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Title:

Mars Sample Return Mission

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Introduction Mars Sample Return is key to Mars exploration Returning a sample from Mars ... Assumes samples are deposited into ascent vehicle by existing rover ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Date added: 23 July 2019
Slides: 25
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Title: Mars Sample Return Mission


1
Mars Sample Return Mission
  • Introduction
  • Scientific Objectives
  • Measurement Requirements
  • Mission Architecture (number of s/c, orbits,
    deployment scenario)
  • Payload
  • Resource requirements (mass, power, data)
  • Entry, Descent and Operations sequence
  • Control requirements
  • Environmental constraints temperature, chemical,
    radiation, g-load,
  • Technology Readiness Heritage
  • Critical Issues
  • International Collaboration Scenarios
  • Cost

2
Introduction
  • Mars Sample Return is key to Mars exploration
  • Returning a sample from Mars is very challenging
    (technical and cost)
  • Benefits come from existing orbiting and landed
    assets/experience (MRO, MSO, MSL)
  • Architecture includes orbiter, lander and ascent
    vehicle.
  • Requires precision landing to retrieve samples
    from MSL site.
  • Assumes samples are deposited into ascent vehicle
    by existing rover and placed in 400 km orbit for
    acquisition and return by orbiter

3
Science Objectives Measurements
  • Objectives
  • Sample Return of 1kg from Mars
  • Drill cores
  • Sedimentary material
  • Long term surface meteorological measurements
  • Measurements
  • Sample context images
  • Meteorological data temp, press,etc.

4
Mission Architecture
  • Orbiter(s)
  • Aerocapture orbit insertion
  • 400 km circular orbit
  • Lander
  • Type 2 trajectory with direct entry
  • Aero guidance, parachute, propulsive landing
  • Ascent Vehicle
  • Propulsive ascent to 400 km orbit 2 units

5
Architecture Trades
  • Landing Accuracy
  • Pinpoint lt1km or 10 km
  • Mobility
  • MSL or small MSR rover
  • Sample Transfer mechanism
  • On lander or rover
  • Landing site
  • Equatorial vs mid-lattitude (TBD MSL Cache)

6
Payload
  • MET Station
  • PanCam
  • Ascent Vehicles (2)
  • Sample Transfer Mechanism

7
Entry and Descent Phase
8
Entry Conditions
  • Lander targeted and released by orbiter prior to
    MOI via aerocapture
  • MSL style GNC
  • MSO Nav. Assistance Communication
  • Aerocapture by orbiter

9
Descent Phase
  • Release Backshell
  • Deploy Parachute at 2 km altitude
  • Release Lander at 300m altitude
  • Propulsive Landing

10
Parachute Design
  • Design
  • ßlt80kg/m2
  • Subsonic parachute Ring Sail
  • Deploy as late as possible
  • Release lander
  • Terminal velocity 30 mps

11
Landing Phase
12
Assumptions for landing phase
  • Requirements
  • Hazard avoidance (slope, rocks)
  • Soft landing (stable platform for ascent vehicle)
    lt2m/s
  • Allocated landing accuracy with 1km
  • Landing mass 1000kg
  • Terminal velocity TBD to be optimised with the
    parachute system
  • Landing initiation TBD above ground
  • Environment day only, rocks size 0.5m, local
    slope 20, large scale slope 2
  • Allocated mass budgets TBD

13
Trades architectures
  • Trade
  • Sequence TBD
  • Relative motion wrt terrain and hazard avoidance
    Optical camera or LIDAR based
  • Actuators liquid propulsion (pulsed, throttle..)
  • Final energy dissipation airbags, legs,
    crushable structures, skycrane

14
Overall landing sequence
15
Detailed landing sequence
16
Baseline GNC sensors
  • LIDAR for hazard avoidance (more robust to
    dust, glint, terrain illumination wrt camera)
  • IMULIDAR for vehicle state and relative motion
    with regard to terrain

LIDAR
17
Baseline Actuators
  • Propulsion Hydrazine throttle engines (MSL
    like)

18
Baseline Touchdown
  • Legs with capability to compensate for local
    slope provide stable platform for ascent vehicle

19
Lander Master Equipment List
20
Environmental Constraints
  • Assumed Mars Environment models
  • Low radiation

21
Technology Inherited
  • MSL
  • Guided aero entry
  • Thrusters
  • Subsystems
  • Parachutes
  • MER
  • Solar power
  • Aerocapture for orbiter not yet demonstrated at
    Mars

22
Critical Issues
  • Back planetary protection
  • Relies on MSL for sample cache
  • Relies on rendezvous sample transfer in Mars
    orbit using follow-on mission

23
International Collaboration
  • Orbiter
  • Ascent Vehicles
  • Sample Transfer HW
  • Follow-on capture mission

24
Cost
  • Flagship Class
  • Heavy use of heritage equipment from previous
    Mars missions
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