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Presentation Skills: pre-workshop information


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Title: Presentation Skills: pre-workshop information

  • Presentation Skills pre-workshop information

Welcome to Graduate Development Programmes
Presentation Skills Course
  • The course consists of two parts
  • The electronic pre-workshop information, which
    gives you the tools to prepare a presentation and
    asks you to apply them to create a 5 minute
  • 2) Face-to-face workshop where you will deliver
    your prepared 5 minute presentation and receive
    feedback on it.

In this section you will learn how to prepare a
presentation and apply the principles to create
your own.
  • You will learn about
  • The content of a presentation.
  • The structure of a presentation.
  • How to structure the introduction of a
  • Ways to use Powerpoint.
  • Ways to rehearse a presentation.
  • Ways to overcome nerves before presenting.

Symbols for Activities
  • Text in black indicates information.
  • Text in red, with this image of a hammer next to
    it, is an activity for you to complete.
  • Often, you will be asked to apply what you have
    learned to create your own presentation.

People learn most effectively when they are clear
about their motivations for learning.
  • Spend a few minutes answering these questions as
    they will help you get more out of the course.
  • Why are you attending this course?
  • What specifically do you want to improve?
  • When will you present?
  • At a conference?
  • In a lab or lecture theatre?
  • In a boardroom?
  • What do you want from this course?

What Makes an Effective Presentation?
  • Think back to a time when you saw a really
    effective presentation/presenter.
  • What did the person do and say?
  • How did they say it?
  • Make a list of what makes a presentation
    effective for you.
  • Now take a look at Cambridge PhD student, Rachel
    Pike, presenting at the prestigious TED Talks, by
    copying and pasting the link below into your
    internet browser. What does she do? How does she

Qualities of an Effective Presentation
  • Qualities of an effective presentation, which you
    may have listed, include
  • A clear message, relevant to the audience.
  • Good structure.
  • Signposts, which keep the audiences attention.
  • Confident, composed body language, including
  • tone of voice and eye contact.

  • Preparing to Present the content of your

To begin preparing a presentation, start by
answering these four key questions
  • 1) Who is my audience?
  • 2) Whats my single, clear message? (In other
    words, Whats the main point I want them to
    remember tomorrow?)
  • 3) Why should they care (about my message)?
  • 4) What outcome do I want? (For example, what do
    I want them to do, or remember?)
  • These are key questions to ask for any effective
    communication, not just a presentation.

Applying the 4 Questions to Your Presentation
  • Choose a topic for your 5 minute presentation.
  • It can be anything. (You might want to choose a
    topic you will have to present on in the future
    or have already presented on.)
  • Now apply the four questions of content to it.

  • Preparing to Present structuring your

An essential part of an effective presentation is
its structure
  • There are many models that can be used to
    structure a presentation, here are 3 popular
  • The classic academic conference presentation.
  • Think-Feel-Do structure.
  • 4Mat structure.
  • The structure of your presentation relates to the
    four key questions of communication, which you
    thought about in the previous exercise.

Structuring an Academic Conference Presentation
  • An academic conference presentation often
    consists of a main idea, presented as an
    argument, reinforced by supporting points and
  • A way to structure it, might look like this.....

Structuring an Academic Conference Presentation
Think-Feel-Do Structure
  • The Think-Feel-Do structure is commonly used
    for giving very short elevator pitch
    presentations. But it can also be used for giving
    longer presentations, such as lectures.
  • Using this structure involves answering 3
  • Think What do I want the audience to know or
    understand as a result of this presentation?
  • Feel What specific emotion do I want them to
    have as they listen to my talk?
  • Do What specific action, do I want the listener
    to do as a result of it?
  • (From B Ross and C Segal ,The Influential
    Fundraiser , San Francisco, Jossey-Bass, 2009,
  • (An elevator-pitch is so called because in
    Hollywood a hopeful director had until the
    elevator reached the top floor to pitch his or
    her idea to the executive before he or she went
    into their office, i.e., 30 seconds 1 minute.)

Using the Think-Feel-Do Structure
  • Try using this model for your presentation.
  • Simply reverse the process start with do and
    work backwards to think.
  • Who is your audience? What action do you want
    them to take?
  • Which feeling is most likely to move them to
    take that action?
  • What information is likely to create that
  • (From B Ross and C Segal, The Influential
    Fundraiser, 2009, pp.19-21)

The 4Mat Structure is often used to brief people.
It is based on four questions
4) What if? (this happened, if this didnt happen) Why? (is this important to you, the audience)
3) How? (can you apply this information) 2) What? (information do you need to know)
This structure is reported to overcome 83 of
resistance to the ideas you present as it creates
a compelling argument.
The Purpose of the 4Mat Questions
  • Answering Why? increases your audiences
    motivation to listen.
  • Answering What? provides them with the
    information they might want.
  • Answering How? shows them how to apply the
  • Answering What if? allows you to link your
    presentation to future benefits for your audience.

Sentence prompts for the 4Mat questions include
  • (Why?) You might be wondering why...
  • This is important for you because...
  • Linking phrases to the What? section
  • So to cover these important issues, I need to
    tell you about...
  • So what I need to tell you about is...
  • (How?) This information can be used in one/many
  • You can use this to...
  • (What if?)
  • Once we take these actions the positive result
    will be....
  • Just imagine how this could contribute to...
  • (From Kaizen Training Communication

Using the 4MAT Structure
  • Try using this model for your presentation using
    the 4MAT questions and prompts on the previous

  • Preparing to Present structuring the

The A-B-C-D of Structuring Introductions
  • A quick, memorable way to structure the
    introduction of the your presentation is through
    the A-B-C-D model.

A Attention Grab your audiences attention - appropriately.
B Benefits Why will listening to you benefit them? Tell your audience why they should care about your presentation.
C Credibility You might need to stress your expertise in some appropriate way. (But it may not be necessary at conferences.)
D Direction Give your audience a brief overview of your presentation.
An example of an introduction using the A-B-C-D
model might be....
  • (Attention) Its a shocking fact that 1 in 4
    people will have a mental
  • health problem at some time in their
  • (Benefit) Today, Im going to tell you about X,
    which helps us
  • understand the bigger questions in our
  • (Credibility) ... Researching this area for the
    last (X) years, I have ...
  • (Direction) In this presentation today, Im
    going to tell you about X, Y
  • and Z, showing you this and concluding

To summarise this section on structuring a
presentation, a 5 minute talk might have this
  • Introduction (1 minute)
  • A-ttention
  • B-enefit
  • C-redentials
  • D-irection/map
  • Discussion points 1 3 (3 minutes)
  • Key idea 1. Reinforced by
  • Key idea 2. Reinforced by
  • Key idea 3. Reinforced by
  • Conclusion Linking of key ideas (1 minute)

  • Now apply what you have learned about structuring
    your presentation and writing your introduction.
  • Choose an appropriate structure for your topic
    and spend time preparing your presentation.

  • Preparing to Present using Powerpoint

Slide Preparation
  • Keep slides simple. It is difficult to read
    cluttered slides, which can irritate your
  • Dont add visual clutter keep email address and
    credits to the first and last slide.
My Research Group
Font and Size
  • Use Arial and other sans serif fonts (e.g.
    Tahoma) as they are easy to read from the back of
    the room.
  • Avoid serif fonts, such as Times New Roman, which
    is much more difficult to read.
  • Serif fonts should only be used for written work.
    (The exception is Maths presentations, which
    often use serif font.)

  • People also tend to feel SHOUTED at.
  • Use a combination of upper and lower case.
  • Also, centred text is hard to read.
  • Left aligned text is much easier.

  • Dark text on a light background is best for most
  • Avoid complicated background and overly bright
  • Some of your audience may be colour-blind so bear
    this in mind when making choices about
  • font and colour.

PowerPoint Quick Keys Include...
Actions Actions
Begin slide show F5
Next slide ENTER or Down arrow key
Previous Slide BACKSPACE or Up arrow key
Activate pen tool CTRLP
Erase pen strokes E
Deactivate pen tool CTRLA
Show/Hide black screen B
Show/Hide white screen W
Show/Hide pointer button A
End slide show ESC
  • If appropriate to your discipline, or you want to
    try using visual aids, apply what you have
    learned about using Powerpoint or other
    presentation media effectively else where to
    illustrate your presentation.

  • Preparing to Present rehearsing your

Rehearsing your presentation is a vital part of
preparing it. There are at least four ways to
practise it.
  • This is an ideal order in which to do so
  • 1) Three times in your head.
  • 2) Twice in a mirror.
  • 3) Once on tape or camera.
  • 4) Once to real people.

  • (Kaizen
    Training Presenting with Presence, Power and

  • Now practise rehearsing your presentation.
  • Some tips
  • Learn the first few sentences of your
    introduction. Generally, we are most nervous at
    the beginning and so most likely to forget our
  • Learn the transitions between key ideas.

  • Preparing to Present handling nerves

Handling Nerves
  • Perhaps the biggest secret in presenting
    effectively is that nerves are normal.
  • To a greater or lesser extent, most people get
    nervous about presenting in some situations.
  • There are three things that you can focus on and
    change, to handle your nerves focus, language
    and physiology. They are the three aspects of

State is a term used in Neuro-Linguistic
Programming (NLP). It refers to a persons state
of mind. In NLP, a persons state consists of
three qualities.
State Explained Change one, or all, of these
three qualities and we move into a different
  • Focus refers to what a person focuses on at any
    given moment.
  • Language relates to Focus. It refers to what
    we tell ourselves and others at any moment. For
    example, feeling nervous we might tell ourselves,
    Im going to do really badly. Feeling relaxed,
    we might tell ourselves, Its all going to be
  • Physiology refers to the physiology of our
    body, such as our breathing, posture, our energy

Focus To some extent, handling nerves is a
matter of perception. It is how we see the
physiological signs of nerves that matters.
  • A story to illustrate this
  • Physiological signs that we interpret as nerves
    can be seen as a positive signal that we are
    ready to present.

At the height of his fame, playing to thousands
of people each night, the rock star Bruce
Springsteen was asked by a journalist if he ever
got nervous before going on stage. Baffled, he
asked what the journalist meant. You know,
Bruce. Do you get a dry throat? Sweaty palms?
Butterflies in your stomach? Oh,
Springsteen said, I get those. But I see them as
signs that Im ready to perform.
This visualisation activity is a way to change
your focus and help you handle your nerves.
  • Imagine you are about to give your presentation
    How do you feel?
  • Is any part of your body feeling tense?
  • Working your way up your body, relax your
    toesyour legs your kneesyour
  • stomachyour chestyour shouldersand your
    arms all the way to your fingertips.
  • Now move to your neck and relax all of the
    musclesfeel the muscles in you face relax,
    including your tongue.
  • Now focus on your breathing
  • Are you taking short, shallow breaths or are you
    breathing deeply, filling your lungs?
  • What thoughts are going through your mind?
  • Are they positive or negative?
  • Now imagine yourself standing in front of your
    audience giving your presentation.
  • See yourself being confident, delivering the best
    presentation you have ever given,
  • feeling pleased and relaxed about how it is
  • Now imagine you are at the end of your
  • You are standing confidently. You are relaxed and
    feeling good about your
  • performance. You are smiling at the audience and
    welcoming questions.

Physiology warming up your body to present
  • Before actors go on stage, they do physical
    exercises to warm up their body. It helps remove
    the adrenaline, which causes the physiological
    symptoms of nerves. If they dont warm up
    before, their bodies produce the symptoms on
    stage which affects their performance.

To warm up your body before presenting, simply
move it.
  • One way to do so, is to go for a walk on the day
    of your presentation.
  • Another way is to find a space where you wont be
    seen such as a toilet cubicle and begin to
    shake your right hand then shake your right arm
    your right shoulder then move across to your
    left hand and start shaking that now your left
    arm your left shoulder and then begin to move
    your legs and your head until your whole body
    is moving.

Language 3 Questions
  • Another way to handle nerves is to ask ourselves
    three questions.
  • Whats the best that could happen, when I
  • Whats the worst that could happen, when I
  • Whats likely to happen, when I present?
  • Possible answers might be
  • (Best) It goes perfectly and they give me a
    standing ovation.
  • (Worst) Paralyzed by fear, nothing comes out of
    my mouth. I faint with shock, tripping the
    audio-visual equipment, which electrocutes my
    host, who is rushed to hospital. I come round to
    boos from the audience.
  • (Likely) Having followed the tips in this
    information - i.e., knowing my audience and key
    message, rehearsed my presentation, etc. - I
    quite present well. I might be a little nervous
    at the beginning - but everybody gets nervous -
    but they soon go away. I make one or two small
    mistakes which nobody minds or even notices.
    Overall, Im pleased with my performance.

Moving from Nerves to Confidence JFK Charisma
  • One of the most charismatic speakers of the 20th
    century was John F. Kennedy (JFK). Yet JFK was
    not born with JFK charisma. He learnt it from
    his speech writers.
  • To do this, it was decided that he should embody
    four qualities
  • Warmth
  • Joy
  • Certainty
  • Flexibility

JFKs speech writers constructed a mantra for
each quality which he would repeat internally,
directed at his audience.
  • For warmth he would silently say to members of
    his audience Im so glad youre here.Im so
    glad youre here. Im so glad youre here..
  • For joy he would silently repeat Im so glad
    Im here. Im so glad Im here. Im so glad
    Im here..
  • For certainty he would silently say I know
    what I know. I know what I know.I know what
    I know.
  • For flexibility he would internally repeat I
    have many choices. I have many choices. I
    have many choices.

Apply the tips and techniques you have just
learned for handling nerves by changing your
  • Change your physiology by shaking your body out.
    Begin with your right hand and just shake it!
  • 2) Change your focus by a) practising the
    visualisation activity b) remembering that
    nerves are normal, they mean you are ready to
  • 3) Change your language by asking yourself the
    three questions Whats the best that can
    happen? Whats the worst that can happen?
    Whats likely to happen?
  • 4) Move from a state of nerves to charisma by
    repeating the JFK charisma mantras.

  • Preparing to Present dealing with difficult

Dealing with difficult questions often causes
concern. You might not know the answer, but you
want to create a good impression.
  • Questions can be seen positively they show that
    your audience is interested in your research.
    There are many ways to handle questions
  • Anticipate what have you left out? What might
    be controversial?
  • Be calm and composed. Welcome questions.
  • Clarify the question by repeating it. This helps
    those who havent heard it.
  • Be succinct in your reply. Offer a range of
  • If you dont know the answer, be honest.
  • Refer out to members of the audience. But dont
    put a specific person on the spot.
  • Postpone.

Example sentences to deal with difficult questions
  • Staying calm Thats an interesting
  • Clarifying the question Am I right in thinking
    you mean, Are you asking about
  • Admitting you dont know I cannot give you an
    answer because, In this instance it was not
    relevant to
  • Asking for volunteers/referring back Perhaps
    someone else could say, Thats interesting.
    What is your opinion?...
  • Offering a range of answers There are several
    possibilities, More than one answer comes to
  • Postponing questions Perhaps we could come to
    that at the end, I would like to think about
    that first,Maybe we should talk about this
    further at coffee

  • Preparing to Present summary and next steps

This concludes this part of the course
  • You have learned about
  • 1) How to shape the content of your talk through
    the 4 essential questions of effective
  • 2) 3 different ways to structure a presentation
    Academic paper, Think-Feel-Do and 4Mat.
  • 3) How to structure the introduction of a
    presentation using the A-B-C- D model.
  • Tips to use Powerpoint effectively.
  • Ways to rehearse a presentation.
  • Ways to overcome nerves before presenting by
    changing your
  • state.
  • You have applied your learning to create a 5
    minute presentation.


Next Steps delivering your presentation and
receiving feedback
  • In the second part of the course you will have
    the opportunity to deliver your presentation and
    receive feedback on it.
  • On the next slide are tips for giving feedback.
  • We look forward to seeing you at the face-to-face

Tips for giving and receiving feedback
  • Be selective.
  • Focus on behaviour that can be changed.
  • Be specific, give examples.
  • Consider the potential value of your comments.

In essence, how do you want others to give you
feedback on your presentation?