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The Rise of Europe


The Rise of Europe Chapter 8 The Middle Ages An Introduction Main Ideas of the Middle Ages: Feudalism Christianity/ Crusades Chivalry Plague War Vocabulary Any thing ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Rise of Europe

The Rise of Europe
  • Chapter 8

The Middle Ages
  • An Introduction

Why do they call it the Middle Ages?
Main Ideas of the Middle Ages
  • Feudalism
  • Christianity/ Crusades
  • Chivalry
  • Plague
  • War

  • Any thing from the Middle Ages is considered to
    be Medieval.
  • Examples
  • Medieval Castle
  • Medieval Knight

The Early Middle Ages
  • By A.D. 500, the Roman Empire had fallen apart.
    Historians call the 1000 years following the fall
    of Rome the Middle Ages. These years are in the
    middle between the fall of Rome and the rebirth
    of learning in Europe in the 1500s.
  • During the Middle Ages, the eastern part of the
    old Roman Empire grew strong as the Byzantine
    Empire, but the western part broke into many
    parts and fell into decay.

The Early Middle Ages
  • The fall of Rome brought important changes to
    Western Europe. Germanic tribes slowly moved
    south and took over Roman lands. People did not
    obey Roman laws any longer. Roman soldiers could
    not keep order.
  • For 500 years there had been one Roman Empire.
    Now hundreds of little kingdoms took its place.
    These kingdoms had no system for collecting taxes
    and rulers had no money for a government

Also called the Dark Ages
  • Why?
  • Not much emphasis on
  • Thought
  • Government
  • Art
  • Philosophy

The Early Middle Ages
  • From about 500 to 1000, the region was a frontier
    land (underdeveloped area on the outskirts of a
    civilization with vast natural resources). Dense
    forests flourished in the north. Beneath the
    earths surface lay mineral resources, and the
    seas and rivers provided fish, energy, and trade

The Early Middle Ages
  • Between 400 and 700 A.D., Germanic tribes carved
    western Europe into small kingdoms, the most
    successful of which was that of the Franks. They
    began a civilization that later developed into
    the modern countries of France, Germany, and
    Italy. In 481 A.D., a warrior named Clovis united
    the Franks and became their king. He made Paris
    his capital. He was the first Germanic king to
    become a Roman Catholic.

The Early Middle Ages
  • While Germanic peoples conquered western Europe,
    Muslims from the Middle East won victories in the
    area around the Mediterranean Sea. They conquered
    North Africa and Spain but were defeated in
    France at the Battle of Tours. European
    Christians viewed Muslims with hostility and
    fear, but gained knowledge from them.

The Early Middle Ages
  • In 800 A.D., one Frank king became strong enough
    to unite all of Western Europe. His name was
    Charlemagne, or Charles the Great. One of
    historys great kings/curious, driven,
    intelligent, strong warrior, devout Christian/
    was illiterate, but strongly supported learning
  • Ruled from 768 to 814/ Expanded the Frankish
    kingdom into Carolingian empire covered much of
    western central Europe

  • Reunites most of the western empire
  • He defeated the other Germanic tribes and united
    them into one kingdom,
  • Spreads Christianity
  • The pope Leo III crowned him Emperor of the

The Early Middle Ages
  • Charlemagne tried to create a united Christian
    Europe and to revive Latin learning. He also
    established a school at Aachen (Germany), where
    the scholar Alcuin set up a Latin-type curriculum
    in which students studied grammar, rhetoric,
    logic, arithmetic, geometry, music, and astronomy.

The Early Middle Ages
  • Charlemagne appointed powerful nobles to rule
    local regions. He gave them the land so they
    could offer support and supply soldiers for his
    armies. To keep control of these rulers, he sent
    out officials called missi dominici to check on
    roads, listen to grievances, and see that justice
    was done.

Charlemagnes Empire
But then, his kids screw it up
Charlemagnes Empire
But then, his kids screw it up
The Early Middle Ages
  • His rule brought law and order back to Western
    Europe, but less than 30 years after his death in
    814, his empire broke apart and civil war began.
    New invaders threatened his kingdom. In 843, his
    grandsons drew up the Treaty of Verdun, which
    split the empire into three regions Lothair in
    Italy, Louis the German in Bavaria, and Charles
    the Bald in Aquitaine.

The Early Middle Ages
  • Muslims invaded southern France
  • Magyars settled on the plains of Hungary
  • Vikings (Norsemen of Scandinavia) attacked the
  • Vikings were superb warriors shipbuilders/
    famed dragon ships carrying about 50 men could go
    shallow rivers to attack inland
  • 9th century, Vikings settled in Europe
  • 911, Frankish king gave Vikings land of Normandy

No strong, centralized rule
  • Is this a good thing?
  • Why would you want a ruler anyway?
  • What does a government provide for you?

Heres a hint
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Europe under attack!
The Early Middle Ages
  • One of the invaders that attacked Charlemagnes
    empire was the Vikings, which came from northern
    Europe. They were sailors who built excellent
    ships. Viking explorers traveled to Russia, all
    across Europe and to America. They were not just
    destructive raiders, but also traders and

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The Early Middle Ages
  • Around the year 1000, a Viking named Leif
    Eriksson landed on and island northeast coast of
    North America. He called it Vinland today

Statue of Leif Eriksson in Duluth, Minnesota
The Early Middle Ages
  • After the Romans left Britain in the fifth
    century, different Germanic tribes invaded the
    island (Angles, Saxons, and Jutes). They
    destroyed and invaded. In 1016 A.D., a Viking
    named Canute became the ruler of England. In 1042
    A.D., Edward the Confessor, an Anglo-Saxon,
    became king.

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Feudalism and the Manor Economy
  • After the fall of the Roman Empire, a new
    political and military system arose based on the
    holding of land. It was called feudalism and it
    evolved in response to invasions by Vikings,
    Muslims, and Magyars. Under the feudal system,
    the king (lord) owned all the land, he gave it to
    nobles (lord), who could then give the land to
    other people (vassals) and ask for their loyalty.
    The land given to the vassal was called fief and
    peasants farmed it.

  • Invaders posed a threat to the safety of the
    people due to decentralized government
  • People began to turn landed aristocrats or nobles
    for protection/ led to feudalism
  • Feudalism arose between 800-900/ similar system
    in Japan- Samurai
  • Vassalage center of feudalism/ came from
    Germanic society where warriors swore oath to
    their leader
  • Vassal man who served a lord militarily


Feudalism Military Service for Land

  • Knights heavily armored warriors
  • Male armor made of metal links or plates
  • Frankish army initially set up foot soldiers in
  • Heavily armored knights dominated warfare for
    over 500 years
  • Knights had great prestige formed much of
    European aristocracy
  • Early Middle Ages (500-1000) wealth was based on
    owning land/very little trade
  • Nobles gave a piece of land to vassals in
    exchange for fighting fief

  • Vassals had political authority in their fief/in
    charge of keeping order
  • Feudalism became complicated kings had vassals
    who had vassals
  • Feudal contract unwritten rules that
    characterized feudalism/relationship between king
    vassal/knights for about 40-60 days a year
  • Vassals were to advise the lord, financial
    obligations to the lord, knighting of his eldest
  • Lord supported the vassal with land grant
    protection in military court

Feudalism and the Manor Economy
  • To protect the fief, each vassal needed his own
    soldiers, but sometimes money was scarce so the
    vassal would offer land, dividing it into smaller
    and smaller pieces.
  • Only the son of a noble could become a knight. At
    the age of seven, a boy was sent away to learn to
    fight and ride.

Feudalism and the Manor Economy
  • During the long winter nights, the lord and his
    guests drank and sang. They also held
    tournaments, contests between knights. A lord
    would invite knights from the surrounding area to
    enter contests of fighting skill. Two knights in
    armor would ride toward each at full speed and
    try to knock the other off his horse. The
    tournaments were as dangerous as real battles.

Feudalism and the Manor Economy
  • Noblewomen played active roles in the
    warrior-society. While the husbands or fathers
    were off fighting, the ladies of the manors
    took over their duties. They supervised vassals,
    managed the household, and perform necessary
    agricultural and medical tasks. The daughters of
    the nobles were sent to friends for training
    they were expected to know how to weave and spin
    and how to supervise servants.

Feudalism and the Manor Economy
  • Once a lord knighted a squire in a special
    ceremony, the knight would adopt a code of
    conduct called chivalry the knight promised to
    defend the church, to be loyal to the lord,
    protect the weak, and be polite to women.
    Chivalry placed women in a pedestal. Troubadours,
    or wandering poets, adopted the view of chivalry
    and their love songs praised the perfection,
    beauty and wit of women.

Feudalism and the Manor Economy
  • The whole feudal system was based on the control
    of land. A manor was that part of the fief that
    peasants farmed to support a lords family. A
    manor was self-sufficient because the people who
    lived on it grew, raised, or made nearly
    everything that they needed. The majority of the
    people who lived during the Middle Ages were
    peasants a few were free, but most were serfs
    (they were not slaves, but bound to the land), no
    one could buy or sell them

Feudalism and the Manor Economy
  • Men, women, and children serfs worked on the
    manor farms from early in the morning until late
    at night. They did the farmwork, cut wood, and
    built fences. The men planted with his wife along
    next to him. Children helped plant seeds, weeded,
    and took care of pigs or sheep. At night, the
    family and any animals slept together in their
    one room hut.

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The Medieval Church
  • During the early Middle Ages, the Churchs most
    important achievement to Christianize the diverse
    peoples of Western Europe. Missionaries were sent
    to spread their faith among Germanic tribes.
    Women also spread the faith by marrying pagan
    kings and bringing the into the Church.
    Clothilde, the wife of Clovis (king of the
    Franks), persuaded him to accept Christianity.

Role of the Church
  • Christianity became main religion of Roman empire
    by 4th century
  • Roman church developed a system of organization
  • Priests was head of parishes local
  • Bishop was head of diocese - a group of
    parishes or bishopric
  • Archbishop head of groups of diocese
  • Bishop of Rome became known as Pope the head
    of what is now known as the Roman Catholic Church

Gregory I
Roman Catholic Church
  • Pope claim was based on the belief that Jesus
    gave Peter the keys to Heaven
  • Peter was considered to be the chief apostle
    the first bishop of Rome
  • Bishops who succeeded Peter were called popes
    Latin word for papa father
  • Western Christians accepted the pope as the
    churchs leader, but could not agree on the
    popes powers
  • Gregory I strengthened power by taking political
    control of Rome surrounding territories

The Medieval Church
  • In manor villages, the priests of the parish was
    the only contact people had with the Church. The
    priests celebrated the mass and administer the
    sacraments (the sacred rites of the Church).
    Christians believed that faith in Christ and
    participation in the sacraments would lead them
    to salvation.
  • The church was a social center. Peasants gossiped
    or danced. Later on, priests ran schools.

The Medieval Church
  • To support the parish, the Church required
    Christians to pay a tithe, or tax equal to a
    tenth of their income. The Church taught that men
    and women were equal before God, but on Earth,
    women were viewed as daughters of Eve, weak and
    easily lead into sin. At the same time, the
    Church offered a view of the ideal woman, as
    modest and pure as Mary, the mother of Jesus.

The Medieval Church
  • About 530, a monk named Benedict organized the
    monastery of Monte Casino in southern Italy. He
    drew up a set of rules to regulate monastic life
    monks lived in monasteries and nuns lived in
    convents. Under the Benedictine Rule, monks and
    nuns took three vows obedience to the abbot who
    headed the monastery or convent, poverty, and
    chastity or purity. Each day was divided into
    periods of worship, work, and study.

St. Benedict
Role of Church
  • Monks meditated read privately/ They prayed
    together seven times a day
  • All aspects of Benedict life was communal
  • Abbot (father) ruled each Benedictine monastery
  • Monks spread Christianity throughout Europe/Irish
    English monks were enthusiastic missionaries

The Medieval Church
  • Monasteries and convents also performed a vital
    role in preserving the writings. Monks and nuns
    copied by hand books from the past to make more
    copies. Over time, the largest monasteries and
    convents became centers of learning, and the
    monks and nuns kept learning.

Abbey of Monte Cassino, originally built by
Saint Benedict, shown here as rebuilt after
World War II.
The Medieval Church
  • Women could not become priests, however, many did
    enter convents. In the later Middle Ages, the
    Church put more restrictions on nuns it withdrew
    rights that nuns had once enjoyed, such as
    preaching the Gospel, and placed most independent
    convents under the control of Church officials.
    Although womens role within the Church was
    limited, they made valuable contributions to
    their faith.

Role of Church
  • Nuns women who withdrew from the world to
    dedicate themselves to God
  • Nuns lived in convents headed abbesses
  • Abess Hilda founded a monastery in Whitby in 657
    where she educated five future bishops

The Medieval Church
  • The Church not only controlled the spiritual life
    of Christians, but gradually became the most
    powerful secular, or worldly, force in medieval
    Europe. The pope was the spiritual leader of the
    Roman Catholic Church medieval popes eventually
    claimed papal supremacy. High clergy, such as
    bishops and archbishops, were usually nobles and
    they had their own territories. The pope itself
    held vast lands in central Italy, later called
    Papal States. Because churchmen were often the
    only educated people, feudal rulers appointed
    them to high government positions.

The Medieval Church
  • The medieval Church developed its own body of
    laws, known as canon law, which is a fully
    developed legal system, with all the necessary
    elements courts, lawyers, judges, a fully
    articulated legal code and principles of legal
    interpretation. It applied to religious
    teachings, the clergy, marriages, and morals.
    Anyone who disobeyed Church law faced a range of
    penalties, including excommunication, which meant
    people could not receive the sacraments or a
    Christian burial. A noble who opposed the Church
    could face the interdict, an order excluding an
    entire town, region or kingdom from receiving
    most sacraments.

The Medieval Church
  • With all the success the medieval Church achieved
    came many problems monks and nuns ignored their
    vows of poverty, the clergy lived in luxury,
    priests could marry and spent more time on family
    matters than on Church duties. These trouble
    times called for reform in the Church.
  • In the early 900s, Abbot Berno of Cluny set out
    to end abuses he revived the Benedictine Rule,
    he declared that the nobles could not longer
    interfere in monastery affairs, and he filled the
    monastery of Cluny with men devoted to religious

The Medieval Church
  • Jewish communities existed across Europe. In
    their homes, the Jews preserved the oral and
    written laws that were central to their faith.
    Jews in Spain were known as Sephardim. Jewish
    farmers migrated to Western Europe and became
    known as Ashkenazim.
  • In the late 1000s, Christians persecuted Jews and
    accused them of being responsible for the death
    of Jesus. In bad times, antisemitism, or
    prejudice against Jews, worsened Christians
    blamed Jews for things they could not understand,
    such as illness or famine. The Jews moved to
    Eastern Europe were rulers welcomed the
    newcomers skills and knowledge.

Economic Expansion and Change
  • By 1000, Europes economic recovery was well
    underway. Farming changed because of five
    inventions the three-field system, the harness
    for horses and horseshoe, iron plows, the
    waterwheel, and the windmill. Under the
    three-field system , a lord left one third of his
    fields unplanted each year, allowing the soil to
    rest. Then the field produced more food when the
    serfs planted it a year later. In 300 years, the
    population of Europe doubled.

The Change from Manor Life to the Growth of Towns
Causes of the growth of towns
  • The use of horses instead of oxen.
  • Oxen are big and slow.
  • Horses plow much faster.
  • People could plow twice as much.

More Food!!!
The Three Field System
In two of the fields the farmer would plant his
In the last field the farmer would leave it FALLOW
What is the Result?????
More Food!!!!
What is the final result?
  • Because of horses and the 3-field system, there
    was more food, MORE FOOD MEANS
  • People become HEALTHIER
  • People LIVE LONGER

Economic Expansion and Change
  • Europes growing population needed goods that
    were not available on the manor peasants needed
    iron for farm tools, wealthy nobles wanted fine
    wool, furs, and spices from Asia. As foreign
    invasions and feudal warfare declined, traders
    crisscrossed Europe to meet the growing demand
    for goods. Traders and their customers did
    business at local trade fairs however, they
    closed in the fall and the merchants waited
    during the winter months near a castle. With time
    these became the first real medieval cities

Economic Expansion and Change
  • To protect their interests, the merchants who set
    up a new town would ask the local lord, or king,
    for a charter (a written document set out the
    rights and privileges of the town). In return,
    merchants paid the lord a large sum of money.
  • As trade revived, merchants had to borrow money
    to buy goods. The need for capital, or money for
    investment, spurred the growth of banking houses.

Rise of Fairs
  • Since people no longer lived on a self-sufficient
    manor, they needed a place to buy and sell their
  • Most fairs took place outside of the town and the
    peasants got tired of always carrying their

  • This was too much work so pretty soon the
    peasants would just stay at the fair and not go
    back to the manor.

Growth of Towns
  • What is it like to live in a town?
  • Exciting
  • Crowded
  • Dirty
  • Noisy
  • Garbage everywhere

But, this is where they want to live!!!!!
busy, no bathrooms, no fresh air.
Dirty, smelly, animals in the streets, fires
Rise of Guilds
  • A guild is almost like todays UNIONS.
  • They are groups of people with the same job.
  • They controlled what the product was supposed to
    look like and how much they could charge for the
    product. It was like quality control for
    medieval time.
  • Members cooperated to protect their own economic
    interests. Only members could work in any trade.
    They provided social services, operating schools
    and hospitals, and looking after the widows and
    orphans of their members.

Economic Expansion and Change
  • To become a guild member meant many years of hard
    work. At the age of 7 or 8, a child could become
    an apprentice, or trainee, to a guild master.
    Most apprentices worked for guild members as
    journeymen, or salaried workers.
  • Women worked in dozens of crafts and could
    inherit the workshops of their fathers or
    husbands, even become guild masters.

Economic Expansion and Change
  • To meet the needs of the changing economy,
    Europeans developed new ways of doing business
  • Many merchants joined together in an organization
    known as a partnership, where a group of
    merchants pooled their funds to finance a
    large-scale venture.
  • Merchants developed a system of insurance to help
    reduce business risks.
  • A merchant deposited money with a banker in his
    home city. The banker issued a bill of exchange,
    which the merchant exchanged for cash in a
    distant city.

Economic Expansion and Change
  • These new ways reshaped medieval society.
    Feudalism ended. By 1300, most peasants were
    either tenant farmers, who paid rent for their
    land, or hired farm laborers, who paid with rent
    with their labor.
  • A new middle class formed between the nobles and
    peasants. The clergy and nobles despised the new
    middle class because they saw them as immoral for
    making money from usury (lending money at