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African Americans in the Progressive Era

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African Americans in the Progressive Era Easily the most striking thing in the history of the America Negro since 1876 is the ascendancy of Mr. Booker T ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: African Americans in the Progressive Era


1
African Americans in the Progressive Era
2
  • Easily the most striking thing in the history of
    the America Negro since 1876 is the ascendancy of
    Mr. Booker T. Washington. W.E.B. Du Bois
  • No exaggeration.
  • At this point in time, Washington yielded more
    power than any other African-American between
    Douglass and King.

3
Booker T. Washington
4
  • Born April 5, 1856
  • Burroughs farm at the community of Hales Ford,
    VA
  • Died November 14, 1915
  • In Tuskegee, after collapsing in New York City
    and being brought home.
  • Booker T. Washington was a slave until he was 9
    years old (slave mother, white father).
  • Worked in salt furnaces and coal mines in WV for
    several years
  • Educated at Hampton Institute and Wayland
    Seminary.
  • 1881 became the first leader of Tuskegee
    Institute.
  • 1900 organized the National Negro Business League

5
Up From Slavery An Autobiography (1901)
6
Booker T. Washington's house at Tuskegee
University
7
  • the importance of hard work, savings, home
    equity, and family, maintaining that while
    political and social equality for blacks was
    important, it was not as essential as uplifting
    their own communities, the top priority before
    going on to other goals.

8
  • Gave The Atlanta Cotton States and International
    Exposition Speech
  • September 11, 1895
  • Washington began with a call to the blacks, to
    join the world of work.
  • He believed that African-Americans should
    concentrate all their energies on industrial
    education, and accumulation of wealth, and the
    conciliation of the South.
  • W.E.B. Du Bois gave it the title of "Atlanta
    Compromise"
  • Du Buois believed it was insufficiently committed
    to the pursuit of social and political equality
    for Blacks.
  • Go slow accommodation.

9
  • He addressed the inequality between commercial
    legality and social acceptance, proclaiming that
    "The opportunity to earn a dollar in a factory
    just now is worth infinitely more than the
    opportunity to spend a dollar in an opera house."
    However, Washington also endorsed segregation by
    claiming that blacks and whites could exist as
    separate fingers of a hand.
  • Atlanta Address of 1895

10
2431
11
  • At the bottom of education, at the bottom of
    politics, even at the bottom of religion, there
    must be for our race economic independence.

12
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13
Tuskegees Most Famous
14
W.E.B. Du Bois
15
  • Born February 23, 1868
  • Great Barrington, MA
  • Died August 27, 1963
  • Ghana (West Africa)
  • Education
  • Fisk University, B.A. 1888
  • Harvard University, Ph.D. 1896
  • First African American to earn Ph.D. at Harvard.
  • Studied at the University of Berlin
  • Taught at
  • Wilberforce College (Ohio)
  • University of Pennsylvania
  • Philadelphia Negro Project
  • Atlanta University (now Clark Atlanta)
  • Established sociology department
  • Father of Pan-Africanism

16
Of Washington
  • Acknowledged Washingtons influence but
    criticized his preaching a gospel of work and
    money to such an extent as apparently almost
    completely to overshadow the higher aims of life.

17
  • Political and social equality were a prerequisite
    for economic independence.
  • The Talented Tenth.
  • The problem of the twentieth century is the
    problem of the color line.

18
The Talented Tenth (Du Bois, 1903)
  • Du Bois envisioned a focused effort to educated a
    portion of the United States black populationas
    a way to lift up the standing of black Americans.
  • How then shall the leaders of a struggling people
    be trained and the hands of the risen few
    strengthened? There can be but one answer The
    best and most capable of their youth must be
    schooled in the colleges and universities of the
    land. We will not quarrel as to just what the
    university of the Negro should teach or how it
    should teach it I willingly admit that each
    soul and each race-soul needs its own peculiar
    curriculum. But this is true A university is a
    human invention for the transmission of knowledge
    and culture from generation to generation,
    through the training of quick minds and pure
    hearts, and for this work no other human
    invention will suffice, not even trade and
    industrial schools.

19
The Souls of Black Folk (1903)
20
  • It is much more difficult in theory than
    actuality to say the
  • last goodbye to ones loved ones and friends and
    to all
  • the familiar things of this life.
  • I am going to take a long, deep and endless
    sleep. This
  • is not a punishment but a privilege to which I
    have looked
  • forward for years.
  • I have loved my work. I have loved people and
    my play
  • but always I have been uplifted by the thought
    that what
  • I have done well will live long and justify my
    life that
  • what I have done ill or never finished can now be
    handed
  • on to others for endless days to be finished,
    perhaps
  • better than I could have done. And that peace
    will be my
  • applause.
  • One thing alone I charge you as you live and
    believe in
  • life. Always human beings will live and progress
    to
  • greater, broader and fuller life. The only
    possible death

21
  • The World of Jim Crow

22
The Niagara Movement
  • 1905
  • 1908

23
  • Civil Rights group.
  • Organized by W.E.B. DuBois and William Monroe
    Trotter.
  • After being denied admittance to hotels in
    Buffalo, New York, the group of 29 business
    owners, teachers, and clergy who comprised the
    initial meeting gathered at Niagara Falls, from
    which the groups name derives.
  • Considered the precursor to the NAACP.  

24
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27
The Birth of the NAACP
  • National Association for the Advancement of
    Colored People

28
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29
  • Founded Feb. 12. 1909
  • It is the nation's oldest, largest and most
    widely recognized grassrootsbased civil rights
    organization.

30
  • The NAACP was formed partly in response to the
    continuing horrific practice of lynching and the
    1908 race riot in Springfield, Illinois.
  • Appalled at the violence that was committed
    against blacks, a group of white liberals issued
    a call for a meeting to discuss racial justice.
  • Mary White Ovington
  • Descendant of abolitionists
  • Oswald Garrison Villard
  • Descendant of abolitionists
  • William English Walling
  • Dr. Henry Moscowitz
  • Some 60 people, seven of whom were African
    American (including W. E. B. Du Bois, Ida B.
    Wells-Barnett and Mary Church Terrell), signed
    the call, which was released on the centennial of
    Lincoln's birth.

31
The Founders
32
Mary White Ovington
33
Oswald Garrison Villard
34
William English Walling
35
Dr. Henry Moscowitz
36
Dr. W.E.B. Du Bois
37
Founding Members
  • Arthur and Joel Spingarn
  • Josephine Ruffin
  • Mary Talbert
  • Inez Milholland
  • Jane Addams
  • Florence Kelley
  • Sophonisba Breckinridge
  • John Haynes Holmes
  • Mary McLeod Bethune
  • George Henry White
  • Charles Edward Russell
  • John Dewey
  • William Dean Howells
  • Lillian Wald
  • Charles Darrow
  • Lincoln Steffens
  • Ray Stannard Baker
  • Fanny Garrison Villard

38
  • The NAACP's stated goal was to secure for all
    people the rights guaranteed in the 13th, 14th,
    and 15th Amendments to the United States
    Constitution, which promised an end to slavery,
    the equal protection of the law, and universal
    adult male suffrage, respectively.

39
The Magazine
40
Tuscaloosa Chapter President Deloris Warrick
41
Alabama Chapter President Edward Vaughn
42
Current Chairman Julian Bond
43
Marcus Garvey
44
  • MAN KNOW THYSELF For man to know himself is for
    him to feel that for him there is no human
    master. For him Nature is his servant, and
    whatsoever he wills in Nature, that shall be his
    reward. If he wills to be a pigmy, a serf or a
    slave, that shall he be. If he wills to be a real
    man in possession of the things...

45
  • He founded the Universal Negro Improvement
    Association (UNIA) in August 1914 as a means of
    uniting all of Africa and its diaspora into "one
    grand racial hierarchy."
  • Came to the United States in March 1916 after
    corresponding with Booker T. Washington
  • Purpose was to raise funds for a school like
    Tuskegee in Jamacia.

46
Garveyism
  • The fundamental focus is the complete, total and
    never ending redemption of the continent of
    Africa by people of African ancestry, at home and
    abroad.
  • It is rooted in one basic idea "whatsoever
    things common to man that man has done, man can
    do".
  • Therefore, Africa can become as glorious and
    profoundly advanced in the scientific and
    technological realm as any, when Africans will it
    to be.
  • The tenets of Garveyism are
  • race first
  • self-reliance
  • nationhood
  • The ultimate goal of Garveyism is a United States
    of Africa which will protect the interests of
    Black people worldwide.

47
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48
A Back to Africa Movement
  • Sought to develop Liberia.
  • The Liberia Program
  • launched in 1920
  • abandoned in the mid-1920s after much opposition
    from European powers with interests in Liberia.
  • Didnt want to take all blacks back to Africa.
  • "We do not want all the Negroes in Africa. Some
    are no good here, and naturally will be no good
    there."

49
Its Demise
  • November 1919.
  • Some say a witch hunt by the Bureau of
    Investigation.
  • The accusation centered on the fact that the
    corporation had not yet purchased a ship with the
    name "Phyllis Wheatley". Although one was
    pictured with that name emblazoned on its bow on
    one of the company's stock brochures, it had not
    actually been purchased by the BSL and still had
    the name Orion.
  • When the trial ended on 23 June 1923, Garvey had
    been sentenced to five years in prison.
  • After numerous attempts at appeal were
    unsuccessful, he was taken into custody and began
    serving his sentence at the Atlanta Federal
    Penitentiary on 8 February 1925.
  • Sentence was eventually commuted by President
    Coolidge.
  • Upon release in November 1927, he was deported to
    Jamaica.

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