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Western Civilization II HIS-102

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Western Civilization II HIS-102 UNIT 3 - Absolutism and Empire, 1660-1789 Charles Clash With Parliament Parliament felt threatened by Charles actions Test Acts ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Western Civilization II HIS-102


1
Western Civilization II HIS-102
  • UNIT 3 - Absolutism and Empire, 1660-1789

2
Absolutism
  • Effects of political and social upheaval of
    1540-1660
  • Desire for peace and security
  • Absolutism
  • Form of government in which one body controls the
    right to make war, tax, judge, and coin money
  • Ultimate authority rested in the hands of the
    monarch
  • Monarchs ruled by divine right
  • Monarchs answered to no one
  • Absolute monarchs demanded full control over
  • States armed forces
  • Legal system
  • Financial resources

3
Absolutism
  • Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679)
  • Leviathan (1651) stated it was the nature of man
    to be at war with each other
  • A strong government was necessary to keep the
    order
  • Bishop Jacques Bossuet (1627-1704)
  • He strongly believed in the divine rule of kings
  • Absolute authority of kings
  • Kings limited by the law of God
  • Ways to solidify power
  • Weaken the power of the nobility and the church
  • Create an efficient, central bureaucracy

4
Absolutism
  • Ways to handle nobility
  • Pit the middle class against the nobility
  • Modus vivendi convince the nobles that their own
    interests are tied to the crowns
  • Ways to handle clergy
  • Protestant countries Church already subordinate
    to the state
  • Catholic countries Focus their authority over
    the church
  • Mercantilism
  • Country must accumulate bullion to be prosperous
  • Pushed for a state controlled economy
  • Also pushed for the creation of colonies
  • Main economic theory until 1776

5
  • Louis XIV
  • (1643-1716)

6
Louis XIV (1643-1716)
  • Louis came of age in 1651
  • Fronde died down
  • Impacted Louis perception of nobility
  • Mazarin died in 1661
  • Louis named himself first minister
  • Securing absolute power
  • Divine right of kings
  • Modus Vivendi with nobility
  • Versailles
  • 66.6 million livres for the château
  • 91.7 million livres in operation costs

7
  • Palace at Versailles

8
Louis XIV (1643-1716)
  • In 1661, France was on the verge of bankruptcy
  • Involvement in numerous war
  • Hired Jean Baptist Colbert as finance minister
  • Rework the countrys finances
  • Louis could afford to maintain the extravagances
  • Colbert was effective
  • He was a mercantilist
  • Focused on improving domestic goods
  • Fixed problems with tax farming (25 to 80)
  • Raised taxes to bring in additional income

9
  • Jean Baptiste Colbert
  • Chief Financial Minister (1664 to 1683)

10
Louis XIV (1643-1716)
  • Religion what was good for him was good for
    France
  • Forced Catholicism to be only religion
  • Huguenots were pressured to convert
  • Louis first offered bribes
  • Then hired dragonnades to torment them
  • Passed decrees to make their lives difficult
  • Edict of Fontainebleau (October 22, 1685)
  • Revoked the Edict of Nantes
  • Protestantism now illegal in France
  • Over 200,000 Huguenots were forced to flee

11
  • Dragonnades terrorizing French Protestants

12
Wars of Louis XIV
  • Louis had two objectives throughout his reign
  • Diminish the power of the Habsburgs
  • Promote royal interests
  • Louis wanted both internal success and
    international glory
  • He wanted to show how powerful he was to the rest
    of Europe
  • From 1661 to 1715, France almost constantly at
    war
  • The War of Devolution (1667-68)
  • Franco-Dutch War (1672-1678)
  • War of the League of Augsburg (1688-1697)
  • War of the Spanish Succession (1701-1713)

13
  • Maria Theresa
  • Queen of France

14
The War of Devolution (1667-68)
  • In 1665, King Philip IV of Spain died
  • He was succeeded by his son, Charles II
  • Part of his inheritance was Brabant
  • Louis argued that Charles II could not inherit
    this province
  • Local law prevented it
  • It should devolve to the first wifes daughter
    Maria Theresa
  • Charles refused
  • Louis invaded the Spanish Netherlands in 1667
  • Spain was weak and ill-equipped
  • French troops dominated in the beginning
  • The United Netherlands did not like this

15
The War of Devolution (1667-68)
  • Triple Alliance (1668)
  • Between Netherlands, England, and Sweden
  • None were comfortable with Louis controlling the
    Spanish Netherlands
  • Louis did not have the troops to face the Triple
    Alliance
  • Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle (May 2, 1668)
  • The Spanish Netherlands returned to Spain
  • France got very little territory
  • Louis felt betrayed by the Dutch
  • The French had helped the Dutch gain independence
  • He believed the Dutch should have shown him some
    loyalty

16
  • William III
  • Prince of Orange
  • (1650-1702)

17
Franco-Dutch War (1672-1678)
  • Treaty of Dover (1670)
  • England would help France get the Spanish
    Netherlands
  • France would help bring back Catholicism
  • In 1672, Louis invaded the Spanish Netherlands
  • England provided naval support
  • He quickly overtook three of the seven Dutch
    provinces
  • Dutch led by William III of Orange
  • Pushed the French out by 1673
  • Treaty of Nijmegen (August 10, 1678)
  • Negotiated due to financial strain
  • France received Franche-Comté and a few cities
  • William of Orange becomes the leader of
    resistance against Louis

18
  • Emperor Leopold I
  • (1658-1705)

19
War of the League of Augsburg
  • In 1680s, Louis turned his attention to Germany
  • Wanted to exert his influence over the states in
    the Rhine
  • League of Augsburg (1686)
  • Organized by Emperor Leopold I
  • Designed to protect the Rhine against an invasion
    by Louis
  • Included a number of German states as well as
    Sweden and Spain
  • Two well matched armies
  • France had had the most powerful army in Europe
    and his navy was far superior than the Dutch and
    English navies combined
  • Leopold had been successfully defeating the Turks
    in Austria

20
War of the League of Augsburg
  • In September 1688, Louis sent troops into the
    Rhine
  • William became king of England in January 1689
  • He joined the League
  • The war spread throughout the world
  • Most was fought on continental Europe
  • In the Americas it was known as King Williams
    War
  • It was mostly a war of attrition
  • Treaty of Ryswick (September 20, 1697)
  • France was able to keep some territory, including
    Alsace
  • All territory seized in the Rhine went back to
    pre-war borders
  • France had to recognize William as the legitimate
    king of England

21
  • Charles II of Spain
  • (1665-1700)

22
  • Lineage of Charles II of Spain

23
  • Habsburg Family Lineage

24
The Problem of Spanish Succession
  • Controversy over Spanish throne in 1690s
  • Charles II had no direct heir to the throne
  • The next person in line was Louis son, Louis le
    grand dauphin
  • Third in line was the Habsburg Emperor Leopold I
  • Negotiations began to protect the balance of
    power
  • First Partition Treaty(1698)
  • In 1698, the First Partition Treaty was signed
  • Joseph Ferdinand of Bavaria designated as heir to
    the throne
  • Charles agreed to this
  • Joseph Ferdinand died in 1699 of smallpox

25
The Problem of Spanish Succession
  • Second Partition Treaty (1700)
  • Throne would go to Leopolds second son, Archduke
    Charles of Austria
  • Part of this agreement included having Italy go
    to France
  • Charles did not like it as it meant dividing
    Spanish territory
  • Charles died on November 1, 1700
  • In his will, Charles selected Philip of Anjou as
    his heir
  • Philip was grandson of Louis XIV
  • He would have to renounce all claims to the
    French throne
  • He also had to keep the Spanish empire in tact
  • Philip took the throne as Philip V

26
War of the Spanish Succession
  • Louis invaded the Spanish Netherlands in 1701
  • Most of Europe participated in the war
  • On one side was Spain and France
  • On the other was Leopold, England, the Dutch, and
    Austria
  • The war was fought mainly in the Low Countries
    and Germany
  • Casualties were high on both sides (400,000 were
    killed)
  • Also fought in the Americas as Queen Annes War
  • From the beginning, France was losing most of the
    battles
  • In 1708, Louis was on the verge of defeat
  • Began negotiations with other side

27
War of the Spanish Succession
  • Alliance wanted Louis to use French troops to
    oust Philip
  • He refused
  • On April 17, 1711, Emperor Joseph I died
  • This was Archduke Charles older brother
  • Charles was now the Holy Roman Emperor (Charles
    VI)
  • The balance of power was once again threatened
  • If the alliance won, Charles would have both the
    Empire and Spain
  • Each of the members began negotiating separate
    treaties
  • They were collectively known as the Peace at
    Utrecht

28
Peace at Utrecht (1713)
  • It set down the following
  • Philip V would remain King of Spain and all its
    colonies
  • Philip renounced any claims to the French throne
    for him or any of his descendants
  • Charles VI received the Spanish Netherlands and
    Naples
  • France would give England
  • Hudson Bay Company in North America
  • Caribbean island of St. Kitts
  • England would receive the right from Spain to
    transport and sell slaves from Africa to Spanish
    America
  • This made them the principle slave traders in the
    Americas

29
End of Louis XIVs Reign
  • Aftermath of the Treaty of Utrecht
  • Frances power was diminished from the war
  • England emerged as the premiere naval power in
    Europe
  • Two main powers France and England
  • The Netherlands began their decline
  • Spain was weakened even further by the war
  • Louis XIV died on September 1, 1715 of gangrene
  • He outlived
  • His son Le Grand Dauphin (d. 1711)
  • Two grandsons and two great-grandsons
  • Louis of Anjou was heir to the throne
  • He was Louis XIV five-year-old grandson

30
  • Brandenburg-Prussia

31
Rise of Brandenburg-Prussia
  • Peace of Westphalia left a power vacuum in the
    HRE
  • Brandenburg-Prussia will fill that void
  • Brandenburg-Prussia included
  • The Duchy of East Prussia
  • The Margraviate of Brandenburg
  • The rulers came from the Hohenzollern family
  • Territories did not connect
  • Land was controlled by Sweden or Poland
  • This included Danzig
  • During the , Prussia acquires all this territory
  • It becomes one of the most powerful countries in
    central Europe

32
  • Great Elector Frederick William I
  • (1640-1688)

33
Great Elector Frederick William I
  • In 1640, Frederick William ascended to
  • Duke of Prussia
  • Elector of Brandenburg
  • Both territories were in bad shape from the
    Thirty Years War
  • He had three goals
  • Build up the agriculture and commerce
  • Build up his army to protect the country
  • Recapture territories lost during the Thirty
    Years War
  • To do this, he had to centralize the government
  • The nobility (Junkers) were going to be his
    biggest threat
  • They still claimed special rights and privileges
  • Included controlling their own finances,
    administrations, judicial systems, armies, and
    foreign affairs

34
Great Elector Frederick William I
  • Frederick William made his own modus vivendi
  • They gave up their political power in their
    provincial Estates-General
  • The Junkers would not have to pay taxes and have
    almost complete control over their peasants
  • Restructured the military
  • Prussia became a formidable military power
  • Attempts at expansion
  • Wars against Sweden and France
  • He was unsuccessful
  • Did give the army valuable experience

35
  • Great Elector Frederick III
  • (1688-1713)

36
Great Elector Frederick III
  • Frederick was not physically strong
  • He had been frail in health and was said to be
    physically deformed
  • He was not concerned with running the government
  • Put power in the hands of his ministers
  • Spent most of his time trying to imitate the
    court of Louis XIV
  • One of his main desires was to get the title of
    king
  • However, this could not be accomplished legally
  • Brandenburg was inside the Holy Roman Empire
  • Prussia was technically part of Poland
  • Frederick was going to do whatever was necessary
    to get that title

37
Great Elector Frederick III
  • Frederick found that opportunity during the War
    of Spanish Succession
  • Emperor Leopold I wanted the help of the Prussian
    army
  • Frederick argued that he could be king as Prussia
    was never part of the HRE
  • As part of their compromise, Frederick received
    the title of King in Prussia
  • This title was used until 1772
  • Great Northern War (1700-1721)
  • Joined forces with Russia against Sweden
  • Acquired western Pomerania

38
  • King Frederick William I
  • (1713-1740)

39
King Frederick William I (1713-1740)
  • Frederick William was also known as the Potsdam
    Fürher
  • I am going to place Prussian sovereignty on a
    rock of bronze
  • He was an absolute monarch
  • Believed in divine right but said salvation
    belongs to the Lord and everything else is my
    affair
  • Wanted Prussian independence from foreign
    subsidies
  • Needed to make himself along with the country
    economical
  • Reformed the household accounts
  • Fired all the court lackeys and pages
  • Sold the crown jewels to pay off the countrys
    debts
  • Gave his wife Sophia Dorothea a very small
    allowance for her and their 14 children for
    living expenses

40
King Frederick William I (1713-1740)
  • He developed commerce and industry
  • Placed on tariffs on foreign goods
  • Prohibited the exportation of raw materials
  • Created new industries to make Prussia more
    independent
  • He further centralized the government
  • Created the General Directory, the central
    authority of all his territories
  • All territories were subordinate to the Directory
  • He was very strict with his underlings
  • What was good for him was good for everybody else
  • Officials were fined if not in their offices by
    5am
  • Would dock six months salary if missed an
    important meeting

41
King Frederick William I (1713-1740)
  • Devoted to building up his army
  • Started with only 38,000 paid for mostly with
    foreign subsidies
  • End of his reign, it was 83,000 and he had a huge
    war chest
  • By 1740, Prussia was the third biggest military
    power behind Russia and France
  • Frederick William did promote good health
  • Every year, his army was lined up and bled for
    good health
  • He was in front of that line each time
  • The Potsdam Giants
  • This was his elite regiment and they could do no
    wrong
  • Had to be a least six feet tall to join
  • Many kings gave him gifts of tall men to get on
    his good side

42
  • Maria Theresa of Austria
  • (1740-1780)

43
Maria Theresa (1740-1780)
  • Austria had a slightly modified version of
    absolutism
  • It occurred during the reign of Maria Theresa
  • She was the first female heir in the entire
    Habsburg line
  • Because Austria followed Salic Law, her father
    Charles VI needed to guarantee her succession
  • Pragmatic Sanction (1713)
  • Issued by Emperor Charles VI
  • Guaranteed her the right for Maria Theresa to
    inherit the Austrian throne and all of Charles
    lands
  • Most of the European countries accepted this

44
Maria Theresa (1740-1780)
  • In 1740, Charles died
  • Maria succeeded to the throne
  • Not everyone accepted her as monarch
  • Included France, Prussia, Bavaria, and Saxony
  • War of Austrian Succession (1740-1748)
  • Began when Prussia invaded Silesia
  • Most of the major players of Europe were involved
  • One side was France and Prussia
  • The other Austria, Great Britain, and the United
    Netherlands
  • Fought in the colonies as King Georges War
  • Neither side had a clear advantage

45
Maria Theresa (1740-1780)
  • Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle (1748)
  • Prussia made out best, receiving Silesia from
    Austria
  • Austria also lost a number of duchies in Italy to
    Spain
  • France was forced to give up territory in the
    Netherlands but did get back Cape Breton Island
  • Britain gave France back the fort of Louisbourg
    in Nova Scotia
  • Maria Theresa centralized the government
  • She combined Austria and Bohemia into one
    administration
  • New departments were set up to administer both
    the territories that answered directly to the
    monarchy
  • A supreme court was set up to handle all the
    judicial issues

46
Maria Theresa (1740-1780)
  • She attempted to strengthen the economy
  • Only the monarch had the ability to collect taxes
  • Clergy and nobility now had to pay property and
    income taxes
  • She set up strict tariffs on all imports
  • She also set about reorganizing the military
  • The army was increased twofold
  • She set up the Theresian Military Academy in 1751
  • She was not willing to make any radical reforms
  • She was staunchly Catholic and very conservative
  • When her husband died in 1765, she named her son
    Joseph as her co-ruler

47
  • Peter I
  • (1689-1725)

48
Peter the Great (1689-1725)
  • Russia needed a warm water port
  • Baltic was controlled by Sweden
  • Black Sea was controlled by the Ottoman Turks
  • Peter decided to go against the Turks
  • Attempted to take Fort Azov in the summer of 1695
  • That failed horribly
  • Over that winter, he built up a navy
  • By June 1696, he was able to take Azov with 30
    ships
  • He still could not gain full access to the Black
    Sea without a full navy
  • Russias first navy was put into motion in
    October 1696

49
Peter the Great (1689-1725)
  • Great Embassy (1697)
  • Peter wanted help from Europe to defeat the Turks
  • Traveled throughout Europe as a member of the
    Embassy, not tsar
  • Hoped to get a better view into the customs and
    traditions of western Europe
  • The Embassy failed at securing any aid
  • He learned a lot about ship building and running
    a navy from both the Dutch and English
  • In June 1698, the Streltsy revolted
  • They wanted to place Sophia back into power
  • Peter had to return to Russia

50
Peter the Great (1689-1725)
  • The revolt had been put down by the time Peter
    returned
  • However, he was not satisfied with the results
  • Only 57 had been executed and the rest ordered
    into exile
  • Peter ordered that entire Streltsy be destroyed
  • From September 1698 to February of 1699, roughly
    1,200 Streltsy were executed
  • Most of those bodies were left either gibbeted
    outside the Kremlin or unburied where they were
    executed
  • An additional 600 were tortured and exiled
  • Even the families of the Streltsy were forced out
    of Moscow
  • Now Peter could focus on modernizing Russia

51
Peter the Great (1689-1725)
  • He continued to reorganize the military
  • Peasants were conscripted for 25-year terms
  • Goal a standing army of over 200,000 men
  • Improved on the navy
  • He made a few governmental reforms
  • Centralized the government
  • Replaced the Duma with ten Departments of State
  • Set up new provinces and governors and councils
    to run them
  • Nobility and non-nobility were able to hold
    positions in the government and gain rank through
    achievement

52
Peter the Great (1689-1725)
  • He made numerous economic reforms based on
    mercantilism
  • He had new industries created and expanded old
    ones
  • Collect raw materials from untouched sources
    inside of Russia
  • He would conscript peasants to work in factories
    to help boost commerce
  • His changes did end feudalism in some areas
  • In tsar-owned areas, the peasants were considered
    state peasants and owned by the tsar
  • He made educational reforms
  • He built elementary, military, and vocational
    schools
  • He also simplified the Russian alphabet by
    removing eight letters and changing the forms of
    others

53
Peter the Great (1689-1725)
  • Peters biggest impact was his cultural reforms
  • He forced Russian men to shave their beards
  • He had tailors design clothes that looked more
    European
  • Those to refused to wear short sleeves would have
    their sleeves cut
  • He taught people western dancing
  • He adopted the Julian calendar
  • Peter turned his attention back to his warm water
    port
  • He knew it would be hard to keep control of Azov
  • He turned his attentions back to the Baltic Sea
  • The region was under the control of Charles XII
    of Sweden

54
Peter the Great (1689-1725)
  • Great Northern War (1700-1721)
  • Between Russia and Sweden
  • Russia captured the Gulf of Finland in 1703
  • Set up the city of St. Petersburg as a new
    capital city
  • In 1708, Charles invaded Russia to capture Moscow
  • Scorched earth policy
  • When winter set in, Charles army took a hard hit
  • Peace of Nystadt (1721) gave Russia warm weather
    ports on the Baltic Sea
  • Peter was now a major player in Europe
  • It came at a huge cost

55
Peter the Great (1689-1725)
  • Many in Russia were not happy
  • Taxes were increased over 500 during his reign
  • Nobility upset they had to work for their
    positions and rank
  • Even his son, Alexei, fled Russia in 1716
  • Supposedly wanted to be a monk instead of tsar
  • When Alexei returned to Russia he was tortured
    and sentenced to death
  • In 1725, Peter named his wife, Catherine, to be
    co-ruler and heir to the throne
  • He believed that Salic Law was outdated
  • Peter died on January 28, 1725
  • He developed gangrene in his bladder

56
  • Charles II
  • (1660-1685)

57
Charles II (1660-1685)
  • Not all countries embraced absolutism
  • United Provinces of the Netherlands remained a
    republic
  • England kept a mixed monarchy
  • In 1660, Charles II assumed the throne of England
  • He had to do so under certain conditions
  • He was raised a Catholic but he was required to
    rule as a Protestant king
  • He was required to accept a constitutional
    monarchy
  • He agreed to observe both the Magna Carta (1215)
    and the Petition of Right (1628)

58
Charles II (1660-1685)
  • With his ascension, the entire mood of England
    changed
  • Many members of court were glad to see the end of
    Puritan control
  • His court became the center for sexuality with
    risqué behavior, dancing, and theater
  • Thus he earned the nickname the Merrie Monarch
  • One of the first things he did was to try those
    who had been responsible for his fathers
    execution
  • Those who were alive were tried and executed
  • Oliver Cromwells body was dug up, drawn and
    quartered, and his head put on the end of a pike
    in front of Westminster Abbey until 1685
  • His head was not buried until 1960

59
  • The mummified head of Oliver Cromwell

60
Domestic Policies
  • There was still some tension between the king and
    Parliament
  • Cavalier Parliament (1661-1679)
  • It was heavily royalist but wanted to limit the
    power of the king
  • The focus of this parliament was religion
  • Specifically they wanted to limit the threat of
    the non-conformist (radical Protestant) groups
  • Lord Chancellor, Edward Hyde, Earl of Clarendon,
    put together a series of religious laws known as
    the Clarendon Codes
  • They made it difficult for non-conformists to
    meet and worship

61
Domestic Policies
  • Then, in 1665 to 1666, London was hit with two
    major disasters
  • The Great Plague of London (July 1665-September
    1666)
  • It killed between 75,000 and 100,000 people which
    was 1/5 of Londons population
  • At one point 7,000 were dying a week
  • The Great Fire of London (September 2-5, 1666)
  • It destroyed the homes of 70,000 of Londons
    80,000 inhabitants
  • It did, however, have the benefit of ending the
    plague

62
  • Great Fire of London (September 2-5, 1666)

63
Charles Foreign Policy
  • Charles foreign policy began to negatively
    impact his relationship with Parliament
  • England became involved in two wars with the
    Dutch
  • Both were attempts to end the Dutch domination
    of world trade, especially in the New World
  • In one instance, the Dutch fleet was able to sail
    up the Thames River and destroy most of the
    English fleet
  • In the end, England lost both wars
  • In 1668, England joined the Triple Alliance
    against Louis XIV in the War of Devolution
  • England was pressured into it by the Dutch
  • Even though Louis conceded, it was not a popular
    war with Parliament

64
Charles Foreign Policy
  • Treaty of Dover (1670)
  • England would help France conquer the Spanish
    Netherlands
  • France would provide 6,000 troops and 200,000 to
    help bring back Catholicism to England
  • Louis did not trust Charles desire to convert
    England
  • He was more interested in the military benefits
    that England could provide
  • Third Anglo-Dutch War (1672-1674)
  • This was part of the Franco-Dutch War
  • After a series of failures, Parliament forced the
    king to negotiate a peace with the Dutch in 1674

65
Charles Clash With Parliament
  • Parliament was afraid that Charles would do two
    things
  • Change his policies to favor Catholicism
  • Become a more absolutist style of monarch
  • In 1669, a rumor spread that Charles wanted to
    openly convert to Catholicism
  • Part of this included bringing Catholicism back
    to England
  • However, there is no proof that Charles planned
    on officially converting before 1685
  • Royal Declaration of Indulgence (1672)
  • It suspended the restrictions on the recusants
  • It also removed the criminal laws against being a
    recusant
  • Parliament forced Charles to withdraw it

66
Charles Clash With Parliament
  • Parliament felt threatened by Charles actions
  • Test Acts of 1673 and 1678
  • Designed to keep England moderate Anglican
  • Aimed at Catholics (only 2 of the total
    population)
  • All public officials were required to denounce
    transubstantiation and take oaths of allegiance
    and supremacy
  • They were also to receive communion in the
    Anglican church within three months of their
    appointment
  • Another issue was the line of succession
  • Charles wife was unable to give birth to an heir
  • Her pregnancies ended in either miscarriage or
    stillbirth
  • Charles had 14 illegitimate children through his
    mistresses

67
  • Catherine of Braganza
  • Queen Consort
  • (1662-1685)

68
Problems with Succession
  • Next was Charles brother, James Duke of York
  • He had openly converted to Catholicism in 1668
  • This made him unpopular as the next in line
  • Exclusion Bills (1679-1681)
  • Parliaments attempted to ban James from
    succession
  • Charles dissolved each Parliament to prevent its
    passage
  • Parliament split into two parties
  • Whig Favored exclusion
  • Tory Supported James in line for the throne
  • On February 6, 1685 Charles died of renal failure
  • On his deathbed, he converted to Catholicism

69
  • James II
  • (1685-1688)

70
James II (1685-1688)
  • When James ascended to the throne in 1685, he had
    two very distinct aims
  • Make himself the absolute monarch of England
  • Reestablish the Catholic Church in England
  • Monmouths Rebellion (1685)
  • Some Protestants began rallying around James Duke
    of Monmouth
  • He was one of Charles illegitimate sons
  • The rebellion was quickly and violently put down
  • Monmouth was executed in elaborate fashion
  • James used this opportunity to raise a large army
  • Included placing Catholics in high military
    positions

71
James II (1685-1688)
  • Parliament visibly opposed this move
  • James suspended Parliament in November 1685
  • He never called it again for the remainder of his
    reign
  • In 1686, James replaced many members of the Court
    of Kings Bench
  • Their rulings allowed the king to excuse certain
    people from the oath required in the Test Acts
  • Now Catholics could hold positions in government,
    including high offices and positions in the
    Anglican Church
  • Also that year, a papal nuncio was appointed to
    England
  • This was the first one since the reign of Queen
    Mary

72
James II (1685-1688)
  • On April 4, 1687, James issued the Declaration of
    Indulgence
  • It suspended all punishments for recusants
  • People were now permitted to worship any religion
    other than Church of England
  • It eliminated the religious oaths for public
    officials
  • It essentially negated the Test Acts
  • Why did the people of England not revolt against
    James?
  • He was old
  • The two children by his first wife, Mary and
    Anne, had been raised Protestant
  • His second wife, Mary of Modena, had not produced
    any children

73
James II (1685-1688)
  • Protestants had already contacted William III of
    Orange
  • He was married to Princess Mary, the heir
    presumptive
  • William and Mary were to take the throne when
    James died
  • On June 10, 1688 Queen Mary gave birth to a son
  • There was now a male heir who was to be raised
    Catholic
  • On June 30, nobles contacted William and Mary
  • They promised him military aid if they were to
    come to England to depose of James
  • James heard about this but was not concerned
  • He believed his army was powerful enough army to
    repel such an invasion
  • He did not to anything additional to prevent it

74
  • Mary of Modena
  • Queen Consort
  • (1685-1688)

75
The Glorious Revolution
  • On November 5, 1688, William arrived in England
  • Protestant winds prevented the English navy
    from attacking the landing party
  • He had between 18,000-21,000 man army
  • When he landed he was greeting with popular
    support
  • James fled to France (December 23)
  • William allowed James to escape
  • No blood was shed in England
  • There were, however, battles fought in Ireland
    and Scotland
  • Parliament now got its limited monarchy

76
The Glorious Revolution
  • Convention Parliament confirmed the succession of
    Mary and William to the throne
  • Declaration of Right (February 13, 1689)
  • It stated that James, by the assistance of
    diverse evil counselors, judges, and ministers
    employed by him, did endeavor to subvert and
    extirpate the Protestant religion and the laws
    and liberties of this kingdom
  • William and Mary were the legitimate monarchs as
    James vacated the throne
  • Stipulated that if any member of the royal house
    converts or marries a Catholic, they will be
    excluded from inheriting the throne
  • Both had to agree to the terms of the Declaration
    if they were to take the throne

77
The Glorious Revolution
  • Bill of Rights (1689)
  • Parliaments approval was required for keeping a
    standing army and raising taxes
  • Free elections of Parliamentary members without
    interference from the monarchy
  • Guaranteed freedom of speech inside Parliament
  • Protected the Protestants from another Catholic
    monarch
  • All monarchs must swear an oath on coronation day
    to uphold the Protestant religion
  • Confirmed succession through Marys line, not her
    fathers
  • If Mary did not have any children, the throne
    would be passed on to her Protestant sister, Anne
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