Evaluation of Student Retention Services - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

1 / 288
About This Presentation
Title:

Evaluation of Student Retention Services

Description:

Evaluation of Student Retention Services Western Carolina University Final Report July 13, 2007 – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:105
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 289
Provided by: HeatherS176
Category:

less

Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Evaluation of Student Retention Services


1
  • Evaluation of Student Retention Services
  • Western Carolina University
  • Final Report
  • July 13, 2007

2
Table of Contents
3
Chapter 1.0Introduction
This chapter presents a brief introduction to the
objectives of Western Carolina Universitys
Evaluation of Student Retention Services study.
4
Background
  • Western Carolina University (WCU) strives to be a
    national model for student learning and
    engagement that embraces its responsibilities as
    an economicallyengaged university. As such, WCU
    is committed to increasing student retention and
    graduation rates as part of achieving its vision.
    Also, as a residential public university within
    the University of North Carolina system, WCU is
    being prompted by the System office to increase
    student retention and graduation rates.
  • In fall 2005, WCUs enrollment consisted of 8,861
    full- and part-time students, including 7,051
    undergraduates, 1,715 graduate students, and 95
    other students. The Universitys 120
    undergraduate majors and concentrations and/or
    minors and more than 30 graduate-level programs
    of study are housed in four distinct colleges
  • College of Applied Sciences
  • College of Arts and Sciences
  • College of Business and
  • College of Education and Allied Professions.
  • Boasting a student-to-faculty ratio of 14 to 1,
    WCU offers a high-quality education through small
    class sizes and expert faculty. The majority of
    classes (78) have fewer than 30 students and the
    average freshman class size is 23 students. WCU
    has 433 full-time faculty members, approximately
    73 percent of whom hold doctoral or terminal
    degrees.
  • The WCU faculty and staff are dedicated to the
    mission of the institution, which is to create
    engaged learning opportunities that incorporate
    teaching, research, and service through
    residential and distance education and
    international experiences. The University focuses
    its academic programs, educational outreach,
    research and creative activities, and cultural
    opportunities to improve individual lives and
    enhance economic and community development in the
    region, state, and nation. Approved in June 2006,
    WCUs 2006-2011 Strategic Plan emphasizes the
    institutions commitment to diversity and the
    facilitation of a global understanding through
    faculty, staff, student recruitment and retention
    strategies, and academic/co-curricular planning.

5
Background
Western Carolina University - Educational
Mission A member of the University of North
Carolina, Western Carolina University offers
courses in the arts, sciences, technologies,
humanities, and professions. Students can elect
degree programs at the bachelor's or master's
level, or doctoral level study in educational
leadership. As a regional comprehensive
institution, it serves the people of North
Carolina from its residential campus at Cullowhee
and through off-campus instruction in Asheville
and other locations. Teaching and learning
constitute the central mission of Western
Carolina University. The University seeks to
create a community of scholarship in which the
activities of its members are consistent with the
highest standards of knowledge and practice in
their disciplines. The commitment of the
community to service, research, and creative
activities complements the central mission and
extends the benefits of its scholarship to
society. As a major public resource for western
North Carolina, the university assists
individuals and agencies in the region through
the expertise of its faculty, its staff, and its
students. Western Carolina University seeks to
provide an environment in which students,
faculty, and staff jointly assume responsibility
for learning, where free exchange of ideas,
intellectual challenge, and high standards of
scholarship prevail.
  • Western Carolina University Leadership Goals for
    Improving Student Retention and Graduation Rates
  • In consultation with the General Administration,
    WCU shall
  • Establish goals for increasing retention and
    graduation rates and for monitoring the time that
    full- and part-time students take to graduate.
  • Offer programs that enhance students college
    experience.
  • Provide student-focused services that assist
    students in obtaining a bachelors degree in a
    timely manner.

6
Background
  • University of North Carolina System Policy
    Guidelines for Improving Retention and Graduation
    Rates
  • Improving Retention and Graduation Rates
  • Introduction
  • The policies adopted by the Board of Governors
    encourage constituent institutions to decrease
    the average length of time students take to
    complete their degrees while maintaining the
    quality of undergraduate education and the
    integrity of the baccalaureate degree. In
    addition, students must be expected to assume
    responsibility in planning their academic
    schedules so as to complete their degrees in a
    timely manner.
  • Plan to Improve Retention and Graduation Rates in
    The University of North Carolina System
  • UNCs plan to improve retention and graduation
    rates has two elements (1) University wide
    policies and goals that may decrease the average
    time taken for completion of degrees, including
    the requirement that each institution perform
    institutional studies, based on factors that have
    been identified as causing students to take
    longer to complete degree requirements, or drop
    out, and develop an institutional plan to
    encourage retention and shorter average time to
    graduation and (2) campus and University-wide
    measures to assess the effectiveness of the
    policies and goals adopted.
  • The goal is to move the time taken for completion
    of the baccalaureate degree toward a four-year
    period for students enrolled full-time and
    continuously throughout their academic careers,
    or toward the equivalent of eight full-time
    semesters for part-time students or students who
    interrupt their enrollment for valid reasons.

7
Background
  • Presidents Action Committee on Efficiency
    Effectiveness (PACE)
  • University of North Carolina (UNC) President,
    Erskine Bowles, has committed to be a vocal
    champion on behalf of the campuses of the
    University System.  As he makes the case for
    resources, however, he also must assure the
    state's legislature and taxpayers that the
    significant resources already dedicated to the
    University are utilized as efficiently and
    effectively as possible.To assist in that
    effort, he commissioned a blue-ribbon President's
    Advisory Committee on Efficiency Effectiveness
    (PACE) of state and business leaders to review
    the university's activities and to provide
    findings and possible recommendations.
  • The goals of PACE included
  • Develop a snapshot of where UNC funds are
    allocated/spent.
  • Examine non-academic administrative functions in
    particular.
  • Develop answers to any problems uncovered in this
    process.
  • Use the findings in conversations with the
    General Assembly and donors.

8
Goals and Scope of the Study
  • In January 2007, Western Carolina University
    (WCU) contracted with MGT of America, Inc. to
    conduct an evaluation of student retention
    services. The emphasis of this evaluation centers
    on the following
  • Assess current retention policies and procedures.
  • Identify barriers to student retention (people,
    policy, process) at Western Carolina University
    and assess the adequacy of the staff to implement
    the retention plan.
  • Evaluate service/responsiveness of all student
    services in and outside of One-Stop.
  • Assess current students' perceptions of
    experience at Western Carolina University
    (freshmen, transfers, minority students).
  • Assess other stakeholders (faculty,
    administration, staff).
  • Review Sophomore and Senior UNC Survey results,
    and NSSE results.
  • Suggest surveys that should be done on a regular
    basis.
  • Assess current organizational structures/systems'
    ability to positively impact retention.
  • Assess student pre-college characteristics and
    their impact on retention activities planning.
  • Assess admissions marketing.
  • Assess Orientation program, links with Freshman
    Seminars, and follow-up orientation activities
    during regular year.
  • Assess Freshman Seminars and analyze how this
    model might be used over the course of student's
    next three years, including examining the value
    of a senior capstone experience incorporating
    curricular and life skills transition issues.
  • Assess sophomore retention issues, identification
    of best practices, and determination of value of
    implementing University College model.
  • Establish short term and long term funding
    priorities related to improving retention.
  • Develop a communication plan to obtain buy-in
    from the entire campus on student retention.

9
Methodology
  • MGTs study methodology includes four major
    components
  • Situational Analysis Reviewed data, policies,
    and procedures.
  • Focus Groups Interviews Collected information
    from administrators, faculty, staff, and
    students.
  • Surveys of Current and Former Students
    Collected information from current and former
    students.
  • Peer Institution Best Practices Analysis Data
    analysis and interviews with senior
    administrators responsible for student retention
    at six peer institutions and reviewed best
    practices in student retention.
  • This methodology allows for
  • Input from all constituent groups regarding their
    perceptions about existing issues, problems, and
    opportunities.
  • Identifies WCUs strengths, weaknesses, and
    desired improvements.
  • Utilizes information from peer institutions and
    national best practices when making
    recommendations for changes and/or enhancements.

10
Overview of Chapters
  • In addition to Chapter 1.0 (Introduction), this
    report includes the following seven chapters
  • Chapter 2.0 Situational Analysis This chapter
    includes an analysis of findings and an overview
    of Western Carolina Universitys data and
    statistics pertaining to
  • Enrollment Patterns
  • Retention Rates
  • Graduation Rates
  • Students Who Leave
  • Students Who Transfer to WCU
  • Transfer-Out Rates
  • Common Characteristics of Students
  • Chapter 3.0 Assessment of the Office of
    Admissions Marketing Materials - This analysis
    of the Office of Admissions marketing materials
    includes an analysis of findings discussion of
    the functions and structure of WCUs Office of
    Admissions data analysis of applications,
    acceptances, and enrollments an assessment of
    marketing materials and the student survey
    results related to Admissions.
  • Chapter 4.0 Assessment of the Advising Center -
    This analysis of the Advising Center includes an
    analysis of findings discussion of the functions
    and structure of WCUs Advising Center and an
    assessment of the Advising Center .
  • Chapter 5.0 Assessment of the Orientation Office
    and Program - This analysis of the Orientation
    Office includes an analysis of findings
    discussion of the functions and structure of
    WCUs Orientation Office and an assessment of
    the Orientation Office.

11
Overview of Chapters (cont.)
  • Chapter 6.0 Findings from Interviews and Focus
    Groups This chapter presents findings from
    focus groups and interviews conducted with WCU
    faculty, staff, and students. The purpose of the
    interviews and focus groups was to assess the
    strengths and weaknesses of current retention
    policies and practices.
  • Chapter 7.0 Student Survey Results - This
    chapter presents findings from the online survey
    of WCU students. The purpose of the survey was to
    assess the goals of students upon enrollment at
    WCU, their experience with the admissions
    process, and their evaluation of their college
    experiences both in and out of the classroom.
  • Chapter 8.0 Peer Institution Best Practices
    Analysis - This chapter compares WCU to six peer
    institutions, using IPEDS data and information
    collected during interviews with senior
    administrators at peer universities. WCU also is
    compared to National Best Practices in student
    retention.
  • Chapter 9.0 Recommendations - This chapter
    presents a summary of findings and offers
    recommendations, including resource requirements
    to implement recommendations, for Western
    Carolina Universitys consideration. All
    recommendations consider efficient and effective
    use of resources and are based on national best
    practices.
  • Chapter 10.0 Financial and Staffing
    Considerations - This chapter analyzes WCUs and
    peer institutions financial and staffing data
    with regard to student retention efforts.
    Financial considerations are presented for
    Western Carolina Universitys review.
  • The following five appendices to accompany the
    report to provide additional detail
  • Appendix A Survey of Current Students.
  • Appendix B Survey of Former Students.
  • Appendix C List of Focus Groups and Interviews.
  • Appendix D Peer Institution IPEDS Data.
  • Appendix E List of Peer Institution
    Interviewees.

12
Chapter 2.0 Situational Analysis
  • This chapter includes an analysis of findings and
    an overview of Western Carolina Universitys data
    and statistics pertaining to
  • Enrollment Patterns
  • Retention Rates
  • Graduation Rates
  • Students Who Leave
  • Students Who Transfer to WCU
  • Transfer-Out Rates
  • Common Characteristics of Students

13
Situational Analysis Analysis of Findings
  • WCUs student population has increased over the
    past six years by nearly 1,300 students,
    resulting in a 29.1 change between 2001 and
    2006. Increases in student population require
    that current resources be used efficiently and
    effectively to continue to meet the needs of
    students.
  • Retention Rates Freshman to sophomore retention
    rates have been stable over the last six years
    (71), even though total student enrollment has
    increased, suggesting that WCU is using their
    resources efficiently and effectively. WCU wishes
    to capitalize on this momentum and increase
    student retention rates. A review of the data
    shows that of the students who leave WCU, most do
    so after the first year. A smaller percentage of
    students (compared to freshman) leave after their
    sophomore year. Students who continue through
    their junior year at WCU tend to remain through
    graduation.
  • Graduation Rates Six-year graduation rates have
    been stable over the last six years (47). In
    comparing the relationship of SAT scores and
    first semester GPAs, GPA is a stronger predictor
    of graduation. As WCU aims to increase the
    institutions average SAT score, the data reveal
    that restricting enrollment to those students who
    are higher academic achievers in high school will
    not substantially improve retention rates alone.
    While those with the strongest high school
    academic records do tend to graduate at higher
    rates (on average), this group of students also
    has slightly lower retention rates compared to
    other groups of students, for example
  • Students entering WCU with SAT scores below 1000
    are often retained to their sophomore year at
    rates similar to those scoring between 1001 and
    1100 on the SAT.
  • Students with the lowest SAT scores (below 1000)
    have approximately the same four- and six-year
    graduation rates as mid-range counterparts
    (between 1001 and 1100).
  • For three of the last six years, retention rates
    for regular admits and Summer Success Program
    students were similar.

14
Situational Analysis Analysis of Findings
(cont.)
  • The findings from the situational analysis
    suggest that the study needs to identify the
    reasons that students are departing WCU and offer
    recommendations on programs and services to
    address the needs of students who are likely to
    leave as well as likely to stay.
  • WCU's goal is to increase student retention and
    graduation rates as well as contribute to the
    Systems overall retention and graduation
    rates. A review of WCUs pipeline of students
    (see WCU Pipeline on page 15) will illuminate
    WCU's student retention and graduation issues.
  • As shown in WCUs pipeline, for every 100
    first-time, full-time freshmen, 71 students
    return to WCU for their sophomore year, while 29
    leave after their freshman year. 60 students
    return for their junior year, while 11 do not.
    Finally, of the original 100 students, 47
    students will graduate within six years, and
    another 13 students do not graduate between their
    junior year and sixth year. A total of 53
    students leave WCU over a six-year period of
    time.
  • Of the 53 students who do not graduate within six
    years
  • 24 dropout or are unable to be found through
    available tracking means. These students may
    attend an institution out-of-state, dropout from
    college, etc.
  • 26 students transfer to a two-year college in
    North Carolina (6 students), four-year public
    institution in North Carolina (17 students), or
    four-year private institution in North Carolina
    (3 students).
  • 3 of the 53 students graduate within 6.5 to 10
    years from WCU. This group of students may have
    attended school part-time, switched majors,
    and/or taken a semester or more off from college.
  • After identifying where students go, the next
    step in the analysis is to examine what can be
    done to encourage students to remain in the
    pipeline to graduation, thereby reducing the
    number of students who leave (currently 53
    students for every 100 freshmen).

15
Situational Analysis Analysis of Findings
(cont.)
  • There are 7 points in this pipeline at which WCU
    can attempt to intervene to retain more students
    from year to year and graduate more students
    within six years (see WCU pipeline on page 15).
  • Recruitment Admissions Efforts that focus on
    recruiting, admitting, and enrolling students who
    want to graduate from WCU.
  • Freshman Focused Programs Services This
    includes efforts that exclusively target freshman
    students.
  • Sophomore Focused Programs Services This
    includes efforts that exclusively target
    sophomore students.
  • Junior/Senior Focused Programs Services This
    includes efforts that exclusively target
    upperclassmen.
  • At-Risk and Other Programs Services This
    includes programs and services to assist
    populations typically at-risk of dropping out or
    who have a decreased chance for graduation.
  • Increased Engagement Programs Services This
    population of students leaves WCU to attend other
    institutions, which suggests that these students
    were not sufficiently engaged at WCU. Therefore,
    these programs and services help students form
    stronger connections with other students and the
    campus.
  • Time-to-Degree Efforts This includes efforts to
    reduce the time it takes to complete a bachelors
    degree, such as ensuring that courses taken are
    needed for the intended degree. Also, programs
    with a large number of required credit hours can
    impede a students chance for graduation within
    six years.
  • An assessment of WCUs current programs and
    services shows that there is a strong focus on
    admissions, Freshmen, and at-risk students
    (impact points 1, 2, and 3).
  • Therefore, there are opportunities for
    enhancements or new programs and services in
    impact points 2 through 7 (Sophomores,
    Juniors/Seniors, Transfer (Out), and
    Time-to-Degree (Extended)).

16
WCU PIPELINE
For every 100 Freshmen
13
17
Situational Analysis Analysis of Findings
(cont.)
  • When examining students who leave, the majority
    (26 students of 53 leavers) attend another
    institution within North Carolina. This suggests
    that many students who leave WCU have the ability
    and motivation to be academically successful
    they simply achieve their successes elsewhere.
  • For three of the last five years, students with
    the highest first semester GPAs (above 3.0) leave
    at or above the rate of the lowest achieving
    students (first semester GPA below 2.0).
  • WCU has the highest transfer-out bachelors
    degree graduation rate of all four-year
    institutions in the UNC system (24).
  • This group of transfer-out students may be
    leaving for a variety of reasons, some of which
    are beyond the control of WCU, for example
  • This group of transfer-out students may be
    students for whom WCU is not a good fit from the
    beginning. They may have enrolled at WCU with
    the intention of building a solid collegiate
    record in an effort to eventually transfer into
    their first choice school.
  • Students within this group may change their major
    during their freshman or sophomore year and find
    that WCU does not offer their new desired major.
    As most incoming freshmen are often unsure about
    the path their academic lives will take, many may
    discover that WCU is not a good fit for them only
    after their first or second year of college.
  • This group of transfer-out students may need more
    social connection to the university, a stronger
    sense of belonging. Stronger targeting of these
    students with activities for engagement may
    provide them with reasons to stay.

18
Situational Analysis Analysis of Findings
(cont.)
  • As a university within the North Carolina System,
    WCU contributes toward the Systems mission by
    providing access, which includes students
    classified as low-socioeconomic status, who
    traditionally have lower retention and graduation
    rates. The data suggest that eliminating the
    lowest achieving high school students from the
    freshman class will not necessarily increase
    retention rates. Instead, providing those
    students with strong academic support could
    greatly improve their chances of collegiate
    success. Further, assisting these students in
    developing social connections with both peers and
    faculty may increase their allegiance to WCU and
    ultimately improve retention rates.
  • Approximately 13 of freshmen are first
    generation college students, typically very
    motivated learners, but a group of students who
    may need more support to be successful since
    there will be less familiarity with the college
    experience from relatives. Programs that target
    this group and promote the pride that they and
    their families feel about their achievements may
    encourage a strong sense of loyalty to WCU, as
    WCU is the only institution of higher education
    in their familys history. Promoting this
    emerging legacy of commitment to WCU may have
    ripple effects with students for generations.

19
Enrollment Patterns
  • Between 2001 and 2006, total enrollment steadily
    increased, resulting in a 29.1 change over the
    six-year period.
  • Undergraduate enrollment increased by 26.9
    during the 2001 to 2006 time period. This
    included growth of 26.5 increase in full-time
    undergraduate enrollment (1,287 students) and
    29.8 growth in part-time undergraduate
    enrollment (207 students). Total graduate
    enrollment increased by 43.2 during the same
    time period (517 students).
  • Undergraduate students comprise approximately 80
    of the total student population.

EXHIBIT 2-1 FALL ENROLLMENTS BY STATUS,
CLASSIFICATION, AND LEVEL, 2001 THROUGH 2006
Source Western Carolina University, Office of
Institutional Research and Planning, 2007.
20
Enrollment Patterns (cont.)
  • Exhibit 2-2 illustrates the 26.9 growth in
    undergraduate enrollment during the six-year
    period from 2001 to 2006.
  • Between 2001 and 2006, enrollment grew between
    0.4 and 11.1 annually.
  • Undergraduate enrollment rose by 2.4 from Fall
    2005 to Fall 2006, an increase of 162 students.

EXHIBIT 2-2 FALL UNDERGRADUATE STUDENT
ENROLLMENT TREND, 2001 THROUGH 2006
Source Western Carolina University, Office of
Institutional Research and Planning, 2007.
21
Enrollment Patterns (cont.)
  • Exhibit 2-3 shows WCUs undergraduate enrollment
    by classification for Fall 2006.
  • Concentrations among undergraduate students were
    heaviest at the beginning and end of the college
    experience, with 56.7 of the total undergraduate
    student body classified as either a freshman or a
    senior.

EXHIBIT 2-3 UNDERGRADUATE STUDENT ENROLLMENT,
FALL 2006
Source Western Carolina University, Office of
Institutional Research and Planning, 2007.
22
Enrollment Patterns (cont.)
  • Full-time undergraduate enrollment increased
    steadily from 2001 to 2006, resulting in a total
    increase of 1,287 full-time students (26.5).
  • Part-time undergraduate enrollments fluctuated
    slightly during the same six-year period, but
    overall rose by 29.8 or 207 part-time students.

EXHIBIT 2-4 FALL UNDERGRADUATE ENROLLMENT TREND
BY ENROLLMENT STATUS, 2001 THROUGH 2006
Source Western Carolina University, Office of
Institutional Research and Planning, 2007.
23
Enrollment Patterns (cont.)
  • Male student enrollment increased by 26 between
    2001 and 2006 with an addition of 700 male
    students over the six-year period.
  • During the same period, female enrollments rose
    by 794 students, an increase of 27.7.

EXHIBIT 2-5 FALL UNDERGRADUATE ENROLLMENT TREND
BY GENDER, 2001 THROUGH 2006
Source Western Carolina University, Office of
Institutional Research and Planning, 2007.
24
Enrollment Patterns (cont.)
  • Exhibit 2-6 illustrates Fall undergraduate
    enrollment from 2001 to 2006 by geographical
    origin. During this time, North Carolina resident
    enrollment increased by 32.1 (1,592 students).
  • Out-of-state student enrollment decreased by
    16.2 (98 students) over the six-year period.
  • The proportion of North Carolina residents to
    non-residents enrolled at WCU increased, as
    in-state enrollment rose by 3.7 over the
    six-year period.

EXHIBIT 2-6 FALL UNDERGRADUATE ENROLLMENT BY
STUDENT ORIGIN, 2001 THROUGH 2006
Source Western Carolina University, Office of
Institutional Research and Planning, 2007.
25
Enrollment Patterns (cont.)
EXHIBIT 2-7 UNDERGRADUATE ENROLLMENT BY
ETHNICITY, FALL 2006
  • Exhibit 2-7 illustrates Fall 2006 undergraduate
    enrollment by ethnicity.
  • White students constitute the overwhelming
    majority (90.4) of all undergraduate students at
    WCU.
  • African Americans are the largest minority group
    among undergraduate students, constituting 5.7
    of the population.

Source Western Carolina University, Office of
Institutional Research and Planning, 2007.
26
Enrollment Patterns (cont.)
  • Exhibit 2-8 indicates the percentage of
    first-year students who identified themselves as
    first-generation college students at WCU and
    within the entire UNC system in 2000 and in 2005.
  • Between 2000 and 2005, the system-wide percentage
    of first-generation college students rose by 1.
  • The percentage of first-generation college
    students at WCU decreased by 3.3 in the same
    time period.

EXHIBIT 2-8 FRESHMAN FIRST-GENERATION COLLEGE
STUDENTS, WCU AND SYSTEM-WIDE FALL 2000 AND
2005
Source Western Carolina University, Office of
Institutional Research and Planning, 2007.
27
Enrollment Patterns (cont.)
  • The percentage of students applying only to WCU
    has increased from 23.6 in Fall 2000 to 27.2 in
    Fall 2005 (an increase of 3.6). Conversely, the
    system-wide percentage of students applying to
    only one institution decreased by 2.7.
  • During the same six-year period, the percentage
    of WCU students who applied to only one or two
    schools other than WCU increased by 0.9 and 0.8
    respectively.
  • Additionally, the percentages of WCU students who
    applied to four and five or more institutions
    decreased by 2.1 and 3.2 respectively, in that
    time period. This trend is also in contrast to
    the system-wide increase in the percentage of
    students applying to four or more institutions
    (3.8 increase between 2000 and 2005).

EXHIBIT 2-9 NUMBER OF COLLEGES TO WHICH WCU
INCOMING CLASS APPLIED FALL 2000 THROUGH FALL
2005
Source Western Carolina University, Office of
Institutional Research and Planning, 2007.
28
Enrollment Patterns (cont.)
  • The percentage of students who lived in rural
    communities prior to attending WCU increased by
    2.4 from 2000 to 2005. The percentage of
    students coming from moderate-size cities also
    increased (1.3).
  • The percentage of WCU students from small towns,
    large cities, and urban areas decreased during
    the same time period, by 0.9, 1.4 and 1.6
    respectively.

EXHIBIT 2-10 HIGH SCHOOL AREA OF RESIDENCY FOR
INCOMING WCU FRESHMAN CLASS FALL 2000 AND FALL
2005
Source Western Carolina University, Office of
Institutional Research and Planning, 2007.
29
Retention Rates
  • Exhibit 2-11 displays the retention rates for
    each freshman student cohort from 2000-01 through
    2005-06.
  • Of the students who leave WCU, most do so after
    the first year (26 to 30).
  • A number of other students (11 to 14) leave
    after their sophomore year.
  • Students who continue through their junior year
    at WCU tend to stay through graduation.

EXHIBIT 2-11 OVERALL RETENTION RATES 2000-01
THROUGH 2005-06
Source Western Carolina University, Office of
Institutional Research and Planning, 2007.
30
Retention Rates (cont.)
  • Exhibit 2-12 displays the freshman to sophomore
    retention rates by SAT score from Fall 2000
    through Fall 2005.
  • Students admitted with SAT scores higher than
    1100 (72.8 in Fall 2005) are retained at a
    slightly higher rate than those with scores below
    1100 (71.7 for students with less than 1000, and
    68.8 for students with 1001 to 1100).
  • In Fall 2000 and every year since Fall 2003,
    students with the lowest scores (below 1000) have
    been retained at a rate equal to or above that of
    students with mid-range scores (1000 to 1100).

EXHIBIT 2-12 RETENTION RATES BY SAT SCORE,
FRESHMAN-SOPHOMORE 2000 THROUGH 2005
Source Western Carolina University, Office of
Institutional Research and Planning, 2007.
31
Retention Rates (cont.)
  • Exhibit 2-13 displays the freshman to sophomore
    retention rates by high school GPA from Fall 2001
    through Fall 2005.
  • Exhibit 2-14 displays the freshman to junior
    retention rates by high school GPA for the same
    group of students from Fall 2001 through Fall
    2004.
  • As expected, students with a high school GPA of
    3.0 or higher were retained at a consistently
    higher rate than those with lower high school
    GPAs.

EXHIBIT 2-14 RETENTION RATES BY HIGH SCHOOL
GPA FRESHMAN TO JUNIOR 2000 THROUGH 2005
EXHIBIT 2-13 RETENTION RATES BY HIGH SCHOOL
GPA FRESHMAN TO SOPHOMORE 2000 THROUGH 2005
Source Western Carolina University, Office of
Institutional Research and Planning, 2007.
32
Retention Rates (cont.)
  • Exhibit 2-15 displays the freshman to sophomore
    retention rates for Honors, Regular Admit, and
    Summer Success Program students from Fall 2000
    through Fall 2005.
  • Exhibit 2-16 displays the freshman to junior
    retention rates for the same students from Fall
    2000 through Fall 2004.
  • Honors students were retained at a consistently
    higher rate than other student groups.
  • In 2000, 2002, 2003, freshman to sophomore
    retention rates were very similar for SSP
    students and regular admit students.
  • Exhibit 15 shows a declining rate of retention
    for SSP students since Fall 2003.

EXHIBIT 2-15 RETENTION RATES HONORS, REGULAR
ADMIT, AND SSP STUDENTS, FRESHMAN TO SOPHOMORE
2000 THROUGH 2005
EXHIBIT 2-16 RETENTION RATES HONORS, REGULAR
ADMIT, AND SSP STUDENTS, FRESHMAN TO JUNIOR 2000
THROUGH 2004
Source Western Carolina University, Office of
Institutional Research and Planning, 2007.
33
Retention Rates (cont.)
  • Exhibit 2-17 displays the freshman to sophomore
    retention rates by first-semester GPA from Fall
    2001 through Fall 2005.
  • Students with mid-range GPAs (2.1 to 3.0) after
    their first semester were most likely to remain
    at WCU.
  • Students with a first-semester GPA of 3.0 or
    higher were retained at the lowest rate for three
    of the five years (2001, 2003, 2004).

EXHIBIT 2-17 RETENTION RATES FOR ENTERING
FRESHMAN COHORT BY FIRST-SEMESTER GPA
FRESHMAN-SOPHOMORE, 2000 THROUGH 2005
Source Western Carolina University, Office of
Institutional Research and Planning, 2007.
34
Retention Rates (cont.)
  • Exhibit 2-18 displays the retention rates for
    both full-time and part-time transfer students
    from their entry year through the following fall
    for 2000 through 2005.
  • Full-time transfer student retention rates were
    typically higher than those of their part-time
    counterparts and were more consistent over the
    examined time period.

EXHIBIT 2-18 RETENTION RATES OF FULL- AND
PART-TIME TRANSFER STUDENTS FROM ENTRY YEAR TO
THE FOLLOWING FALL, 2000 THROUGH 2005
Source Western Carolina University, Office of
Institutional Research and Planning, 2007.
35
Retention Rates (cont.)
  • Exhibits 2-19 and 2-20 display the freshman to
    sophomore and freshman to junior retention rates
    for first-time, full-time students by housing
    status for Fall 2001 through 2005.
  • Retention rates for students living on campus
    have been at or above those of their off campus
    counterparts for five of the six examined years.
  • The number of students living off campus
    typically is low and many of those students may
    be living with a relative.

EXHIBIT 2-19 RETENTION RATES OF FIRST-TIME
FULL-TIME STUDENTS BY HOUSING STATUS, FRESHMAN TO
SOPHOMORE 2000 THROUGH 2005
EXHIBIT 2-20 RETENTION RATES OF FIRST-TIME
FULL-TIME STUDENTS BY HOUSING STATUS, FRESHMAN TO
JUNIOR 2000 THROUGH 2004
Source Western Carolina University, Office of
Institutional Research and Planning, 2007.
36
Retention Rates (cont.)
  • Exhibit 2-21 displays the entry year to following
    fall retention rates for full-time transfer
    students by housing status.
  • Entry to second year retention rates for transfer
    students living on campus closely approximates
    those of off-campus students for the entire
    period.

EXHIBIT 2-21 RETENTION RATES FOR FULL-TIME
TRANSFER STUDENTS BY HOUSING STATUS ENTRY YEAR TO
FOLLOWING FALL, 2000 THROUGH 2005
Source Western Carolina University, Office of
Institutional Research and Planning, 2007.
37
Retention Rates UNC System
  • Exhibit 2-22 displays the retention rates for the
    first-time full-time freshman cohort entering in
    2004-2005 for each of the 16 institutions within
    the University of North Carolina System for
    2004-2005.
  • While the UNC institutions do not all share the
    same mission and can be expected to have
    different retention rates, the chart does
    illustrate that WCU faces an opportunity for
    improvement.
  • WCU ranked 15th within the UNC System, with the
    next closest institutions retention rate
    (UNC-Pembroke) only one percentage-point away.

EXHIBIT 2-22 FIRST-TIME FULL-TIME RETENTION
RATES FOR THE UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA
INSTITUTIONS, 2004-2005
Source IPEDS Graduation Survey, and Enrollment
Survey, 2005.
38
Graduation Rates
  • Exhibit 2-23 displays the four-year graduation
    rates by SAT score. Students with mid-range SAT
    scores (1001 to 1100) and those with scores below
    1000 had a more similar four-year graduation rate
    than those with SAT scores higher than 1100. For
    the 2000 cohort, the students with the lowest SAT
    scores graduated at a 3.8 higher rate than their
    mid-range score counterparts.
  • Exhibit 2-24 displays the four-year graduation
    rates by first-semester GPA. Students with
    first-semester GPAs of 3.0 or higher graduated
    within four years at a consistently higher rate
    than those with lower GPAs.
  • In comparing the relationship of SAT scores and
    first semester GPAs, GPA is a stronger predictor
    of graduation (Exhibit 2-23 and Exhibit 2-24).

EXHIBIT 2-23 FOUR-YEAR GRADUATION RATES FOR
ENTERING FRESHMAN COHORT BY SAT SCORE 1996
THROUGH 2001
EXHIBIT 2-24 FOUR-YEAR GRADUATION RATES FOR
ENTERING FRESHMAN COHORT BY FIRST-SEMESTER
GPA 1996 THROUGH 2001
Source Western Carolina University, Office of
Institutional Research and Planning, 2007.
39
Graduation Rates (cont.)
  • Consistent with the analysis of four-year
    graduation rates, first semester GPA is a
    stronger indicator of graduation rates (Exhibit
    2-25 and Exhibit 2-26).
  • As seen in Exhibit 2-25, students with mid-range
    SAT scores (1001 to 1100) and those with scores
    below 1000 had approximately the same six-year
    graduation rate. For the 1999 entering freshman
    cohort, the students with the lowest SAT scores
    graduated at a 2.2 higher rate than their
    mid-range score counterparts.
  • Exhibit 2-26 shows the six-year graduation rates
    for the entering freshman cohorts for Fall 1996
    through Fall 1999 by first semester GPA.
    Students with higher first-semester GPAs (2.1 to
    2.9 and 3.0 or higher) graduated within six years
    at a consistently higher rate than those with
    lower first-semester GPAs.

EXHIBIT 2-25 SIX-YEAR GRADUATION RATES FOR
ENTERING FRESHMAN COHORT BY SAT SCORE 1996
THROUGH 1999
EXHIBIT 2-26 SIX-YEAR GRADUATION RATES FOR
ENTERING FRESHMAN COHORT BY FIRST-SEMESTER
GPA 1996 THROUGH 1999
Source Western Carolina University, Office of
Institutional Research and Planning, 2007.
40
Graduation Rates (cont.)
  • Exhibit 2-27 displays six-year graduation rates
    for the 1998 cohort by ethnicity.
  • Asian and Non-Resident Alien students tended to
    graduate at a higher rate than other student
    groups (63 and 71, respectively), while
    Hispanic students graduated at a rate lower than
    the institutional average (30).
  • Black, American Indian, and White students
    graduated at approximately the same rate as the
    institutional average of 46.

EXHIBIT 2-27 SIX-YEAR GRADUATION RATES BY
ETHNICITY 1998 ENTERING FRESHMAN COHORT
GRADUATING IN 2004
Source Western Carolina University, Office of
Institutional Research and Planning, 2007.
41
Graduation Rates UNC System
  • Exhibit 2-28 shows the six-year graduation rates
    for each of the 16 institutions within the
    University of North Carolina System for
    2004-2005.
  • WCUs six-year graduation rate in 2004-2005 was
    47 percent, which was below the rates of 11 of
    its state peers.
  • WCU ranks higher on six-year bachelors degree
    graduation rates (Exhibit 2-28) compared to
    retention rates for each of the 16 institutions
    within the University of North Carolina System
    (Exhibit 2-22).

EXHIBIT 2-28 SIX-YEAR BACHELORS DEGREE
GRADUATION RATES FOR THE UNIVERSITY OF NORTH
CAROLINA INSTITUTIONS, 2004-2005
Sources IPEDS Graduation Survey, and Enrollment
Survey, 2005.
42
Students Who Leave
  • WCU provided MGT with a list of 1,726 former
    students of WCU for a telephone survey. The
    survey of former students is available in
    Appendix A.
  • Telephone contact information was available for
    99 students.
  • Of the available numbers, 72.7 had been
    disconnected, wrong, or led to an answering
    machine. Students with answering machines were
    called three times.
  • Contact was made with 9.1 of former students,
    with 8.1 completing the interview.
  • Students who completed the interview stated that
    their reasons for attending and leaving WCU were
    primarily personal and were beyond WCUs control
    (e.g., wanted to be closer to family wanted to
    be farther from family or friends in the
    Cullowhee area WCU did not have the major the
    student wanted).

EXHIBIT 2-29 PERCENTAGE OF FORMER STUDENTS BY
CONTACT RESULT
Sources Western Carolina University, Office of
Institutional Research and Planning, 2007, and
MGT analysis, 2007.
43
Students Who Leave (cont.)
  • Exhibit 2-30 displays the percentage of students
    who transferred to another UNC campus, by
    institution for a six-year period. WCU is
    consistently above the System average on this
    measure for students who transferred (as a
    percentage of undergraduate enrollments) to a
    two- or four-year institution, between 2000 and
    2005.
  • WCU had the highest percentage of students who
    transferred to a four-year institution in the UNC
    System (as a percentage of undergraduate
    enrollments) for three years between Fall 2000
    and Fall 2005.
  • During that same six-year period, there was only
    one year (2001) in which WCU had the highest
    percentage of students who transferred to a
    two-year institution in the UNC System (as a
    percentage of undergraduate enrollments).

EXHIBIT 2-30 PERCENTAGE OF STUDENTS WHO
TRANSFERRED TO ANOTHER UNC CAMPUS, BY
INSTITUTION, FALL 2000 THROUGH FALL 2005
Sources University of North Carolina,
Statistical Abstracts 1999-00 through 2005-06 and
IPEDS Enrollment Surveys, 2000 through 2005.
Note Yellow highlighting indicates value is
above WCUs percentage for that year.
44
Students Who Transferred to WCU
  • Exhibit 2-31 shows the percentage of students who
    transferred from another UNC campus to WCU, by
    institution, for a six-year period. WCU is
    consistently below the System average on this
    measure for students who transferred (as a
    percentage of undergraduate enrollments) from a
    two- or four-year institution to WCU, during this
    period of time.
  • Of the students who transferred to WCU from
    another UNC campus between 2000 and 2005, more
    transferred from a two-year institution rather
    than from a four-year institution.
  • WCU ranks high in the percentage of students who
    transfer from a two-year institution within the
    UNC System. For three of those six years, WCU
    ranked fourth or higher among UNC schools.

EXHIBIT 2-31 PERCENTAGE OF STUDENTS THAT
TRANSFERRED FROM ANOTHER UNC CAMPUS, BY
INSTITUTION, FALL 2000 THROUGH FALL 2005
Sources University of North Carolina,
Statistical Abstracts 1999-00 through 2005-06 and
IPEDS Enrollment Surveys, 2000 through 2005.
Note Yellow highlighting indicates value is
above WCUs percentage for that year.
45
Transfer-Out Rates UNC System
  • Exhibit 2-32 shows the percentage of transfer-out
    students at each UNC institution.
  • A transfer-out student is a first-time full-time
    freshman student who has not completed or
    graduated from the institution in which he or she
    first enrolled, but who has subsequently enrolled
    at another eligible institution.
  • WCUs transfer-out rate was the highest among the
    University of North Carolina institutions in
    2004-2005. This suggests that WCU has room to
    impact its student retention rates as well as
    graduation rates as this group of students is
    transferring to another institution to complete
    their degree.

EXHIBIT 2-32 TRANSFER-OUT BACHELORS DEGREE
GRADUATION RATES FOR THE UNIVERSITY OF NORTH
CAROLINA INSTITUTIONS, 2004-2005
Sources Source IPEDS Graduation Survey, and
Enrollment Survey, 2005.
46
Common Characteristics of Students
  • Examining data of students who do and do not
    return for their sophomore year at WCU provides
    an opportunity to identify common characteristics
    of students who are retained and those who are
    not. This information serves as an early warning
    for faculty and staff of students who may benefit
    from enhanced programs and services to increase
    their chance of returning for their sophomore
    year, thus increasing WCUs retention rate.
  • In spring 2007, the Office of Institutional
    Research (OIRP) undertook an analysis of first to
    second year retention for new freshman (23,893
    students included in dataset from 1988-2006).
    OIRP utilized as many possible variables as were
    readily available within Banner. This includes
    data from students high school transcripts
    through last term attended at WCU. The variables
    included in the analysis of first to second year
    retention are shown in Exhibit 2-33.

EXHIBIT 2-33 VARIABLES INCLUDED IN ANALYSIS OF
FIRST TO SECOND YEAR RETENTION
Note For those with ACT scores instead of SAT
scores, the following ACT to SAT conversion
tables were used http//www.regents.state.la.us/p
dfs/Planning/MP20SAT20to20ACT20Concordance20T
able20for20Math.pdf http//www.regents.state.la.
us/pdfs/Planning/MP20SAT20to20ACT20Concordance
20Table20for20English.pdf Source Western
Carolina University, Office of Institutional
Research and Planning, 2007.
47
Common Characteristics of Students (cont.)
  • The results of the analysis show that freshmen
    who are most likely to be retained to their
    sophomore year
  • Have higher high school GPAs.
  • Have higher first-term GPAs.
  • Have higher second-term GPAs.
  • Take ENG 102 in their second term.
  • Enroll as full-time students at WCU.
  • The results of the analysis show that freshmen
    most likely to leave WCU prior to their second
    term
  • Withdrew from four or more courses in their first
    term.
  • Failed four or more courses in the first term.
  • The results of the analysis show that freshmen
    who are most likely to leave WCU prior to their
    sophomore year
  • Have high school GPAs lower than 3.25.
  • Enter WCU with less than 1.5 AP credits.
  • Have first-tem GPAs lower than 2.0.
  • Have second-term GPAs lower than 2.0.
  • Enroll as part-time students.
  • In short, performance is the strongest predictor
    of retention at WCU. Those who perform better in
    high school will perform better at the
    university, and those who perform well at the
    university will be retained longer.

48
Further Analysis
Analysis of data provides important information
about student retention and graduation rates.
However, in order to offer a comprehensive
analysis of student retention and graduation
issues at WCU, information from four additional
sources are needed. Additional research
activities for this project include
Interviews and Focus Groups The purpose of
interviews and focus groups is to gain insight
from currently enrolled students, faculty, and
staff on key student retention issues to identify
strengths and weaknesses of current retention
policies and practices. Survey of Current
Students The purpose of a survey of current
students is to gather quantitative information
about students use of and experience with
advising and campus programming activities
involving athletic, enrichment and social
opportunities, as well as students perception of
academic experiences in the classroom. Peer
Institutions Analysis and Assessment The
purpose of an analysis and assessment of select
peer institutions student retention efforts is
to compare WCUs student retention efforts to
that of its peers as well as identify any
practices, programs, and services that could be
adapted at WCU. Analysis of Student Retention
National Best Practices The purpose of this
research activity is to analyze and compare WCUs
student retention efforts to national best
practices in student retention, suggesting ways
in which current programs and services can be
utilized more effectively as well as identify any
practices, programs, and services that are not
currently is use, but would be beneficial for
WCU.
49
Chapter 3.0 Assessment of the Office of
Admissions Marketing Materials
  • This analysis of the Office of Admissions
    marketing materials is divided into the following
    sections
  • Analysis of Findings
  • Functions and Structure of WCUs Office of
    Admissions
  • Applications, Acceptances, and Enrollments
  • Assessment of Marketing Materials
  • Student Survey

50
Analysis of Findings
Every department and campus community member
(faculty, staff, and students) contributes toward
WCUs student retention and graduation rates. The
Office of Admissions plays a unique role in
undergraduate enrollment as it is responsible for
recruiting an incoming class of students who
possess the academic ability to meet
WCUs expectations and intend to graduate with a
bachelors degree from WCU. Efforts to retain
and graduate students begin long before students
enroll at the institution. The Office
of Admissions recruitment efforts play a vital
role in providing the institution with the cohort
of students with whom faculty and staff work with
to achieve institutional goals.
  • The results of our analysis of the Office of
    Admissions marketing materials suggest that
    timing is critical in recruiting a class of
    students that meet the institutions goals this
    applies to face-to-face recruiting efforts,
    distribution of publications, and offers of
    admission. We identified two main observations
    when assessing the Office of Admissions
    marketing materials
  • Enrollment Management Plan (Note This refers to
    recruiting and admitting students into WCU.)
  • Communication with Prospective Students

51
Analysis of Findings (cont.)
  • Enrollment Management Plan
  • While WCU sets total student enrollment goals, it
    is not clear how the numbers for the goals are
    derived. The University would benefit from a
    written marketing and recruitment plan that
    identifies trends in enrollment and projected
    enrollment based upon a detailed analysis of data
    on key geographic areas and target student
    populations.
  • Since WCU is interested in increasing diversity
    on campus, which includes recruiting, admitting,
    and enrolling more underrepresented students, it
    should set goals for each group of targeted
    students (e.g., freshmen, transfers, honors).
  • Five of the six peer institutions enroll a larger
    percentage of applicants than WCU, which often
    translates into higher retention and graduation
    rates. It is thus imperative that WCU have a
    strong enrollment plan so as to increase student
    retention and graduation rates.

52
Analysis of Findings (cont.)
  • Enrollment Management Plan
  • WCU should consider offering the option of an
    Early Action admissions decision to applicants.
    As defined by the National Association of College
    Admissions Counselors, Early Action is a process
    whereby students submit an application to an
    institution of preference and receive a decision
    well in advance of the institutions regular
    response date. Students who are admitted under
    Early Action are not obligated to accept the
    institutions offer of admission or to submit a
    deposit prior to May 1.
  • In its 2006 State of College Admissions, the
    National Association of College Admissions
    Counselors found that between 2001 and 2004, the
    percentage of students applying using Early
    Action had increased by 8 and the percentage
    admitted using Early Action had increased by 20.
    This suggests that there are prospective students
    who are interested in an Early Action option,
    which is becoming more popular.
  • By offering Early Action, WCU may see an increase
    in applications and enrollments, as well as in
    the quality of students it attracts.
    Specifically
  • High-achieving students tend to utilize Early
    Action options. WCU would have the opportunity
    to be the first institution to make an offer of
    admission to a student, increase the average SAT
    score, and increase the average high school GPA
    of its student body.
  • Students admitted using Early Action are likely
    to share the good news of their acceptance with
    family and friends.
  • Mailings and/or functions could target Early
    Action applicants. This would allow WCU to
    efficiently and effectively target resources and
    efforts to a group of students who have a strong
    interest in WCU and are likely to be high
    achievers.

53
Analysis of Findings (cont.)
  • Communication with Prospective Students
  • Communicating with prospective students at key
    points during their search for a college is
    critical. Ideally, WCU would be one of the first
    institutions to send a student information and
    would also follow-up systematically to remind the
    prospective student that WCU would like him or
    her to join its campus community.
  • The concept of an Admissions Pipeline and the
    processes by which the Office of Admissions
    recruits students could be shared so that this
    function would be better understood by the campus
    community.
  • The following definitions are in reference to the
    Admissions Pipeline (next page)
  • Suspect A potential student in whom the
    University is interested, but who has not
    expressed an interest in the University.
  • Prospect A potential student who has expressed
    an interest in the University.
  • Applicant A potential student who has submitted
    an application to the University.
  • Admit A potential student who has been offered
    admission to the University.
  • Matriculant An admitted student who has
    enrolled (made a deposit to the university).
  • The following diagram of the Admissions Pipeline
    shows the flow of the Office of Admissions
    interactions with prospective students. In the
    progression from suspect to matriculant, the
    number of students in each category becomes
    smaller.

54
  • WCU casts the net by purchasing names of
    students who have indicated an interest in WCU or
    whose academic record and location appear to be
    congruent with WCU.
  • WCU Informational Promotion publication is sent
    to suspects to encourage interest in the
    University. (Students can enter the pipeline at
    the prospect stage by requesting information from
    WCU on their own.)
  • Suspects become prospects when they return their
    WCU Informational Promotion reply card. WCU
    then sends them detailed information about open
    houses, high school visits, information sessions,
    etc., to encourage them to apply.
  • Acceptance letters are mailed to students who
    meet admissions criteria, along with a WCU
    license plate as a welcome gift. Other students
    are deferred or denied admittance.
  • Admitted students are sent mailings about
    orientation and housing.
  • Mailings should be sent to students who have paid
    their deposit to strengthen their sense of
    connection to WCU.

1
Admissions Pipeline
Not interested. Student does not send back
reply card.
2
3
Denied admission to WCU.
4
5
6
55
Analysis of Findings (cont.)
  • Communication with Prospective Students (cont.)
  • The timeline below is an example of a calendar
    for the Office of Admissions recruiting
    activities. Since enrollments are dependent upon
    multiple offices working together, this timeline
    includes mailings from other WCU departments.
    (Note All University-wide communications and
    mailings to students are not shown.)
  • Each event or mailing is associated with one of
    the action points from the Admissions Pipeline
    (on the previous page).

56
Analysis of Findings (cont.)
  • Communication with Prospective Students (cont.)
  • University marketing materials are a form of
    communication and are often prospective students
    first impression of the institution. As such,
    they can greatly impact their level of interest.
    Therefore, it is important that the publications
    or letters sent to prospective students
  • Show consistent use of WCUs name, logo, and
    institutional information.
  • Contain clear information.
  • Are aesthetically/visually appealing.
  • Use a positive tone and wording.
  • Current students identified guidance counselors
    (high school or community college) and the WCU
    Website as their primary and secondary sources of
    information about WCU.
  • WCU should continue to form and strengthen
    relationships with guidance counselors and make
    high school and community college visits. It is
    unreasonable to visit every high school in North
    Carolina therefore, high schools visited should
    include those from which the institution is
    trying to recruit more students and/or those that
    have a high probability to yield applicants that
    will be admitted.
  • WCUs admissions Website is a critical
    recruitment tool and should continue to provide
    accurate and up-to-date information to
    prospective students. By updating its Website
    regularly, the Office of Admissions will
    encourage prospective students to log on often.

57
Analysis of Findings (cont.)
  • Communication with Prospective Students (cont.)
  • It is important that the marketing materials
    contain
Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
About PowerShow.com