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Geographic Models


Connie Hudgeons College Board Two-Day AP/Pre-AP Social Studies Conference February 20-21, 2009 San Antonio, Texas * * * Extensions and modifications to Christaller's ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Geographic Models

Geographic Models
  • Connie Hudgeons
  • College Board Two-Day AP/Pre-AP Social Studies
  • February 20-21, 2009
  • San Antonio, Texas

Geographer Content Area Model
Wegener Pattison Geography Nature and Perspectives Plate Tectonic Theory Four Geographic Traditions Possibilism Determinism
Malthus Ravenstein Thompson Boserup Population Malthusian Theory Neo-Malthusian Theory Laws of Migration Demographic Transition Model Boserups Thesis
Sauer Cultural Patterns Cultural Landscape
Conrad-Demarest MacKinder Spykman Mahan Rostow Ratzel Wallerstein Political Organization of Space Stages of Empire Building Heartland Theory Rimland Theory Sea Power Theory Model of Economic Development Organic Theory of Nations World Systems Theory
Geographer Content Area Model
Von Thunen Burgess Boserup Agricultural and Rural Land Use Agricultural Model Concentric Zone Model Boserups Thesis
Carey Castells Castells Hall Kondratieff Losch Rostow Wallerstein Weber Industrialization and Economic Development Gravity Model Space of Flows Technopolis Long Wave Theory Agglomeration/Spatial Influence Model of Economic Development Core-Periphery Model Industry Location/Least Cost/Agglomeration
Burgess Hoyt Harris-Ullman Christaller Borchert Cities and Urban Land Use Concentric Zone Model Urban Sector Model Multiple Nuclei Model Central Place Theory Stages of Evolution of American Metropolis
The Club of Rome EVERYTHING World3
Geography Its Nature And Perspective
Four Traditions of Geography
The Four Traditions were outlined by William
Pattison at the NCGE Opening Session on November
29, 1963.
Tradition Core Concepts
Spatial Tradition Mapping, Spatial Analysis, Boundaries Densities, Movement Transportation, Central Place Theory, Areal Distribution. Spatial Patterns
Area Studies Descriptions of Regions Areas, World Regional Geography, International Trends Relationships, Regional Differences, Chorographic Tradition
Man-Land Human impact on Nature, Nature impact on Humans, Natural Hazards, Perception of Environment, Environmentalism, Cultural, Political and Population Geography
Earth Science Physical Geography, The Spheres litho, hydro, atmo, bio. Earth-Sun interaction, Earth as Home, Geology, mineralogy, paleontology, glaciology, geomorphology meteorology
Environmental Determinism
  • Definition The belief that the physical
    environment has played a major role in the
    cultural development of a people or locale. Also
    called environmentalism.
  • Examples In previous years, environmental
    determinism was popular and it was acceptable to
    believe that cultures were ruled by their
  • The well-known contrast between the energetic
    people of the most progressive parts of the
    temperate zone and the inert inhabitants of the
    tropics and even of intermediate regions, such as
    Persia, is largely due to climate . . . the
    people of the cyclonic regions rank so far above
    those of the other parts of the world that they
    are the natural leaders.
  • Ellsworth Huntington, Principles of Human
    Geography, 1940

Environmental Possibilism
  • A philosophy seen in contrast to environmental
    determinism that declares that although
    environmental conditions do have an influence on
    human and cultural development, people have
    varied possibilities in how they decide to live
    within a given environment.
  • Even possibilism has its limitations, for it
    encourages a line of inquiry that starts with the
    physical environment and asks what it allows.
    Yet human cultures have frequently pushed the
    boundaries of what was once thought to be
    environmentally possible by virtue of their own
    ideas and ingenuity.
  • Harm de Blij, Human Geography, 7th ed., page

Plate Tectonics
  • The Best Source of information
  • USGS
  • This Dynamic Earth
  • The Story of Plate Tectonics
  • http//

World Population
  • World population is in a state of very rapid
    increase. This may be expressed is various ways.
    On arithmetic scale population appears to be in
    an explosive stage.

  • If we plot human population on a log scale there
    appears to be 3 phases brought about by levels of
    historical development

Thomas Malthus
  • Happy 243rd B-Day Feb 14 or 17, 1766!!
  • In 1798, hastily written text, An Essay on the
    Principle of Population as it Affects the Future
    Improvement of Society, with Remarks on the
    Speculations of Mr. Godwin, M. Condorcet, and
    Other Writers, was published by Thomas Robert
  • Often known today as the "patron saint of
    demography" and while some argue that his
    contributions to population studies were
    unremarkable, Malthus did indeed cause population
    and demographics to become a topic of serious
    academic study.

Two Views on Populations Alarmists - Population
bomb Mass starvation (Paddock, 1975 wrote Famine
1979) Major world issue, the only real issue is
the disappearance of world surpluses
Technocrats - Science and technology will find
the way. Famines are decreasing. People are
better fed than ever before. World food supply
shows the same graph as world population.
Population Dynamics Growth is determined by
Biological capacity of woman to bear children
Natural length of life Ecological factors
that Produce food Determine fertility
Determine mortality
Malthus noted that food production increases
arithmetically (e.g. 1, 2, 3, 4) while human
population increases geometrically (e.g. 1, 2, 4,
8). Since human population is determined
ultimately by the food supply, Malthus thought
population would be brought in balance only by
famine and pestilence. He never foresaw the
tremendous growth of food with modern agriculture
due to new lands and the scientific
revolution. Malthusian predictions have not yet
come to past.
According to Thomas Malthus, preventative checks
are those that affect the birth rate and include
marrying at a later age (moral restraint),
abstaining from procreation, birth control, and
homosexuality. Malthus, a clergyman in the Church
of England, considered birth control and
homosexuality to be vices and inappropriate (but
nonetheless practiced). Positive checks are
those that increase the death rate. These include
disease, war, disaster, and finally, when other
checks don't reduce population, famine. Malthus
felt that the fear of famine or the development
of famine was also a major impetus to reduce the
birth rate. He indicates that potential parents
are less likely to have children when they know
that their children are likely to starve.
Malthusian Checks
Diagram of Malthus's theory of population growth.
Population Growth Malthus Marx
"In October 1838, that is, fifteen months after I
had begun my systematic inquiry, I happened to
read for amusement Malthus on Population, and
being well prepared to appreciate the struggle
for existence which everywhere goes on from long-
continued observation of the habits of animals
and plants, it at once struck me that under these
circumstances favorable variations would tend to
be preserved, and unfavorable ones to be
destroyed. The results of this would be the
formation of a new species. Here, then I had at
last got a theory by which to work". Charles
Darwin, from his autobiography. (1876) This
often quoted passage reflects the significance
Darwin affords Malthus in formulating his theory
of Natural Selection. What "struck" Darwin in
Essay on the Principle of Population (1798) was
Malthus's observation that in nature plants and
animals produce far more offspring than can
survive, and that Man too is capable of
overproducing if left unchecked. Malthus
concluded that unless family size was regulated,
man's misery of famine would become globally
epidemic and eventually consume Man. Malthus'
view that poverty and famine were natural
outcomes of population growth and food supply was
not popular among social reformers who believed
that with proper social structures, all ills of
man could be eradicated.
Neo Malthusian Theory
Those who continue to agree with Malthus
concerns are sometimes called Neo Malthusians.
They point out that human suffering is now
occurring on a scale that Malthus could not have
imagined. They argue that it is not enough to
assert that the current state is merely an
inevitable stage in world population. The
Neo-Malthusian population theory claims that poor
nations are stuck in a cycle of poverty that will
not be broken without some type of preventative
measures. Malthus's model is based upon a
relationship between both population growth as
well as economic development. Some empirical
studies indicate that the population model was
flawed because the two main variables (population
growth and level of per-capita income) have no
clear link.
Boserups Thesis
  • Ester Boserup was a Danish economist and writer.
    She wrote several books covering world economics.
    Her most notable book is The Conditions of
    Agricultural Growth The Economics of Agrarian
    Change under Population Pressure (Chicago,
    Aldine, 1965). This book presented a "dynamic
    analysis embracing all types of primitive
  • In doing so, she upended the assumption dating
    back to Malthuss time (and still held in many
    quarters) that agricultural methods determine
    population via food supply.

Boserups research indicated that population
determines agricultural methods. Boserups
theory opposes Malthus by saying that the
agricultural methods depend on the size of the
population. Malthus states that in times when
food is not sufficient for everyone, the extra
people will have to die. Boserup states that in
those times of pressure people will find out ways
to increase the productivity of food by
increasing workforce, machinery, fertilizers,
etc. A major point of her book is that
"necessity is the mother of invention". .
Although Boserup is widely regarded as being
anti-Malthusian, both her insights and those of
Malthus can be comfortably combined within the
same general theoretical framework. She argued
that when population density is low enough to
allow it, land tends to be used intermittently,
with heavy reliance on fire to clear fields and
fallowing to restore fertility (often called
slash and burn farming). Numerous studies have
shown such methods to be favorable in total
workload and also efficiency (output versus
input). In Boserups theory, it is only when
rising population density curtails the use of
fallowing (and therefore the use of fire) that
fields are moved towards annual cultivation.
Contending with insufficiently fallowed, less
fertile plots, covered with grass or bushes
rather than forest, mandates expanded efforts at
fertilizing, field preparation, weed control, and
irrigation. These changes often induce
agricultural innovation but increase marginal
labor cost to the farmer as well the higher
the rural population density, the more hours the
farmer must work for the same amount of produce.
Therefore workloads tend to rise while
efficiency drops. This process of raising
production at the cost of more work at lower
efficiency is what Boserup describes as
"agricultural intensification". The theory has
been instrumental in understanding agricultural
patterns in developing countries, although it is
highly simplified and generalized.
This website has a Resources section with
articles relating to Malthus, Erlich, the Club
of Rome, Boserup, and Simon. There are several
web-based activities covering population
Demographic Transition Model
  • The Demographic transition model (DTM) is a model
    used to represent the process of explaining the
    transformation of countries from high birth rates
    and high death rates to low birth rates and low
    death rates as part of the economic development
    of a country from a pre-industrial to an
    industrialized economy
  • It is based on an interpretation begun in 1929 by
    the American demographer Warren Thompson of prior
    observed changes, or transitions, in birth and
    death rates in industrialized societies over the
    past two hundred years.
  • Originally designed with three stages, it is now
    common to see the model with five or more stages.

Sociological Explanation of Population Growth
  • Demographic transition is the change from a low
    population growth rate based on high or medieval
    birth and high death rates to a low population
    growth rate based on low (modern) birth and death
    rates. During this transition, death rate starts
    to drop faster than birth rate which leads to an
    explosive population increase.
  • Birth rate is the number of live births per 1000
  • In l875 birth rate was in the high 30s in l930
    the birth rate declined to between 15 and 20

  • The transition involves four stages, or possibly
  • In stage one, pre-industrial society, death
    rates and birth rates are high and roughly in
  • In stage two, that of a developing country, the
    death rates drop rapidly due to improvements in
    food supply and sanitation, which increase life
    spans and reduce disease.
  • These changes usually come about due to
    improvements in farming techniques, access to
    technology, basic healthcare, and education.
    Without a corresponding fall in birth rates this
    produces an imbalance, and the countries in this
    stage experience a large increase in population.

In stage three, birth rates fall due to access to
contraception, increases in wages, urbanization,
a reduction in subsistence agriculture, an
increase in the status and education of women, a
reduction in the value of children's work, an
increase in parental investment in the education
of children and other social changes. Population
growth begins to level off. During stage four
there are both low birth rates and low death
rates. Birth rates may drop to well below
replacement level as has happened in countries
like Germany, Italy, and Japan, leading to a
shrinking population, a threat to many industries
that rely on population growth. As the large
group born during stage two ages, it creates an
economic burden on the shrinking working
population. Death rates may remain consistently
low or increase slightly due to increases in
lifestyle diseases due to low exercise levels and
high obesity and an aging population in developed
The Classic Stages of Demographic Transition
Stage 1
Stage 2
Stage 3
Stage 4
Birth rate
Death rate
Note Natural increase is produced from the
excess of births over deaths.
Lesson Plan The Demographic Transition, Activity
Five stage Model
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The original Demographic Transition model has
just four stages. Some theorists consider that a
fifth stage is needed to represent countries that
have undergone the economic transition from
manufacturing based industries into service and
information based industries called
deindustrialization. Countries such as United
Kingdom (the earliest nation universally
recognized as reaching Stage Five), Germany,
Italy, Spain, Portugal, Greece, and most notably
Japan, whose populations are now reproducing well
below their replacement levels, are not producing
enough children to replace their parents'
generation. China, South Korea, Hong Kong,
Singapore, Thailand and Cuba are also below
replacement levels, but this is not producing a
fall in population yet in these countries,
because their populations are relatively young
due to strong growth in the recent past.
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The population of southern Europe is already
falling, and Japan and some of western Europe
will soon begin to fall without significant
immigration. However, many countries that now
have sub-replacement fertility did not reach this
stage gradually but rather suddenly as a result
of economic crisis brought on by the
post-communist transition in the late 1980s and
the 1990s. Examples include Russia, Ukraine,
Romania, and the Baltic States. The population of
these countries is falling due to fertility
decline, emigration and, particularly in Russia,
increased male mortality
As with all models, this is an idealized picture
of population change in these countries. The
model is a generalization that applies to these
countries as a group and may not accurately
describe all individual cases. The extent to
which it applies to less-developed societies
today remains to be seen. Many countries such as
China, Brazil and Thailand have passed through
the DTM very quickly due to fast social and
economic change. Some countries, particularly
African countries, appear to be stalled in the
second stage due to stagnant development and the
effect of AIDS.
Ravenstein Laws of Migration 1885
  • The rise of the industrial age during the second
    half of the nineteenth century revolutionized
    life and working patterns for millions of people
    across Europe and North America. The disruptive
    influence of factories, railroads and economies
    of scale changed both the nature of opportunity
    and where it could be found. Millions of people
    were uprooted from their traditional homes and
    livelihoods and hit the road in search of a
    better life or to escape one that had become
  • In a paper delivered to the Journal of the
    Statistical Society in England in 1885,
    Ravenstein outlined a series of "laws of
    migration" that attempted to explain and predict
    migration patterns both within and between
    nations. Ravenstein's basic laws, and additional
    laws subsequently derived from his work, continue
    to serve as the starting point for virtually all
    serious models of migration patterns over a
    century later.

  • Most migrants only proceed a short distance, and
    toward centers of absorption.
  • 2) As migrants move toward absorption centers,
    they leave "gaps" that are filled up by migrants
    from more remote districts, creating migration
    flows that reach to "the most remote corner of
    the kingdom.
  • 3) The process of dispersion is inverse to that
    of absorption.
  • 4) Each main current of migration produces a
    compensating counter-current.
  • 5) Migrants proceeding long distances generally
    go by preference to one of the great centers of
    commerce or industry.
  • 6) The natives of towns are less migratory than
    those of the rural parts of the country.
  • 7) Females are more migratory than males.

  • At the heart of Ravenstein's emerging migration
    model were the concepts of absorption and
    dispersion. He defined a county of absorption as
    having "a population more or less in excess of
    the number of its natives enumerated throughout
    the kingdom." In other words, it was a country
    that on the whole took in more people than it
    gave up. A county of dispersion, then, would be
    one of the counties that on the whole gave up
    population over time, or in Ravenstein's words,
    "the population of the county falls short of
    the number of its natives enumerated throughout
    the kingdom."

Ravenstein's laws immediately created a stir,
with some complaining that he had identified
patterns of migration, but that this was not the
same as discovering "natural laws." Four years,
later, he presented another paper that looked at
migration patterns elsewhere in Europe and North
America, in which he highlighted an exception to
migration patterns based upon the American
frontier experience. He noted that people are
more willing to travel long distances to occupy
unsettled land than they would in a country more
fully settled, as was the case in the United
Kingdom. Modified from
Sauer Cultural Landscape
  • The geographer Otto Schluter is credited with
    having first formally used cultural landscape
    as an academic term in the early twentieth
    century. In 1908, Schluter argued that by
    defining geography as a Landschaftskunde
    (landscape science) this would give geography a
    logical subject matter shared by no other
  • He defined two forms of landscape
  • the Urlandschaft (trans. natural landscape) or
    landscape that existed before major human induced
  • and the Kulturlandschaft (trans. 'cultural
    landscape') a landscape created by human culture.
  • The major task of geography was to trace the
    changes in these two landscapes.

Carl Sauer was probably the most influential in
promoting and developing the idea of cultural
landscapes. Sauer was determined to stress the
agency of culture as a force in shaping the
visible features of the Earths surface in
delimited areas. Within his definition, the
physical environment retains a central
significance, as the medium with and through
which human cultures act. His classic
definition of a 'cultural landscape' reads as
follows The cultural landscape is fashioned
from a natural landscape by a cultural group.
Culture is the agent, the natural are the medium,
the cultural landscape is the result
Since Schulter's first formal use of the term,
and Sauer's effective promotion of the idea, the
concept of 'cultural landscapes has been
variously used, applied, debated, developed and
refined within academia. In 1992, the World
Heritage Committee elected to convene a meeting
of the 'specialists' to advise and assist redraft
the Committee's Operational Guidelines to include
'cultural landscapes' as an option for heritage
listing properties that were neither purely
natural nor purely cultural. Since then, UNESCO
has created a list of 878 World Heritage Sites
to preserve humanitys heritage. http//whc.unesc
Sauer was a fierce critic of environmental
determinism, which was the prevailing theory in
geography when he began his career. He proposed
instead an approach variously called "landscape
morphology" or "cultural history." This
approach involved the inductive gathering of
facts about the human impact on the landscape
over time. Sauer rejected positivism, preferring
particularist and historicist understandings of
the world. He drew on the work of anthropologist
Alfred Kroeber and was accused of introducing a
"superorganic" concept of culture into geography.
Sauer expressed concern about the way modern
capitalism and centralized government were
destroying the cultural diversity and
environmental health of the world.
A portion of Clark Wissler's map of the culture
areas of the Native American United States.
The map, which is designed to highlight
similarities in food gathering techniques, lists
seven culture areas the woodsmen of the eastern
forests, the hunters of the plains, the Navaho
shepherds, the Pueblo farmers, the desert
dwellers, the seed gatherers and the northern
fishermen. Map Source "Three Maps of Indian
Country," United States Bureau of Indian Affairs,
Lawrence, Kansas Haskell Institute (1948).
National Geographic Expeditions Lesson Plan The
Evolution of Cultural Landscape http//www.nation
  • Sir Halford John Mackinder was a British
    geographer who wrote a paper in 1904 called "The
    Geographical Pivot of History." Mackinder's paper
    suggested that the control of Eastern Europe was
    vital to control of the world. He formulated his
    hypothesis as
  • Who rules East Europe commands the
    Heartland Who rules the Heartland commands the
    World-Island Who rules the World-Island commands
    the world
  • Mackinder's Heartland (also known as the Pivot
    Area) is the core area of Eurasia, and the
    World-Island is all of Eurasia (both Europe and

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  • According to Mackinder, the earth's land surface
    was divisible into
  • The World-Island, comprising the interlinked
    continents of Europe, Asia, and Africa. This was
    the largest, most populous, and richest of all
    possible land combinations.
  • The offshore islands, including the British Isles
    and the islands of Japan.
  • The outlying islands, including the continents of
    North America, South America, and Australia.
  • The Heartland lay at the centre of the world
    island, stretching from the Volga to the Yangtze
    and from the Himalayas to the Arctic.
    Mackinder's Heartland was the area ruled by the
    Russian Empire and then by the Soviet Union,
    minus the area around Vladivostok.

  • In 1942, Nicholas Spykman proposed a theory which
    countered Mackinder's Heartland Theory. Spykman
    stated that Eurasia's Rimland, the coastal areas
    or buffer zone, is the key to controlling the
    World Island, not the heartland.
  • Today we look at the Rimland in terms of its
    economic strength and potential. While the book
    does deal with economic issues, what has become
    known as the Rimland Theory deals primarily with
    military intervention, control and conquest of
    the Old World.
  • The theory was later expanded and refined in a
    series of lectures which were transcribed into
    the book "The Geography of the Peace".

The Rimland is the concept of a geographic area
adjacent to the Heartland that is comprised of
most of Europe, the Middle East, the Indian
sub-continent, Southeast Asia, and the Far East.
This area forms an enveloping geographic ring
around Mackinders Heartland.  In other words,
the Rimland essentially surrounds the central,
core region of Eurasia.
Conrad-Demarest Model of Empires
In 1988, Geoffrey Conrad and Arthur Demarest
published Religion and Empire the Dynamics of
Aztec and Inca Expansionism The Dynamics of
Aztec and Inca Expansionism. Conrad and Demarest
have worked in Mesoamerica for 25 years, leading
archaeological excavations and expeditions. They
are considered two of the world's leading experts
on the MesoAmerican empires and related
anthropological theory. Their model, based on
the Aztecs, can be applied to most empire
  • 1. Necessary preconditions for the rise of
    empires-the region must have
  • a) State-level government
  • b) High agricultural potential of the
  • c) An environmental mosaic
  • d) Several small states with no clear dominant
    state (power vacuum)
  • e) Mutual antagonism among those states
  • f) Adequate military resources (or a military or
    technological advantage)

  • 2. States succeed in empire building if they
    have an ideology that promotes personal
    identification with the state, empire, leader,
    conquest, and/or militarism
  • Characteristics of well-run empires
  • a) Build roads and transportation systems,
    canals, ports, etc.
  • b) Trade increases
  • c) Cosmopolitan cities-art and education
  • d) Effective bureaucracy to ensure
    communication, collect taxes, oversee coinage,
    ensure the emperor's laws are enforced
  • e) Common official language (communication)
  • f) System of justice, law for entire empire
  • g) Citizenship or rights extend in some degree
    to conquered must be some buy-in

  • 4. Major results of empire
  • Economic rewards, especially in the early years,
    redistributed to elite and trickles down to other
    classes (esp. merchants, scribes, etc.)
  • Relative stability and prosperity
  • Population increase
  • 5. Empires fall because
  • Failure or leadership focus on wealth, etc. not
    the needs of the state
  • Ideology of expansion and conquest leads to
    attempting new conquests beyond a practical
    limit overstretching of bureaucracy, military,
    resources, communication
  • Lack of new conquests erodes economic base and
    lessens faith in ideology that supported the
  • Rebellions from within/ challenges from without

  • Although a brilliant naval historian and noted
    theorist on the importance of sea power to
    national defense, Alfred Thayer Mahan hated the
    sea and dreaded his duties as a ship's captain.
  • Mahan was perhaps the most celebrated naval
    historian of his era, an influential promoter of
    United States naval and commercial expansion
    during America's rise to world power in the late
    nineteenth century. As the author of numerous
    articles and books, including the landmark The
    Influence of Sea Power Upon History, 1660-1783,
    Alfred Thayer Mahan was widely regarded as a
    brilliant naval theorist. From his writings,
    readers would never have guessed, however, that
    the renowned champion of the United States Navy
    hated the sea, and while an active-duty naval
    officer, lived in constant fear of ocean storms
    and colliding ships.

Mahans theory was based on three critical
elements of seapower (1) weapons of war,
primarily battleships and their supply bases
(2) a near monopoly of seaborne commerce from
which to draw wealth, manpower, and supplies
and (3) a string of colonies to support both
of the above. His theories, however, rested on
two serious fallacies. First, his over-reliance
upon the notion of concentrating forces falsely
denied the importance of coastal defense, and
undervalued commerce raiding. These assumptions
forced strategists to search for a decisive,
war-winning battle, often in vain. Second, he
overstated the strategic benefits of controlling
seaborne commerce and colonies.
In peacetime, the components of empire frequently
contributed to wealth and consequently to
long-term strength, in war they often proved to
be liabilities. Mahan's timeless principles, as
enacted along the lines of late-nineteenth-century
navalism, had the effect of turning America's
strategic vision of itself on its side and
created a world naval power. Through the
implementation of Mahans theory, instead of
remaining an unassailable continental power with
maritime reach, England became an overstretched
maritime power with global vulnerabilities.
Wallerstein World Systems Theory
  • The most well-known version of the world-system
    approach has been developed by Immanuel
  • Wallerstein analyzed the World System as follows
    "A system is defined as a unit with a single
    division of labor and multiple cultural systems."

Characteristics of the modern world-system Propon
ents of world-systems analysis see the world
stratification system the same way Karl Marx
viewed class (ownership versus non-ownership of
the means of production) and Max Weber viewed
class (which, in addition to ownership, stressed
occupational skill level in the production
process). The core nations primarily own and
control the major means of production in the
world and perform the higher-level production
tasks. The periphery nations own very little of
the worlds means of production (even when they
are located in periphery nations) and provide
less-skilled labor.
Like a class system with a nation, class
positions in the world economy result in an
unequal distribution of rewards or resources. The
core nations receive the greatest share of
surplus production, and periphery nations receive
the least. Furthermore, core nations are usually
able to purchase raw materials and other goods
from noncore nations at low prices, while
demanding higher prices for their exports to
noncore nations.
Chirot (1986) lists the five most important
benefits coming to core nations from their
domination of periphery nations Access to a
large quantity of raw material Cheap
labor Enormous profits from direct capital
investments A market for exports Skilled
professional labor through migration of these
people from the noncore to the core
  • Core nations are
  • The most economically diversified, wealthy, and
  • Highly industrialized
  • Tend to specialize in information, finance and
    service industries
  • Produce manufactured goods rather than raw
    materials for export
  • More often in the forefront of new technologies
    and new industries.
  • Have more complex and stronger state
    institutions to manage economic affairs
    internally and externally
  • Have a sufficient tax base so these state
    institutions can provide infrastructure for a
    strong economy
  • Have more means of influence over noncore nations
  • Relatively independent of outside control

  • Periphery nations are
  • Least economically diversified
  • Tend to depend on one type of economic
    activity, such as extracting and exporting raw
    materials to core nations
  • Are often targets for investments from
    multinational (or transnational) corporations
    from core nations that come into the country to
    exploit cheap unskilled labor for export back
    to core nations
  • Tend to have a high percentage of their people
    that are poor and uneducated.
  • High Inequality because of a small upper class
    that owns most of the land and has profitable
    ties to multination corporations
  • Have relatively weak institutions with little tax
    base to support infrastructure development
  • Tend to be extensively influenced by core nations
    and their multinational corporations. Many times
    they are forced to follow economic policies that
    favor core nations and harm their economic

According to world systems theory, a core nation
is dominant over all the others when it has a
lead in three forms of economic dominance over a
period of time Productivity dominance allows a
country to produce products of greater quality at
a cheaper price compared to other
countries. Productivity dominance may lead to
trade do trade dominance. Now, there is a
favorable balance of trade for the dominant
nation since more countries are buying the
products of the dominant country than it is
buying from them. Trade dominance may lead to
financial dominance. Now, more money is coming
into the country than going out. Bankers of the
dominant nation tend to receive more control of
the worlds financial resources.
  • Freidrich Ratzel (1844-1904) was a German
    anthropologist who was a significant contributor
    to nineteenth-century theories of diffusion and
    migration. He developed criteria by which the
    formal, non-functional characteristics of objects
    could be compared, because it would be unlikely
    that these characteristics would have been
    simultaneously invented.
  • Ratzel warned that possible migration or other
    contact phenomena should be ruled out in each
    case before cross-cultural similarities were
    attributed to independent invention. He wrote The
    History of Mankind in 1896, which was said to be
    "a solid foundation in anthropological study" by
    E. B. Tylor, a competing British cultural
    evolutionist (Harris 1968383).

Influenced by thinkers like Darwin and zoologist
Ernst Heinrich Haeckel, Ratzel published several
papers. Among them is the essay Lebensraum (1901)
concerning biogeography, creating a foundation
for the uniquely German variant of geopolitics
geopolitik. Ratzels writings coincided with the
growth of German industrialism after the
Franco-Prussian war and the subsequent search for
markets that brought it into competition with
England. His writings served as welcome
justification for imperial expansion.
Influenced by the American geostrategist Mahan,
Ratzel wrote of aspirations for German naval
reach, agreeing that sea power was
self-sustaining, as the profit from trade would
pay for the merchant marine, unlike land power.
Ratzels key contribution to geopolitik was the
expansion on the biological conception of
geography, without a static conception of
borders. States are instead organic and growing,
with borders representing only a temporary stop
in their movement. It is not the state proper
that is the organism, but the land in its
spiritual bond with the people who draw
sustenance from it. The expanse of a states
borders is a reflection of the health of the
nation. Ratzels idea of Raum (space) would grow
out of his organic state conception. This early
concept of lebensraum was not political or
economic, but spiritual and racial nationalist
expansion. The Raum-motiv is a historically
driving force, pushing peoples with great Kultur
to naturally expand.
The state is better understood as a 'natural
(organic) rather than a 'mechanical' phenomenon,
with different institutions performing different
functions, and the good health of the whole being
attributable as much to the good working of the
whole as to the contribution of any particular
part. Space, for Ratzel, was a vague concept,
theoretically unbounded. Raum was defined by
where German peoples live, where other weaker
states could serve to support German peoples
economically, and where German culture could
fertilize other cultures. However, it ought to be
noted that Ratzel's concept of raum was not
overtly aggressive, but theorized simply as the
natural expansion of strong states into areas
controlled by weaker states.
  • Included in
  • Industrialization and
  • Economic Development

Agriculture Rural Land Use
Von Thunen
  • The Von Thunen model of agricultural land use was
    created by farmer and amateur economist J.H. Von
    Thunen (1783-1850) in 1826 (but it wasn't
    translated into English until 1966). Von Thunen's
    model was created before industrialization and is
    based on the following limiting assumptions
  • The city is located centrally within an "Isolated
    State" which is self sufficient and has no
    external influences.
  • The Isolated State is surrounded by an unoccupied
  • The land of the State is completely flat and has
    no rivers or mountains to interrupt the terrain.
  • The soil quality and climate are consistent
    throughout the State.
  • Farmers in the Isolated State transport their own
    goods to market via oxcart, across land, directly
    to the central city. Therefore, there are no
  • Farmers act to maximize profits.

Dairying and intensive farming occur in the ring
closest to the city. Since vegetables, fruit,
milk and other dairy products must get to market
quickly, they would be produced close to the city.
Timber and firewood would be produced for fuel
and building materials in the second zone. Before
industrialization (and coal power), wood was a
very important fuel for heating and cooking.
The third zone consists of extensive fields
crops such as grains for bread. Since grains last
longer than dairy products and are much lighter
than fuel, reducing transport costs, they can be
located further from the city. Ranching is
located in the final ring surrounding the central
city. Animals can be raised far from the city
because they are self-transporting. Beyond the
fourth ring lies the unoccupied wilderness, which
is too great a distance from the central city for
any type of agricultural product.
  • The Concentric Zone Model
  • found in
  • Urban land use Cities

Industrial Economic Development
Carey - Gravity Model
  • For decades, social scientists have been using a
    modified version of Isaac Newton's Law of
    Gravitation to predict movement of people,
    information, and commodities between cities and
    even continents.
  • The gravity model, as social scientists refer to
    the modified law of gravitation, takes into
    account the population size of two places and
    their distance. Since larger places attract
    people, ideas, and commodities more than smaller
    places and places closer together have a greater
    attraction, the gravity model incorporates these
    two features.

The relative strength of a bond between two
places is determined by multiplying the
population of city A by the population of city B
and then dividing the product by the distance
between the two cities squared. The Gravity
Model formula population1 x
population2 Distance2 Boston
Albuquerque 384736 x 574823
221155101728 56869.9
19722 3888784
Thus, if we compare the bond between the New York
and Los Angeles metropolitan areas, we first
multiply their 1998 populations (20,124,377 and
15,781,273, respectively) to get 317,588,287,391,9
21. Then we divide that number by the distance
(2462 miles) squared (6,061,444). The result is
52,394,823. We can shorten our math by reducing
the numbers to the millions place - 20.12 times
15.78 equals 317.5 and then divide by 6 with a
result of 52.9.
How about El Paso and Los Angles? They're 712
miles apart, 2.7 times farther than El Paso and
Tucson! Well, Los Angeles is so large that it
provides a huge gravitational force for El Paso.
Their relative force is 21,888,491, a
surprising 2.7 times greater than the
gravitational force between El Paso and Tucson!
(The repetition of 2.7 is simply a coincidence.)
While the gravity model was created to anticipate
migration between cities (and we can expect that
more people migrate between LA and NYC than
between El Paso and Tucson), it can also be used
to anticipate the traffic between two places, the
number of telephone calls, the transportation of
goods and mail, and other types of movement
between places. The gravity model can also be
used to compare the gravitational attraction
between two continents, two countries, two
states, two counties, or even two neighborhoods
within the same city. Some prefer to use the
functional distance between cities instead of the
actual distance. The functional distance can be
the driving distance or can even be flight time
between cities.
Check out How Far Is it?
http// Courtesy of, this service uses data from the US
Census and a supplementary list of cities around
the world to find the latitude and longitude of
two places, and then calculates the distance
between them (as the crow flies). It also
provides a map showing the two places, using the
Xerox PARC Map Server.
The gravity model was expanded by William J.
Reilly in 1931 into Reilly's law of retail
gravitation to calculate the breaking point
between two places where customers will be drawn
to one or another of two competing commercial
centers. Opponents of the gravity model explain
that it can not be confirmed scientifically, that
it's only based on observation. They also state
that the gravity model is an unfair method of
predicting movement because its biased toward
historic ties and toward the largest population
centers. Thus, it can be used to perpetuate the
status quo.
Castells Space Of Flow
  • The Space of flow is a high level cultural
    conceptual abstraction of space, time, and their
    dynamic interaction with society in the digital
  • Complicated and mostly academic in nature, it was
    created by Manuel Castells in order to
    "reconceptualize new forms of spatial
    arrangements under the new technological
  • It is a new type of space, enabling synchronicity
    and real-time interaction without physical
    proximity. It was first mentioned in The
    Informational City Information Technology,
    Economic Restructuring, and the Urban Regional
    Process, published in 1989.

Generally space is considered passive form, while
time is considered a separate and active entity.
Castells makes the argument that space should
not be disconnected from time. He asserts that
space is a dynamic entity related to time, and
rejects the concept that it will disappear as to
create a global city. Space is defined by this
idea as "the material support of time-sharing
social practices". He goes on to define the
space of flows as "the material organization of
time-sharing social practices that work through
flows" . In 2001, he wrote the space of
flows...links up distant locales around shared
functions and meanings on the basis of electronic
circuits and fast transportation corridors, while
isolating and subduing the logic of experience
embodied in the space of places.
As with most abstractions, the true meaning and
usefulness of this conceptualization can be
elusive to casual readers. It might be helpful to
step through Castells definitions in order to
come to a conclusion on what he's getting at.
Castells is defining space as the physical
support of the way we live in time. The space
and time we are used to, "real world time, is
referred to by him as a space of places. This is
because it lacks three elements central to a
space of flows. It lacks a proper medium
through which to flow, the proper items to flow
through it, and, it lacks nodes through which
these things flow and circulate.
Castells wants to conceptualize a world wherein
human action and interaction occurs by dynamic
movement and distance can also be completely
dynamic rather than static . This is his space
of flows. It involves the medium of
telecommunications technology, time sensitive and
continuous data that runs (flows) across it, and
nodes of circuitry and computer systems all over
the world. This movement brings people together
into a continuous and real time arena that seems
to be to be differentiated from the idea of a
global village by the fact that interacting
groups are enhanced by their position in time,
rather than that position disappearing altogether.
Castells Hall -- Technopolis
  • In an increasingly borderless world, the concept
    of place -- the location of business, company and
    university research activities, and of
    manufacturing, distribution, and sales and trade
    activities - has become less relevant.
  • Frank Giunta (1996) points out that the main
    reason is rapidly evolving and increasingly
    cheaper ICT. It is becoming very difficult for
    national governments to control the flows of
    money, technology, and knowledge.
  • Castells and Hall expanded the space of flows
    into the concept of a virtual or networked
    community a technopolis. They posit that these
    cities of the future will function much like
    today, but without the confines of physical

Researchers collaborate over the Internet,
regardless of where they are. For firms, each
activity may take place in a different location
RD, design, raw material sourcing,
manufacturing, assembly, distribution, marketing.
Could science parks and technology incubators
could become obsolete in the 21st century?
Giunta argues that the idea of a park or
incubator as a "real estate" enterprise should
give way to that of a "knowledge-based"
enterprise that transcends the local economic
In fact, although the geographical reach of most
technology-based firms tends to expand rapidly,
they remain dependent on regional capabilities in
order to maintain and increase their
competitiveness. Territory-specific differences
in the ability to create and use knowledge are
still key to the regional capabilities to support
competitive firms. Such territory-specific
differences relate chiefly to tacitness and path
dependency of knowledge production, which are in
turn related to a region's history and spatial
proximity among agents.
Kondratieff Long Wave Theory
  • Professor Nickolai Kondratieff ( pronounced
    "Kon-DRA-tee-eff") helped develop the first
    Soviet  Five-Year Plan , for which he analyzed
    factors that would stimulate Soviet economic
    growth. In 1926, Kondratieff published his
    findings in a report entitled, "Long Waves in
    Economic Life".
  • Kondratieff's major premise was that capitalist
    economies displayed long wave cycles of boom and
    bust ranging between 50-60 years in duration.
    Kondratieff's study covered the period 1789 to
    1926 and was centered on prices and interest
    rates. Kondratieff's theories documented in the
    1920's were validated with the depression less
    than 10 years later.

A Kondratieff cycle consists of four distinct
phases, or distinguishable, dramatic mood
changes, the tone of which determines the actions
of individuals involved in the economy. The
awareness of these characteristics allows for the
anticipation of the change in the economy and the
psychological mood that will prevail.
SPRING - Inflationary Growth Phase A common
premise among business cycle economists supposes
inflation as an inevitable part of growth.
Government becomes a passive participant in the
inflation cycle. Growth begins from a depressed
economic base and expands in an ever-increasing
spiral. The interaction of the participants
within the economy causes wealth, as represented
by savings, and the production of capital
equipment to be accumulated for the future. The
expansion of production and affluence causes
prices to rise, and the increased volume of goods
requires a higher velocity of money, thus
creating a higher price structure. Historically,
the growth phase requires 25 years to complete.
During this time, unemployment falls, wages and
productivity rise and prices remain relatively
stable. The mood of the growth phase is one of
accumulation and the desire for new product
SUMMER - Stagflation (Recession) Eventually, the
continuation of exponential growth reaches its
limits. Excess capital produces a shortage of key
resources and the economy enters a period where
growth creates a shortage of resources.  As an
economy gets closer to its limits, inefficiencies
build up. The imbalances of this period have
been historically exaggerated by what can be
labeled a "peak war such as War of 1812, the
Civil War, World War I and Vietnam,. These wars
produce a dramatic drop in output, an unusually.
severe recession and a rapid rise in
unemployment. Although this recession is short
lived three to five years, it is key in
altering perceptions and the structure of the
economy.  No longer does excess create an
abundance.  The "Limits to Growth" now define a
maximum level of economic activity that traps the
economy into consolidation and tight bounds for
the next 20-25 years. 
AUTUMN - Deflationary Growth (Plateau
Period) The primary recession occurs out of an
imbalance forced upon the economy by real
limitations. The rapid rise in prices and changes
in production correct this imbalance. The change
in price structure, along with the mood of a
population used to consumption paired with the
vast accumulation of wealth from the past 30
years, causes the economy to enter a period of
relatively flat growth and mild prosperity.  Due
to structural changes and the limits of the
existing paradigm the economy becomes consumption
oriented. Excesses of an unpopular war, along
with fiscal liberalism, cause popular reaction
toward stability or normalcy. A mood of
isolationism permeates. The plateau period
generally lasts 7 to 10 years and is
characterized by selective industry growth,
development of new ideas ( both technological and
social ) and a strong feelings of affluence,
terminating in a feeling of euphoria. The
inflated price structure from the primary
recession, along with the desire for consumption,
produces a rapid increase in debt. Eventually,
wealth consumption expands beyond all practical
limits, and economy slips into a severe and
protracted depression.
WINTER Depression Excesses of the plateau
period cause a collapse of the price structure.
This exhaustion of accumulated wealth forces the
economy into a period of sharp retrenchment.
Generally, the secondary depression entails a
three year collapse, followed by a 15 year
deflationary work out period.  The deflation can
best be seen in interest rates and wages that
have shown a historic alignment with the timing
of the Long Wave - peaking with and bottoming at
the extremes. Kondratieff viewed depressions as
cleansing periods that allowed the economy to
readjust from the previous excesses and begin a
base for future growth.  The characteristic of
fulfilling the expectations of the previous
period of growth is realized within the Secondary
Depression or Down Grade.  This is a period of
incremental innovation where technologies of the
past period of growth are refined, made cheaper
and more widely distributed.  Incremental
innovation consolidates industries.
The Down Grade sees one final period of recession
before transitioning to a new period of growth. 
The final recession is mild with very low
inflation and appears far more severe than it
will be remembered for later in the Growth
Cycle. Within the Down Grade is a consolidation
of social values or goals.  Ideas and concepts
introduced in the preceding period of growth
while radical sounding at the time become
integrated into the fabric of society.  Often
these social changes are supported by shifts in
technology.  The period of incremental innovation
provides the framework for social integration.
It is important to realize the Long Wave as
global.   While global issues are of prime
importance today with increased air travel and
communication, the Long Wave defines a time
table for geo political events.  The Growth
Period is one of political stability.  Staring a
the peak old alliances become challenged. 
Through the process of the Down Grade old
alliances fail and new alliances are formed.  The
final stages of the Down Grade is a period of
coalescing or "quickening" of the alliances that
will govern the next period of growth.
Current Economic Cycles With four distinct
phases in the K-wave a number of analysts have
compared them to the seasons. Spring
(inflationary growth, expansion), summer
(stagflation, recession), autumn (deflationary
growth, plateau) and winter (depression). The
following chart below summarizes the generally
accepted phases since 1784 in the United States.
Note the significant wars that accompanied the
recession (price peak) and depression (trough)
phase. We have also noted the tag name for the
Autumn periods that were characterized by massive
debt growth and speculative bubbles.
The Kondratieff wave is a study of long cycles of
debt buildup and repudiation. It is not
exclusively about price inflation and deflation
periods. Deflation is caused in part by the debt
collapse. The Long Wave is also generational as
the next cycle of debt buildup and collapse is
renewed every 2-3 generations as the previous
generation dies off. The old adage that "this
time it is different" means the circumstances are
different, yes, but they fail to recognize that
the previous period was the same in terms of
excesses. Therefore the end result is the same.
Reformatted from http//
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Losch Agglomeration/Spatial Influence
In 1954, German economist August Losch modified
Christaller's central place theory because he
believed it was too rigid. He thought that
Christaller's model led to patterns where the
distribution of goods and the accumulation of
profits were based entirely on location. Losch
focused on maximizing consumer welfare and
creating an ideal consumer landscape where the
need to travel for any good was minimized and
profits were held level, not maximized to accrue
The result of his work was to create a model of
settlement patterns known as the Löschian
landscape. In this landscape, small, low-order
places are to be found close to very large
settlementsmetropolitan centerswhereas
high-order settlements are to be found a
substantial distance away. In addition, it is
characterized by sectors radiating from the
central, dominant settlement. Some of the sectors
contain more settlements than others. Lösch
described these sectors as being city-rich those
with few settlements are city-poor. Often, small
hamlets in rural areas do act as the central
place for various small settlements because they
are where people travel to buy their everyday
goods. However, people have to travel into the
larger town or city to buy higher value goods .
This model is shown all over the world, from
rural areas of England to the United States'
Midwest or Alaska with the many small communities
that are served by larger towns, cities, and
regional capitals.
For model, see Loschian Landscape article on
Rostow Economic Development
  • In 1960, the American Economic Historian, WW
    Rostow suggested that countries passed through
    five stages of economic development.
  • Stage 1 Traditional SocietyThe economy is
    dominated by subsistence activity where output is
    consumed by producers rather than traded. Any
    trade is carried out by barter where goods are
    exchanged directly for other goods. Agriculture
    is the most important industry and production is
    labor intensive using only limited quantities of
    capital. Resource allocation is determined very
    much by traditional methods of production.
  • Stage 2 Transitional Stage (the preconditions for
    takeoff)Increased specialization generates
    surpluses for trading. There is an emergence of a
    transport infrastructure to support trade. As
    incomes, savings and investment grow
    entrepreneurs emerge. External trade also occurs
    concentrating on primary products.