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Theories of Management

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Title: Theories of Management Author: heliv Last modified by: dr.tahir masood Created Date: 9/9/2005 7:29:49 PM Document presentation format: On-screen Show (4:3) – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Theories of Management


1
Lecture 1 Management introduction and
definitions
2
Theories of Management
  • EDUC 4128

3
Management Theories
4
Classroom Management as Reaction to Discipline
Problems
  • Skinners Behavioural Management Theory

5
Skinner Behavioural Management
  • Definition The practice of providing
    consequences for both positive and negative
    behaviour.
  • The teacher develops a process of systematically
    applying rewards (reinforcements) and
    consequences for behaviour.

6
Skinner Behavioural Management
  • This model of classroom management is also known
    as
  • behaviourism
  • behavioural techniques
  • behaviour modification
  • social-learning theory

7
Classroom Management with a Preventative Approach
  • Carl Rogers
  • Jacob Kounin
  • Alfie Kohn
  • Jeanne Gibbs
  • Jere Brophy
  • Harry Wong

8
Carl Rogers
  • Experiential Learning and Self-Actualization
  • Experiences need to be relevant, non-threatening
    and participatory
  • Teachers need to be real, empathetic,
    understanding, and prize students
  • All students strive for self-actualization and
    self-fulfillment

9
Jacob Kounin
  • Effective Teaching includes group alerting and
    accountability, high participation and smooth
    transitions
  • Effective teachers are with it, use the ripple
    effect, overlapping, and they dont dangle,
    flip flop or get distracted

10
Alfie Kohn
  • Beyond Discipline From Compliance to Community
  • There is a difference between working with and
    doing to classes
  • Doing to classes include compliance, punishment
    and rewards, grading and reliance on marks or
    test results
  • Working with classes include active
    participation, high interest, discovery, and love
    of learning

11
Jeanne Gibbs
  • Tribes theory includes an emphasis on active
    listening, appreciation, mutual respect, the
    right to pass, a helping attitude, setting goals,
    monitoring progress and celebrating
    accomplishments
  • Tribes focus is on learning (incl. social
    learning), a caring culture, a community of
    learners and student-centredness
  • Tribes training includes various school groups
    including parents and administrators

12
Jere Brophy
  • Classroom Strategy Study
  • Good teaching includes enthusiasm, instructional
    goals, organization, and teacher as
    problem-solver
  • Good teachers present the concepts, include
    discussions and activities and give tasks to
    practise working with new knowledge
  • Assessments are used to provide feedback, to note
    the zone of proximal development and to
    develop/revise the curriculum
  • Students need to see the purposefulness of the
    curriculum

13
Harry Wong
  • The Effective Teacher videos and The First
    Days of School book
  • The first impressions are lasting
  • Classes need only 3-5 rules and the size of
    groups is determined by the roles to be assumed
  • Important aspects of a class are teacher
    readiness, meeting students, a seating plan,
    bell work and immediate feedback

14
Preventative and Reactive Strategies
  • Richard Mendler and Allen Curwin
  • William Glasser
  • Fred Jones
  • Thomas Gordon
  • Jean Hewitt

15
Mendler and Curwin
  • Motivating Students Who Dont Care
  • Discipline with Dignity
  • To motivate students be a role-model. nurture
    responsibility not obedience, be fair, give
    natural and logical consequences, be private, try
    for win-win situation, control anger, diffuse
    power struggles and develop a plan

16
William Glasser
  • Reality Therapy -Control/Choice Theory
  • All humans have a need for love a feeling of
    self-worth
  • Steps build a relationship, focus on behaviour
    not person, give student responsibility and
    evaluation, develop a plan, student commits to
    plan, follow-up and follow-through, move beyond
    class if necessary
  • Emphasize effort (redo, retake, revise), create
    hope, respect power, build relationships and
    express enthusiasm

17
Fred Jones
  • Positive Classroom Discipline
  • The teacher systematically strengthens desired
    behaviour while weakening inappropriate
    behaviour by using proximity control, negative
    reinforcement, incentives, body language and peer
    pressure.

18
Jones Four Step Model
  • Classroom Structure setting up classroom rules,
    routines and the physical environment
  • Limit Setting rule reinforcement through the use
    of body language, and low-key responses
  • Responsibility Training establishment of group
    rewards or incentives to create group
    responsibility and accountability for behaviour
  • Back-up System hierarchic organization of
    negative sanctions, a) Private with Student, b)
    Public within Classroom, c) Public with Two
    Professionals

19
Thomas Gordon
  • Teacher Effectiveness Training (T.E.T.)
  • Based on philosophy of Carl Rogers, I.e.,
    children are inherently rational and, if directed
    and forced by teachers, will be stifled
  • Assumptions student is intrinsically motivated
    to be good, should be supported by an accepting
    relationship and is capable of solving own
    problems
  • Teachers are taught to observe the behaviour,
    identify who owns the problem, demonstrate
    understanding, confront if necessary and use
    win-win problem-solving
  • Curriculum design involves structured activities,
    student ownership, communication and analysis of
    learning

20
Jean Hewitt
  • Playing Fair
  • Based on the societys concept of fair
    behaviour
  • Steps create positive environment, support
    student efforts for self-control,deal with
    problems immediately and monitor the class
  • All consequences should create learning
  • Have specific rules that consider safety and
    well-being of others
  • Avoid confrontations, power struggles or rumours

21
Reactive Strategies
  • Lee and Marlene Canter
  • Rudolf Dreikurs
  • Barrie Bennett and Peter Smilanich
  • B.F.Skinner

22
Canters Assertive Discipline
  • Definition The teachers response style sets the
    tone of the classroom as well as impacting on the
    students self-esteem and success.
  • The Canters identified three basic response
    styles used by teachers when interacting with
    students

23
Canters Assertive Discipline
  • Nonassertive Teachers
  • These teachers fail to make their needs or wants
    known. They appear indecisive which confuses
    students. They threaten but students know there
    will be no follow through.
  • Assertive Teachers
  • These teachers clearly and firmly express their
    needs. They have positive expectations of
    students. They say what they mean, and mean what
    they say. They are consistent and fair.

24
Dreikurs Logical Consequences
  • Definition The teacher considers the motivation
    and goals of the student behaviour in the
    development of a management plan.
  • A more humanistic approach than just focusing on
    discipline.
  • The teacher then applies Logical Consequences to
    assist students in taking responsibility for
    their actions and behaviours.

25
Dreikurs Goals of Misbehaviour
  • Based on Alfred Alders concept that all
    behaviour had a purpose or goal, Dreikurs
    identified 4 student goals of misbehaviour
  • To seek attention
  • To gain power
  • To seek revenge for some perceived injustice
  • To avoid failure

26
Dreikurs Logical Consequences
  • Must be tied directly to the misbehaviour
  • Must not involve moral judgments
  • Must distinguish between the deed and the doer
  • Must be applied in a non-threatening manner
  • Must present choice for the student

27
Barrie Bennett and Peter Smilanich
  • The Bumping Model of the teachers responses to
    student misbehaviour
  • Increasingly severe responses by the teacher
    based on the degree of the students BUMP.
  • Implies that teacher must take more drastic
    measures as behaviour persists

28
The Bumping Model
  • Bump 1 Prevent misbehaviour by low-key response
  • Bump 2 Square off Response
  • Bump 3 Give choice
  • Bump 4 Implied choice
  • Bump 5 Diffuse the Power Struggle ( ignore, use
    humour)
  • Bump 6 Informal Agreement
  • Bump 7,8, 9,10 Informal contracts with other
    persons involved

29
Common Elements of Theories
  • What do the theories have in common as
    prerequisites to good classroom management?
  • What are the features that differ among the
    theories?

30
Ultimately
  • The teacher is responsible for establishing a
    community and for maintaining classroom control
  • The teacher is the difference between a chaotic
    or caring classroom
  • Effective classroom management includes planning
    and implementing teaching strategies thoroughly ,
    keeping students actively engaged in meaningful
    learning, and preventing disruptions through
    proactive management strategies.
  • When a teacher needs to react to misbehaviour,
    careful thought should be applied to the
    situation to ensure that the self-esteem of the
    student is respected and to ensure that the
    consequences are realistic and appropriate

31
Good luck!
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