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Recovery and Rebirth:


Chapter 12 Recovery and Rebirth: The Renaissance Map 12.4: The Ottoman Empire and Southeastern Europe The Church in the Renaissance The Problems of Heresy and Reform ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Recovery and Rebirth:

Chapter 12
  • Recovery and Rebirth
  • The Renaissance

Meaning and Characteristics of the Italian
  • Renaissance Rebirth
  • Jacob Burkhardt
  • Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy (1860)
  • Urban Society
  • Age of Recovery
  • Rebirth of Greco-Roman culture
  • Emphasis on individual ability

  • Beginning in Italy, the Renaissance (or
    rebirth) was an era that rediscovered the
    culture of ancient Greece and Rome. It was also
    a time of recovery from the fourteenth century.
    In comparison with medieval society, the
    Renaissance had a more secular and
    individualistic ethos, but might best been seen
    as evolutionary in its urban and commercial
    continuity from the High Middle Ages. In the
    North Sea, the Hanseatic League competed with
    merchants from the Mediterranean, where the
    Venetians had a commercial empire. In Florence,
    profits from the woolen industry were invested in

  • The aristocracy remained the ruling class, its
    ideals explicated in Castigliones The Book of
    the Courtier. Peasants were still the vast
    majority, but serfdom and manorialism were dying
    out. An important minority were the inhabitants
    of towns and cities, with merchants and bankers
    at the apex and the unskilled workers at the
    bottom. The father or husband as a dictator
    dominated the extended family, and marriages were
    arranged for social and economic advantage. Wives
    were much younger than their husbands, with their
    primary function being to bear children the
    mortality rate in childbirth and for infants and
    young children remained high.

The Making of Renaissance Society
  • Economic Recovery
  • Italian cities lose economic supremacy
  • Hanseatic League
  • Manufacturing
  • Textiles, printing, mining and metallurgy
  • Banking
  • Florence and the Medici

The Polish City of Gdansk An Important Member of
the Hanseatic League
Social Changes in the Renaissance
  • The Nobility
  • Reconstruction of the aristocracy
  • Aristocracy 2 3 percent of the population
  • Baldassare Castiglione (1478 1529)
  • The Book of the Courtier (1528)
  • Service to the prince

Peasants and Townspeople
  • Peasants
  • Peasants 85 90 percent of population
  • Decline of manorial system and serfdom
  • Urban Society
  • Patricians
  • Petty burghers, shopkeepers, artisans,
    guildmasters, and guildsmen
  • The poor and unemployed
  • Slaves

Family and Marriage in Renaissance Italy
  • Husbands and Wives
  • Arranged Marriages
  • Husband head of household
  • Wife managed household
  • Children
  • Childbirth
  • Sexual Norms

The Italian States in the Renaissance
  • Five Major Powers
  • Milan
  • Venice
  • Florence
  • The Medici
  • The Papal States
  • Kingdom of Naples
  • Independent City-States
  • Mantua
  • Ferrara
  • Urbino
  • The Role of Women
  • Warfare in Italy
  • Struggle between France and Spain
  • Invasion and division

  • Italy was dominated by five major states the
    duchy of Milan, Florence, Venice, the Papal
    States, and the kingdom of Naples. There were
    also other city-states that were centers of
    culture and where women played vital roles. At
    the end of the fifteenth century, Spain and
    France invaded the divided peninsula. The
    exemplar of the new statecraft was Niccolo
    Machiavelli (d.527), whose The Prince described
    the methods of gaining and holding political
    power moral concerns are irrelevant, for the
    ends justify the means.

Map 12.1 Renaissance Italy
The Birth of Modern Diplomacy
  • Modern diplomacy a product of Renaissance Italy
  • Changing concept of the ambassador
  • Resident ambassadors
  • Agents of the territorial state

Machiavelli and the New Statecraft
  • Niccolo Machiavelli (1469 1527)
  • The Prince
  • Acquisition, maintenance and expansion of
    political power
  • Cesare Borgia

  • There was an increased emphasis upon the human.
    Among the influential humanists was Petrarch
    (d.1374) in his advocacy of classical Latin
    writers. Civic humanism posited that the ideal
    citizen was not only an intellectual but also a
    patriot, actively serving the state, and humanist
    education was to produce individuals of virtue
    and wisdom. The printing press was perfected,
    multiplying the availability of books.

Italian Renaissance Humanism
  • Classical Revival
  • Petrarch (1304 1374)
  • Humanism in Fifteenth-Century Italy
  • Leonardo Bruni (1370 1444)
  • New Cicero
  • Lorenzo Valla (1407 1457)
  • Humanism and Philosophy
  • Marsilio Ficino (1433 1499)
  • Translates Platos dialogues
  • Synthesis of Christianity and Platonism
  • Renaissance Hermeticism
  • Ficino, Corpus Hermeticum
  • Giovanni Pico della Mirandola (1463 1494),
    Oration on the Dignity of Man

Education, History, and the Impact of Printing
  • Education in the Renaissance
  • Liberal Studies history, moral philosophy,
    eloquence (rhetoric), letters (grammar and
    logic), poetry, mathematics, astronomy and music
  • Education of women
  • Aim of education was to create a complete citizen
  • Humanism and History
  • Secularization
  • Guicciardini (1483 1540), History of Italy,
    History of Florence
  • The Impact of Printing
  • Johannes Gutenberg
  • Movable type (1445 1450)
  • Gutenbergs Bible (1455 or 1456)
  • The spread of printing

Art in the Early Renaissance
  • Masaccio (1401 1428)
  • Perspective and Organization
  • Movement and Anatomical Structure
  • Paolo Uccelo (1397 1475)
  • The Martyrdom of Saint Sebastian
  • Sandro Botticelli (1445 1510)
  • Primavera
  • Donato di Donatello (1386 1466)
  • David
  • Filippo Brunelleschi (1377 1446)
  • The Cathedral of Florernce
  • Church of San Lorenzo

  • In art, the aim was to imitate nature by the use
    of realistic perspective. Masaccio (d.1428),
    Donatello (d.1466) and Michelangelo (d.1564) made
    Florence a locus of the arts. The High
    Renaissance of Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci
    (d.1519) and Raphael (d.1520) combined natural
    realism with Platonic idealism. The artisan might
    become a great artist, and thus transform his
    social and economic status.

Masaccio, Tribute Money
The Artistic High Renaissance
  • Leonardo da Vinci (1452 1519)
  • Last Supper
  • Raphael (1483 1520)
  • School of Athens
  • Michelangelo (1475 1564)
  • The Sistine Chapel

Raphael, School of Athens
The Artist and Social Status
  • Early Renaissance
  • Artists as craftsmen
  • High Renaissance
  • Artists as heroes

The Northern Artistic Renaissance
  • Jan van Eyck (c. 1380 1441)
  • Giovanni Arnolfini and His Bride
  • Albrecht Dürer (1471 1528)
  • Adoration of the Magi

Van Eyck, Giovanni Arnolfini and His Bride
Music in the Renaissance
  • Burgundy
  • Guillaume Dufay (c. 1400 1474)
  • The Renaissance Madrigal

The European State in the Renaissance
  • The Renaissance State in Western Europe
  • France
  • Louis XI the Spider King (1461 1483)
  • England
  • War of the Roses
  • Henry VII Tudor (1485 1509)
  • Spain
  • Unification of Castile and Aragón
  • Establishment of professional royal army
  • Religious uniformity
  • The Inquisition
  • Conquest of Granada
  • Expulsion of the Jews

Map 12.2 Europe in the Second Half of the
Fifteenth Century
Map 12.3 The Iberian Peninsula
  • It was the era of the new monarchies. In
    France, Louis XI (d.1483), the Spider,
    established a centralized state. Englands Henry
    VII (d.1509) limited the private armies of the
    aristocracy, raised taxes, and left a more
    powerful monarchy. In Spain, Isabella (d.1504)
    and Ferdinand (d.1516) created a professional
    army and enforced religious uniformity by the
    conversion and expulsion of Jews and Moslems.

Central, Eastern, and Ottoman Empires
  • Central Europe The Holy Roman Empire
  • Habsburg Dynasty
  • Maximilian I (1493 1519)
  • The Struggle for Strong Monarchy in Eastern
  • Poland
  • Hungary
  • Russia
  • The Ottoman Turks and the End of the Byzantine
  • Seljuk Turks spread into Byzantine territory
  • Constantinople falls to the Turks (1453)

  • The Holy Roman Empire remained weak, but the
    Habsburg emperors created a strong state of their
    own through numerous marriages. The were no new
    monarchies in eastern Europe, but Russias Ivan
    III (d.1505) ended Mongol control. Lastly, in
    1453 the Ottoman Turks captured Constantinople.

Map 12.4 The Ottoman Empire and Southeastern
The Church in the Renaissance
  • The Problems of Heresy and Reform
  • John Wycliff (c. 1328 1384) and Lollardy
  • John Hus (1374 1415)
  • Urged the elimination of worldliness and
    corruption of the clergy
  • Burned at the stake (1415)
  • Church Councils
  • The Papacy
  • The Renaissance Papacy
  • Julius II (1503 1513)
  • Warrior Pope
  • Nepotism
  • Patrons of Culture
  • Leo X (1513 1521)

  • The church was besieged by problems. John Wyclif
    (d.1384) and John Hus (d.1415) condemned the
    papacy for corruption, its temporal concerns, and
    demanded the Bible in the vernacular. The popes
    reflected their era, and their secular
    involvements overshadowed their spiritual
    responsibilities. Some preferred war and
    politics to prayer and piety, and others ignored
    their vows of celibacy, ambitiously advancing
    their families over the needs of the faithful.
    Most were great patrons of the arts, but
    religious concerns ranked behind the pleasures of
    this life.

Discussion Questions
  • Does the Renaissance represent a sharp break from
    the Middle Ages or a continuation of the Medieval
  • What social changes did the Renaissance bring
  • How did Machiavelli deal with the issue of
    political power?
  • How did the printing press change European
  • What technical achievements did Renaissance
    artists make? Why were they significant?
  • What was the relation between art and politics in
    Renaissance Italy?
  • How did the popes handle the growing problems
    that were emerging in the Church in the Fifteenth
    and early Sixteenth Century?

Web Links
  • Renaissance Secrets
  • Explore Leonardos Studio
  • Leonardo da Vinci on the BBC
  • Vatican Exhibit Rome Reborn
  • Renaissance Focus on Florence
  • The Uffizi Gallery Florence
  • Vatican Museums The Sistine Chapel
  • The War of the Roses
  • The Ottoman Website