A group at any level is a taxon.
66
Kingdoms are divided into groups called
phyla Phyla are subdivided into
classes Classes are subdivided into
orders Orders are subdivided into
families Families are divided
into genera Genera contain
closely related species Species is unique

Categories within Kingdoms
67

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69
Phylogeny
  • Natural relatedness of organisms
  • Related by evolutiontheory that all life
    descended, with modification, from one common
    ancestor

70
Evidence
  • Morphology-
  • similar structures in organisms
  • Physiology-
  • similar functions of organisms
  • Genetics-
  • similar DNA in organisms

71
  • Dumpy Kings Play Cards On Fat Green Stools
  • Domain
  • Kingdom
  • Phylum
  • Class
  • Order
  • Family
  • Genus
  • Species

72
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73
Kingdoms and Domains
  • Originally, 2 kingdoms
  • Plantae and Animalia
  • Then 3 (Protista)
  • and 4 (Add the Bacteriakingdom Monera)
  • finally 5 (Fungi!)

74
5 kingdom system
  • Associated with Robert Whittaker
  • Based on the morphology and physiology-type of
    evidence

75
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76
The domain system
  • Now we look at molecular biology
  • How do DNA, proteins, rRNA compare?
  • Bacteria Kingdom split into two
  • Domain Bacteria
  • Domain Archaea

77
3 domain system
  • Domain eukarya
  • the eukaryotes
  • Domain archaea
  • prokaryotes that live in extreme environments
  • Domain bacteria
  • traditional prokaryotes

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79
Questions
  • What is classification?
  • Why is classifying living things important?
  • What is taxonomy?
  • Describe binomial nomenclature.

80
Questions
  • Who developed a system for naming living
    organisms?
  • What is a scientific name of an organism and how
    is it written?

81
Seven classification groups of living things
  • Kingdom
  • Phylum
  • Class
  • Order
  • Family
  • Genus
  • Species

82
Questions
  • What are the seven classification groups?
  • Kings Play Cards On Fat Green Stools
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