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Greece and Rome


Greece and Rome GPS Unit 1 2000 B. C. A.D. 700 SSWH3 I. Government in Greece Political Units: Polis: city-state of ancient Greece; fundamental political unit ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Greece and Rome

Greece and Rome
  • GPS Unit 1
  • 2000 B. C. A.D. 700
  • SSWH3

I. Government in Greece
  • Political Units
  • Polis city-state of ancient Greece fundamental
    political unit
  • Acropolis fortified hilltop where citizens
    gather and discuss city government
  • Political Structures
  • Monarchy rule by a single person
  • Aristocracy govt ruled by a small group of
  • Oligarchy govt ruled by a few powerful people
  • Tyrants leaders for the interest of ordinary

II. Athens and Sparta
  • Athens
  • Attica Peninsula
  • Democracy rule by the people
  • Wealthy boys only ones educated

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Athens and Sparta (contd)
  • Sparta
  • Southern Greece/Gulf of Corinth
  • Helots
  • Military state
  • Boys and Girls trained

Athens and Sparta
  • Athens was larger
  • Education for wealthy boys only- liberal arts
  • Society was based on trade and open to outsiders
  • Many of the Greek artistic and intellectual
    achievements came out of Athens
  • Women were subordinate and kept out of public
  • Sparta was small with a huge slave population
    called helots
  • All boys and girls educated- women considered
  • Military education
  • Farming economy
  • Closed society- very paranoid- did not like
  • No wall around city

Athens and Sparta (contd)
  • Persian Wars
  • Greece vs. Persia at Ionia coast of Anatolia
  • 10,000 Greeks (Athenians) vs. 25,000 Persians
  • Athenians arranged in Phalanx ea. Soldier stood
    side by side with spear and shield
  • Athenians win
  • Pheidippides runs from Marathon to Athens

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Second War Land and Sea Invasions by Xerxes
  • To revenge his fathers shame, Xerxes in 480 BCE
    launched a massive land and sea invasion of
    Greece.(250,000 soldiers)
  • Fought three major engagements- Thermopylae
    (Stand of the 300 Spartans), Salamis (naval
    battle near Athens), and Platae (Spartas
  • Invasion failed and Xerxes lost most of his army.

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Legacy of Persian Wars
  • Greece now considered a Mediterranean power.
    Athens and Sparta become the dominant city
  • Athens enters a Golden Age of intellectual and
    artistic achievements.
  • Jealously over Athenian dominance of Delian
    League led to 25 years of civil warfare in
    Greece. Athens vs. Sparta (Peloponnesian Wars)
  • Leaves Greece open to foreign invasion- Macedonia
    under King Philip invades and unites Greek
    city-states under one king.

III. Greek Art
  • Golden Age growth of intellectual and artistic
  • Direct Democracy citizens rule directly (not
    through representatives)
  • Parthenon
  • Classical Art portrays ideal beauty serenity,

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Greek Art (contd)
  • Drama
  • Tragedy serious drama with a tragic flaw
  • Comedy humorous
  • Homer greatest storyteller of Greece
  • The Iliad
  • The Odyssey
  • Myths traditional stories about Greek gods

IV. Philosophers
  • Philosophers lovers of wisdom determined to
    seek truth wherever they were led

Philosophers (contd)
  • Socrates
  • believed absolute standards did exist for truth
    and justice
  • The unexamined life is not worth living
  • Brought to trial for corrupting the youth of
  • Socratic Method
  • Ideas were innate
  • Mind continued to exist after death

Philosophers (contd)
  • Plato
  • Student of Socrates
  • The Republic
  • Ideas innate

Philosophers (contd)
  • Aristotle
  • Applied method of problem solving to psychology,
    physics, and biology
  • (scientific method)
  • Mind and body separate
  • Ideas result of experience

V. Alexander the Great
  • Peloponnesian War weakened Greek city-states
  • Philip II becomes king
  • Killed at wedding
  • Alexander becomes king (20 yrs old)
  • Student of Aristotle
  • Expands the empire Persia, Egypt (Alexandria),
    Mesopotamia, Indus Valley, Arabia
  • Dies of Malaria (32 yrs old)

Alexander (contd)
  • Alexander the Greats Legacy
  • 3 different Greeks gain control of the Empire
  • Antigonous of Macedonia
  • Ptolemy seizes Egypt
  • Seleucus took Old Persian Empire
  • Adopts Persian customs
  • Hellenistic culture emerges

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VI. The Olympic Games and Hellenistic Culture
  • Ancient Olympics
  • Honored Zeus
  • In Olympia
  • Chariot races, boxing, javelin,
  • discus , etc.
  • Statues of cheaters

Olympics contd
  • Modern Olympics
  • In Athens
  • 1896
  • Many more
  • sports

Hellenistic Culture (contd)
  • Hellenistic Culture
  • Greek (Hellenic) blended with Egyptian, Persian,
    and Indian influences
  • Scholars
  • Provided most scientific knowledge
  • Euclid mathematician (geometry)
  • Archimedes pi, lever, screw, and pulley
  • Art
  • Colossus of Rhodes
  • sculpture

I. Origins of Rome
  • Founded in 753 by Romulus and Remus (legend)
  • Tiber River near Italian Peninsula midpoint of
    the Med. Sea
  • Rolling hills
  • Fertile soil
  • 3 Groups inhabited the region (1000-500 BC)
  • Latins
  • Greeks (these 3 were 1st settlers)
  • Etruscans

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Rome (cont)
  • b/w 750 and 600 BC the Greeks est. colonies
    brought all of Italy into closer contact with the
    Greek civ.
  • Etruscans strongly influenced Roman civ.
  • Writing and architecture (esp. arch)

II. Roman Government
  • Republic citizens vote for leaders
  • Patricians wealthy landowners
  • Plebeians common farmers, artisans, and
    merchants (majority)
  • Barred by law from holding imp. Govt. positions
  • Eventually form tribunes protected the rights of
    the plebeians from unfair acts of patrician
  • Created Twelve Tables written law code
    (protected from patrician officials

Roman Govt (contd)
  • Parts of Roman Republic
  • Consuls commanded army directed government
    (similar to President of U.S.)
  • Senate legislative assembly
  • Dictator ruled in time of crisis (6 months)
  • Legions large military units

III. Rome Spreads its Power
  • Punic Wars
  • Rome vs. Carthage (North Africa)
  • 3 separate wars
  • 1st (264- 241 BCE)
  • Carthage captured part of Sicily Rome came to
    help out.
  • Also for glory and plunder
  • Fought mostly at sea
  • for some years Carthage was the most successful,
    notedly under the leadership of Hamilcar, but
    with the battle at the Aegates Islands in 241,
    the Carthagians were beaten so painfully that
    they requested peace. This agreement involved
    leaving Sicily and paying a huge indemnity. Rome
    now controlled Sicily.

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  • 2nd (218- 201 BCE)
  • It was the Carthagians bitterness over both the
    agreement from the first war, and the Roman
    expansion following the next years (Corsica and
    Sardinia was taken from Carthage in 237), that
    brought it on.
  • Hannibal Carthage general mastermind of war
  • Won several early battles but no decisive ones
  • The Romans used a tactic of delaying, and they
    had strong hold on the communications over both
    land and sea. This would eventually result in
    declining morals in Hannibals troops
  • In 204 the Roman sunder the leadership of Scipio
    invaded Ifriqiya (today's Tunisia), and despite
    strong resistance, a peace was almost arranged in
    203, when Hannibal returned. Hannibal was beaten
    in Zama (near today's Maktar, Tunisia) in 202.
    Peace was signed in 201. All claims on Spain were
    given up, and the Punic fleet was reduced to ten

  • 3rd (149- 146 BCE)
  • The third war was entirely provoked by the
    Romans. After the second defeat, Carthage managed
    once again to return to much of its former glory,
    the economy prospered, and the fleet increased.
    But the memory of the former Punic wars was
    strong in Rome many hated the Carthaginians
    especially because there seemed to be nothing
    that could force them on their knees. Many Romans
    wanted to gain glory, and no enemy was more
    attractive than Carthage, even if the city state
    now longer aspired to become an empire.
  • Masinissa deliberately provoked Carthage, and in
    149 Carthage attacked him. Rome came to aid for
    their ally, through declaring war on Carthage. At
    first a peace was agreed upon, but then Rome
    increased their demands, decreeing a total
    abandonment of the city. Facing these claims, the
    Carthaginians returned to fighting, and soon
    Carthage fell under what would become a 3 year
    long siege. When the Romans finally breached the
    walls, Scipio Aemilianus took the city by storm.
    One week of fighting inside the city followed,
    then the city was burned, and the locals were
    either executed or sold into slavery.

IV. The Roman Empire
  • Empire emerges after Punic Wars republic becomes
  • Economic Turmoil
  • Rich live on big estates (with lots of slaves)
  • Small farmers had difficulty competing
  • Civil War Tribunes tried for reforms but made
    enemies with senators
  • Generals start to gain power (recruiting soldiers
    turned farmerspromising them land) and take over
    by force

Roman Empire (contd)
  • Julius Caesar gains control
  • 60 BCE Caesar joined with Crassus and
  • Pompey ruled as a triumvirate (group of three)
  • for 10 yrs.
  • Elected consul (ruled for 1 yr)
  • Excellent military leader
  • Appointed himself governor of Gaul
    (France)becomes very popular
  • 50 BCE he defies senate they ordered him to
    disband his legions and return home.
  • 49 BCE Crossed Rubicon River conquers Greece,
    Asia, Spain, Egypt
  • 46 BCE returned to Rome, had support of army and
    masses and was appointed Dictator
  • 44 BCE appointed dictator for life

The Roman Empire (contd)
  • Governed as an absolute ruler
  • Reforms Roman citizenship to people in the
    provinces expanded the senate built new public
    buildings that created new jobs for the poor
  • Some senators feared losing their influence some
    considered him a tyrant
  • Caesar is killed by senators
  • March 15, 44 BCE

The Roman Empire (contd)
  • Beginning of the Empire
  • More civil war Roman Republic destroyed
  • Octavian, Mark Antony and Lepidus
  • Ruled for 10 yrs
  • Jealousy and violence
  • Lepidus retires, Octavian and Mark Antony rivals
  • 3. Octavian rules becomes Augustus Caesar
  • Pax Romana (207 years)
  • After Augustus death, empire remained stable

V. Society and Culture
  • Agriculture
  • Most important industry
  • 90 involved in farming
  • Complex roads linked the empire
  • Slaves and Captivity
  • Used slaves more than any other civilization
  • Conquered peoples brought back to Rome
  • Worked both city and farm
  • Some forced to be gladiators
  • Occasional rebellions (none successful)

Society and Culture (contd)
  • Gods and Goddesses
  • Early Romans worshiped powerful, divine spirits
  • Government and religion linked private and
    public rituals expected worship of emperor was
    important as well
  • Majority of people were poor
  • Government supported people
  • Gladiator games
  • Colosseum one of greatest structure ever built
    held 50,000 people

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Society and Culture (contd)
  • Roman Art
  • Greco-Roman classical civilization
  • Rome had conquered Greece and was influenced by
    their culture
  • One of greatest legacies to the world
  • Realism
  • Augustus had great artistic achievement
  • Bas-relief told stories
  • Mosaics found in wealthy homes
  • Pompeii was best example site of Vesuvius
    eruption which preserved many buildings and

Society and Culture (contd)
  • Legacy
  • Latin language official language of Roman
    Catholic Church into 20th century
  • Aqueducts brought water to cities
  • Architecture inspired public buildings
  • Roman Roads made of stone, concrete, and sand.
    Lasted until Middle ages
  • Laws most lasting and widespread
  • Fair and equal to all people
  • Influenced by philosophers
  • Equal treatment under law
  • Innocent until proven guilty

VII. Fall of the Roman Empire
  • Romes economy weakens
  • Inflation
  • Overworked soil
  • Military in disarray
  • Rome splits (empire no more)
  • West remains Rome Latin speaking
  • Huns responsible for German invasions in West
  • East Byzantine Empire Greek speaking
  • Constantine secures, moves capitol
  • Flourishes preserves Greek and Roman culture

VI. Christianity Spreads
  • Jesus
  • The Messiah
  • Contained many ideas from Judaism
  • Stressed importance of peoples love for God and
    each other
  • Promised salvation for those who repented their
  • Crucified for defying the Roman government
  • Spread of Christianity
  • Roads make is easy
  • Paul

Christianity Spreads
  • Constantine
  • Ends persecution (occurred b/c people didnt
    worship Roman godsthousands were killed, exiled,
    or imprisoned)
  • Nicene Creed basic beliefs of church
  • Christian Church
  • Peter rock on which the church will be built
  • First Popehead of the Christian Church
  • Bishops next
  • Priests
  • Augustine influential writer/bishop helped
    define Church teachings