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Strands in the Study of Geography

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Strands in the Study of Geography AUTOCRACY RULE BY ONE PERSON Oldest and most common form of government Most autocrats receive power through inheritance or ruthless ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Strands in the Study of Geography


1
Strands in the Study of Geography
2
(Final) End of Year Project 05/22/14
  • Create a game about World Geography.
  • Game will be played by classmates.
  • Teams will be comprised of 4 members or less.
  • Teams will have to create a playable game and
    promotional poster by due date.

3
Eight Strands of Social Studies
  • History
  • Geography
  • Economics
  • Government
  • Citizenship
  • Culture
  • Science, Technology, and Society
  • Social Studies Skills

4
Social Studies Strand - History
  • People, events, and issues from the past that
  • affect people presently
  • will continue to affect people in the future
  • Explains how individuals and societies interact
    over time

5
Social Studies Strand - Geography
  • Relationships among people, places, and
    environment that result in patterns on the
    Earths surface
  • Meant to help people
  • Compete in a global economy
  • Make sure the environment stays healthy
  • Understand different cultures and how they live
    together in the same planet

6
Social Studies Strand - Economics
  • Meant to organize systems based on what is
    produced, what is distributed, and what is
    consumed

7
Social Studies Strand - Government
  • Structures of power and authority
  • Power is meant to provide order and stability

8
Social Studies Strand - Citizenship
  • Requires that people understand their
  • Responsibilities as citizens
  • Rights as citizens
  • Ethical behavior
  • People fully participate when they understand
  • Civic ideals
  • Citizenship practices
  • Basis for constitutional republics

9
Social Studies Strand - Culture
  • How people develop, learn, and adapt cultures
  • Meant to help people understand variety of human
    cultures in the community and around the world

10
Social Studies Strand Science, Technology, and
Society
  • How people live, learn, and work - past, present,
    and future based on their relationship with
    science, technology, and the environment

11
Social Studies Strand Social Studies Skills
  • Used to acquire, organize, and use information
    for problem-solving and decision-making.
  • Meant to help people become better
    problem-solvers, decision-makers, and independent
    lifelong learners

12
Exploring Geography
  • You should now understand what is meant by the
    following terms
  • History
  • Geography
  • Economics
  • Government
  • Citizenship
  • Culture
  • Science, Technology, and Society
  • Social Studies Skills

13
Chapter 1 The Earth
14
Space
  • The Earth is the third planet from the sun and is
    a terrestrial planet.
  • Two types of planets
  • Terrestrial planets
  • (made up of rocky crusts)
  • Giant gaseous planets
  • (more gaseous and less dense)

15
Spheres
  • Hydrosphere- All of earths water.
  • Lithosphere- The earths crust.
  • Atmosphere- The earths air.
  • Biosphere- The part of the earth that supports
    life.

16
Landforms
  • The four major landforms are mountains, hills,
    plateaus, and plains.
  • The seven most visible landforms are the
    continents
  • Africa, Asia, Antarctica,
  • Australia, Europe,
  • North America,
  • South America.

17
Water
  • About 70 of Earths surface is water.
  • 97 is saltwater and 3 is freshwater. Many parts
    of the world are already suffering from water
    shortages.

18
Climate
19
Climate and Weather
  • Weather is what is occurring in one place during
    a short period of time.
  • Climate describes long term weather patterns.

20
What Effects Climate?
  • Latitude
  • The Atmosphere
  • Elevation
  • Ocean/Wind Currents
  • ?

21
Latitude- Middle of Earth gets the most rays.
  • The areas between The Tropic of Cancer and the
    Tropic of Capricorn receive the suns direct rays
    and are thus warmer. The farther you get from the
    middle, the colder it gets.

22
The Atmosphere and Climate
  • The atmosphere keeps heat from escaping too
    quickly into space.
  • This is key to life on earth.

23
Pollution and the Greenhouse Effect
  • Pollution traps more of the Suns rays.
    Increasing the temperature.

24
Chinese Smog
25
Altitude/Elevation and Climate
  • As you increase the elevation. The air thins out.
  • This leads to two things less air, colder
    temperatures.

26
Wind
  • The Coriolis Effect causes prevailing winds to
    blow diagonally.
  • These winds are the major trade winds of the
    world.
  • They used to move ships. They still move climate
    and precipitation.

27
Ocean
  • Ocean currents moderate the temperature. Making
    places less cold and less hot.
  • Vacation time!

28
Examples
29
Forces of Change
30
Dynamism Inside Earth
  • There is extreme heat and pressure inside of the
    Earth. In fact, temperatures there reach 8,500
    F.
  • Magma is in the Mantle.
  • The Crust is a thin layer of rock that is about 2
    miles thick. The crust is broken into plates that
    float on the upper mantle.

31
Plate Movement
  • 500 million years ago, our continents were
    together in one supercontinent called Pangaea.
  • The plates have since moved apart.

32
Internal Forces of Change
  • The same forces that move the continents, also
    create mountains, islands, volcanoes and
    earthquakes.

33
Erosion
  • Erosion is the wearing away of the Earths
    surface by wind, glaciers, and moving water.
  • A terrible example would be the Dust Bowl that
    devastated America during the 1930s.

34
Chapter 2 The Human World
35
Culture
  • The way of life of a group of people
  • Share similar beliefs and customs
  • Group of people with common characteristics

36
Elements of Culture
  1. History
  2. Language
  3. Religion
  4. Entertainment/Recreation
  5. Cultural Expression
  6. Social Classes
  7. Social Groups
  8. Economic Activities
  9. Government
  10. Culture Regions

37
World Religions
38
World Culture Regions
39
Culture
  • We are very familiar with culture because we see
    it everyday

40
Cultural Change
  • Does culture stay the same?
  • Internal and external factors are always changing
    cultures
  • Internal new ideas, lifestyles, inventions
  • External trade, migration, war
  • Cultural Diffusion
  • The spread of ideas from one culture to another

41
Cultural Diffusion
  • I. Agricultural Revolution We used to be nomads
    (people that move from place to place)
  • The invention of farming allowed people to settle
    in one place creating CIVILIZATIONS

42
Cultural Diffusion
  • Cultural Hearths centers of civilizations whose
    ideas and practices spread to surrounding areas
  • Most influential
  • Egypt
  • Iraq
  • Pakistan
  • China
  • Mexico

43
World Culture Hearths
44
Cultural Diffusion
  • Trade the development of civilizations allowed
    for the creation of technology
  • The invention of new technology gave way to long
    distance trade and the spread of ideas

45
Cultural Diffusion
  • Permanent Migration the movement of people
    gives way to the movement of ideas
  • Migrants carry their cultures with them, and
    their ideas and practices often blend with those
    of the people already living in the migrants
    adopted country

46
Cultural Diffusion
  • Industrial Informational Revolution
  • Industrial the transformation of economies led
    to social changes
  • Informational globalization!

47
Exploring Geography
  • Culture
  • Cultural Diffusion
  • Culture Hearths
  • Culture Region

48
Population
49
Population Growth
  • Demographics
  • Tell you specific statistical information about
    population
  • Example El Paso is 72 Latino
  • Example University of Texas at El Paso is 55
    Female

50
Growth Rates
  • Death rate the of deaths per year for every
    1000 people
  • Birth rate the of births per year for every
    1000 people
  • Growth rate Birthrate Death Rate
  • How much the population is growing by, total
  • Can be positive, more people being born than
    dying
  • Negative Population Growth
  • When more people dying than being born
  • Death rate is greater than birth rate
  • Zero Population Growth
  • When birth rate and death rate are equal

51
Population distribution
  • Pattern of human settlement is uneven
  • People live where the following are available
  • Fertile soil
  • Water
  • Climate without harsh extremes
  • Terrain that allows for human life
  • Areas where population is highly concentrated are
    typically metropolitan areas

52
population density
  • How crowded a country or a region is measured by
    population density

Sparsely Populated
Densely Populated
Not too much population in one area
A lot of population in one area
53
Population movement
  • Human Migration movement of people from place
    to place
  • Emigration people move out of a place
  • Immigration people move into a place
  • Urbanization when people move into cities or
    urban areas (areas with heavy population density)
    from rural areas (areas with lighter population
    density)

54
Push pull factors
  • Push factors Things that push people to
    emigrate away from an area
  • Pull factors Things that pull people to
    immigrate to an area
  • Push Factors
  • Pull Factors

55
Doubling time
  • High birthrates and low death rates greatly
    increases population growth
  • Doubling time the number of years it takes a
    population to double in size
  • Usually occurs in developing countries
  • Ex Africa 25yrs
  • EX US 300 yrs

56
C. Population pyramids (Age-Sex graph)
  • Useful tool to help you understand population
    characteristics of a country
  • Reveals a lot about a countries patterns of
    fertility, mortality, immigration and history
  • Population Pyramid

57
(No Transcript)
58
pyramid
  • Usually seen in underdeveloped countries
  • High birthrates
  • Young life expectancy

59
Column
  • Developed country
  • Roughly the same birthrate and death rate
  • What else can you interpret?

60
Column
  • More females than males
  • Low birthrate

61
Exploring Geography
  • Literacy Rates
  • Per-Capita
  • Population Density
  • Population Distribution
  • Population Pyramids
  • Rural
  • Sparsely Populated
  • Standard of Living
  • Urban
  • Urbanization
  • Birth rate
  • Cities
  • Death Rate
  • Densely Populated
  • Developed Country
  • Developing Country
  • Emigration
  • Human Migration
  • Immigration
  • Life Expectancy

62
Political and Governmental Systems
63
GOVERNMENT
  • Institution through which a society
  • Maintains social order
  • Provides social services
  • Ensures national security
  • Supports its economic well-being

64
Levels of Government
  • Unitary System
  • Gives all key powers to the national or central
    government
  • Federal System
  • Divides the power of government between the
    national and state Government

65
Types of Government - Stems
  • Definitions of pieces of words
  • Beginnings of words
  • uni means one
  • auto- means self
  • oli- means some or a few
  • mono- means one
  • demo- means many
  • Ends of words
  • -cracy means ruled by or governing body
  • -archy means ruled by or governing body

66
AUTOCRACY RULE BY ONE PERSON
  • Oldest and most common form of government
  • Most autocrats receive power through inheritance
    or ruthless use of military or police control
  • Suppress political opposition

67
AUTOCRACY RULE BY ONE PERSON
  • Ex Absolute or Totalitarian dictatorships
  • One person seeks to control all aspects of social
    and economic life
  • Government is not responsible for the people
  • People have no power to limit rulers actions
    for example
  • Adolf Hitler (Nazi Germany)
  • Benito Mussolini (Italy)
  • Joseph Stalin (Soviet Union)

68
AUTOCRACY RULE BY ONE PERSON
  • Ex Monarchy
  • King or Queen exercises the supreme power of the
    govt
  • Usually inherit their positions
  • Absolute Monarchs have complete and unlimited
    power to rule the people
  • Constitutional Monarchs share governmental
    powers with elected legislatures or serve as
    ceremonial leaders

69
OLIGARCHY RULE BY A FEW PEOPLE
  • Small group holds power
  • Group derives its power from
  • Wealth
  • Military power
  • Social position
  • Religion
  • And/or combination of these elements
  • Suppress political opposition

70
OLIGARCHY RULE BY A FEW PEOPLE
  • Many times both dictatorships and oligarchies
    claim they rule for the people
  • But only give the illusion and no actual
    commitment is made to support the people
  • Ex Communist China

71
DEMOCRACY RULE BY MANY PEOPLE
  • System of government where leaders rule with the
    consent of the citizens
  • Latin (Demosthe people) (kratiaRule)
  • Government by the many not the FEW

72
DEMOCRACY RULE BY MANY PEOPLE
  • Ex Representative Democracies
  • People elect representatives with the
    responsibility and power to make laws and conduct
    govt
  • Called either
  • Council
  • Legislature
  • Congress
  • Parliament

73
DEMOCRACY RULE BY MANY PEOPLE
  • Ex Republics (US France)
  • Voters elect all major officials, who are
    responsible to the people
  • Head-of-State President
  • Not every democracy is a republic
  • ie United Kingdom democracy with a monarch

74
Exploring Geography
  • By now, you should have definitions for the
    following terms
  • Government
  • Oligarchy
  • Monarchy
  • Republic
  • Representative Democracy
  • Autocracy
  • Unitary System
  • Federal System

75
Economic Systems
  • By SHS Social Studies

76
ECONOMIC SYSTEMS
  • The financials of a country
  • How you buy, sell, and/or trade goods for other
    stuff or currency (money)

77
ECONOMIC SYSTEMS
  • Three basic questions all economic systems must
    ask
  • What goods and services should be produced and
    how many goods and services should be produced?
  • How should the goods and services be produced?
  • Who gets the goods and services that are produced?

78
ECONOMIC SYSTEMS
  • There are 3 major types of economic systems
  • Traditional Economic System
  • Command Economic System
  • Market Economic System
  • a. Mixed Economy

79
TRADITIONAL Economic System
  • Habits and customs determine the rules for how
    you buy, sell, or trade things (economic
    activity)
  • You behave based on customs and traditions
  • Ex Hunter and gatherer
  • Today Hunting and gathering practiced in few
    parts of the world

80
COMMAND Economic System
  • The government owns or directs how goods are made
    (means of production) and controls the
    distribution of goods
  • Means of Production
  • Land
  • Labor
  • Capital (machinery, factories)
  • Business managers

81
COMMAND Economic System
  • Hope decisions made will benefit all of society
    and not just a limited few
  • Intent to distribute goods equally
  • Problem citizens have no voice in how tax money
    is spent

82
COMMAND Economic System
  • Two types of Command Economic Systems
  • Communism
  • Socialism
  • Communism the government has complete and total
    control over the economic system
  • The fear..that two free decision-making
    businesses will not work for the people
  • Ex Soviet Union

83
COMMAND Economic System
  • Socialism allows free enterprise alongside
    government-run activities
  • Three main goals
  • Equal distribution of wealth
  • Societys control, through its government, of all
    major decisions about production
  • Public ownership of most land, factories and
    other means of production
  • Democratic socialism people have basic human
    rights even though the government controls
    certain industries

84
MARKET Economic Systems
  • Individuals and private groups make decisions
    about what to produce
  • People decide what they will and will not
    purchase and what job they will hold
  • Based on the idea of free enterprise or
    capitalism
  • Idea that private individuals or groups have the
    right to own property or businesses and make a
    profit with only limited government interference

85
MARKET Economic System
  • No country in the world has a PURE market
    economic system, the next alternative is..
  • Mixed economies one in which the government
    supports and regulates free enterprise through
    decisions that affect the marketplace
  • Governments responsibility is to keep the
    economic system fair

86
Exploring Geography
  • By now, you should have definitions for the
    following terms
  • Economic Systems
  • Goods and Services
  • Market Economic System
  • Mixed Economy
  • Command Economic System
  • Socialism
  • Communism
  • Traditional Economic System
  • Means of Production

87
Click on the links below for more information on
each region.
  • PPT Palooza
  • Mr. Donn

88
Analyzing Maps, Charts, Graphs, Political
Cartoons and Excerpts
  • By SHS Social Studies Department
  • Part D
  • 1230 130 pm

89
Analyzing Maps, Charts, Graphs, Political
Cartoons and Excerpts
  1. Look at the map, chart, graph, political cartoon,
    or excerpt once, ask yourself What do you see?
  2. Highlight, underline, or write down any key
    words, images, trends, legends, etc. that you
    understand (this will become your EVIDENCE)
  3. Try to figure out what the author/artist is
    trying to tell the reader(s)/observers
  4. Read the question and try to figure out what its
    trying to ask you

90
Analyzing Maps, Charts, Graphs, Political
Cartoons and Excerpts
  • 5. Answer the question in your own words (prior
    to looking at options)
  • 6. Read your responses from D to A, allowing
    your mind to break from its usual routine
  • 7. You should respond based on the BEST answer
    that is also based on your EVIDENCE and a little
    on outside historical evidence (that you remember)

91
Practice
  • Lets try 1 together

92
Analyzing and Image DONT READ THE QUESTION
YET! Ask yourself What do you see?
93
Analyzing and Image Now that youve written down
what you see, read the question
1. The photograph above shows how farmers on the
Great Plains
94
Analyzing and Image Read the answers from D to
A, eliminating and way off answers
1. The photograph above shows how farmers on the
Great Plains
  • D. maintained contact with their neighbors
  • C. developed new agricultural technology
  • B. adapted to their environment
  • A. utilized irrigation techniques

95
Analyzing the Image
  • The correct answer is B because it doesnt look
    very neighborly (D), it has nothing to do with
    agriculture (C), and it doesnt look like theres
    a lot of irrigation going on (A). It mostly shows
    how they adapt to the plains environment

96
Analyzing Maps, Charts, Graphs, Political
Cartoons and Excerpts
  • Analyze the following maps, charts, graphs,
    political cartoons and excerpts and answer them
    on your own.
  • You will review the answers as a class once you
    have finished.
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