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Second Language Acquisition.2

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What? Second Language Acquisition.2 Roml 700 Fall 2012 * Emphasizes learning as social action. Rationale for peer work. * I know what this is! But what are we ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Second Language Acquisition.2


1
Second Language Acquisition.2
What?
  • Roml 700
  • Fall 2012

2
I know what this is!
But what are we supposed to do with it?
3
BUT
  • Helping Learners to learn does not require an
    understanding of SLA phenomena.
  • ICoSLA (International Commission on Second
    Language Acquisition)

4
Cognitive Linguistics
  • Efficiency
  • grammatical structures of language are directly
    associated with the way people conceptualize

Ronald Langacker grammar is conceptualization
5
Multi-competence Integration continuum
  • Mind of L2 user is a whole
  • L1 interlanguage L2

Cook, 2002 Grosjean, 2001
6
Fundamental distinctions
  • Competence
  • Performance
  • Unconscious knowledge of a grammatical system
  • How linguistic knowledge is used

7
What do we teach?
8
Oh, crap! this is going to hurt!!
9
Input
  • Learners source of information is the target
    language itself.
  • Intake Learner processes language
  • Language must fall within the learners range of
    comprehension.
  • Different learners have different intake levels.

Krashens I 1
10
Factors in traditional instructional methods that
inhibit intake
  • Strict sequencing
  • Emphasis on productive skills
  • Limited interaction

11
Using English in the classroom NO
  • Children learning L1 cant fall back on another
    language.
  • L1 and L2 should be kept in separate compartments
    in the brain.
  • Maximize quantity of exposure to L2.
  • Use L2 for real life functions.

12
Using English in the classroom YES
  • Cognitive styles

Wholists Analytics Verbalisers Convergent
thinkers Divergent thinkers Holists Serialists Si
ngle dimension right-brain to left-brain Adaptati
on-Innovation
  1. Acquisition Learning hypothesis
  2. Monitor hypothesis
  3. Natural Order hypothesis
  4. Input hypothesis
  5. Affective Filter hypothesis

Hudson Witkin Ornstein Riding
13
Using English in the classroom HOW?
  • Teachers
  • Instructions, explanations
  • Use of L1 is supportive and facilitating
  • scaffolding
  • Students
  • Allows work within Zone of Proximal Development
  • Protects attitudinal balance between L1 and L2

Clay, 2005 Smagorinsky, 2007
ZPD Lev Vigotsky, 1978
14
Why correct errors?
15
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16
Acquisition theory
  • Learner will stop making errors when ready
  • Provide correct Input 1

17
Learning as process
  • Make error obvious
  • Model alternative
  • Explain why its important to produce the correct
    answer

18
fossilization
  • stopping short (incompleteness) of native
    speaker proficiency
  • A central characteristic of any interlanguage is
    that it fossilizes cases to develop at some
    point short of full identity with the target
    language.

Selinker, L. (1972). Interlanguage. IRAL, 10,
(3), 209-231.
Tarone, 1994
Motivation Ego boundaries Lack of empathy with TL
speakers
19
Pragmatics
  • Grammatical competence
  • Unconscious
  • Implicit knowledge the speaker has about language
  • Comes from the module of the mind associated with
    the human language faculty Chomsky, 1965
  • Pragmatics
  • Real world knowledge
  • Not innate
  • The result of non-language specific abilities
    that change over the course of cognitive
    development

20
How do we test achievement?
21
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22
Progress assessment
  • Is student a successful L2 user? (not failed
    native speaker)
  • What makes individual sense specialized goals.

Wanted Proper descriptions of successful L2
users unique characteristics of grammar,
vocabulary and pronunciation.
23
Proficiency assessment
  • American Council of Teachers of Foreign Languages
  • Minnesota Language Proficiency Assessment
  • Center for Advanced Language Proficiency
    Education and Research , Penn State
  • University of Iowa
  • World Language Placement Tests
  • developed at Brigham Young

Achievement and Placement
24
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