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Colonialism in Africa

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Title: Colonialism in Africa


1
Colonialism in Africa
2
Berlin Conference
  • Tensions between European powers seeking African
    colonies led to the Berlin West Africa Conference
    (1884-1885) or Berlin Conference.
  • At this conference there were delegates
    representing fourteen European states and the
    United States. Here they devised the ground rules
    for the colonization of Africa without a single
    African being present.

3
  • The conference produced an agreement that any
    European state could establish an African colony
    after notifying the other nations of its
    intentions.
  • This conference provided European diplomats with
    the justification they needed to draw lines on
    maps and carve a continent into colonies.

4
Berlin Conference
5
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6
Colonization Begins
  • In the 1890s Europeans sent armies to consolidate
    their claims and impose colonial rule in Africa.
  • Armed with the latest weaponry, African forces
    were easily defeated with their outdated muskets
    and spears by cannons and machine gun fire. By
    1900 all of Africa was under colonial rule except
    for the areas of what are now the countries of
    Liberia and Ethiopia.

7
Problems with Colonization
  • In the wake of this rapid conquest came problems
    of colonial occupation. European countries
    assumed that following an initial modest
    investment, colonial administration would become
    financially self-sufficient. For decades
    Europeans struggled to figure out how to rule
    Africa, only to learn that colonial rule in
    Africa could be maintained only through
    exceedingly high expenditures.

8
Early Colonial Rule
  • The earliest approach to colonial rule involved
    concessionary companies. These were private
    companies that were granted large concessions of
    territory by European governments.
  • These concessionary companies were empowered to
    undertake economic activities such as mining,
    plantation agriculture, or railroad construction.

9
  • These companies also had permission to implement
    systems of taxation and labor recruitment.
  • This new approach allowed European governments
    to colonize and exploit immense territories with
    only a modest investment in capital and
    personnel, but this also brought liabilities.

10
  • Such liabilities as brutal use of forced labor,
    which provoked a public outcry in Europe, and
    profits smaller than anticipated convinced most
    European governments by the early twentieth
    century to curtail the powers of private
    companies and to establish their own rule, which
    typically took two forms, direct rule typical of
    French colonies and indirect rule typical of
    British colonies.

11
Colonization under Direct Rule
  • Direct rule- Under direct rule, colonies featured
    administrative districts headed by European
    personnel who assumed responsibility for tax
    collection, labor and military recruitment, and
    the maintenance of law and order.
  • Administrative boundaries intentionally cut
    across existing African political and ethnic
    boundaries in order to divide and weaken
    potentially powerful indigenous (native) groups.

12
  • Direct rule aimed at removing strong kings and
    other leaders and replacing them with more
    compliant persons.
  • The underlying principle of direct rule was the
    desire to keep African populations in check and
    to permit European administrators to engage in a
    civilizing mission. This approach to colonial
    rule presented its own difficulties.

13
Difficulties Under Direct Rule
  • Constant shortage of European personal Ex. In
    French West Africa some thirty-six hundred
    Europeans tried to rule over an African
    population of more than nine million.
  • The combination of long distances and slow
    transport limited effective communication between
    regional authorities and officials in remote
    areas.

14
  • An inability to speak local languages and a
    limited understanding of local customs among
    European officials further undermined their
    effective administration.

15
Colonization under Indirect Rule
  • A British colonial administrator Frederick D.
    Lugard was the driving force behind the doctrine
    of indirect rule, which the British employed in
    many of its African colonies.
  • Lugard wrote The Dual Mandate in British Tropical
    Africa. In this he stressed the moral and
    financial advantages of exercising control over
    subject populations through indigenous (native)
    institutions.

16
Frederick D. Lugard
17
  • Lugard thought that by using tribal and customary
    laws Europeans could establish a strong
    foundation for colonial rule.
  • Forms of indirect rule worked in regions where
    Africans had already established strong and
    highly organized states but often this plan was
    not effective, especially in the regions that
    were not well organized under the control of its
    colonial leaders.

18
Difficulties Under Indirect Rule
  • Many colonial leaders were confused by the
    complexity of tribal laws and boundaries and
    imposed their own idea of what they thought was
    tribal boundaries and tribal laws.
  • This was done with little regard to the
    differences between tribes and these tribes were
    split up into what Europeans thought was
    acceptable boundaries. These colonial boundaries
    divided ethnic groups or grouped traditional
    enemies. Some groups were even given limited
    access to water in their newly drawn up lines of
    tribal territories.

19
Colonialisms Effects Today
  • As a result of colonial rule with little regard
    to Africans tribal boundaries and practices many
    African nations today are fighting tribal wars
    Ex.(Rwandan genocide) and still having disputes
    over land for reasons such as ethnic dominance
    and control over natural resources.

20
Rwandan Genocide
21
Current Challenges in Africa
HIV/AIDS
22
-While Sub-Saharan Africa is home to just over 10
percent of the worlds population, it has more
than 60 percent or more than 25 million people
living with HIV/AIDS. -Two important issues to
note with regard to the epidemic in Sub-Saharan
Africa are, first we are dealing with multiple
epidemics requiring multiple strategies and, two
the face of the epidemic is becoming more
feminine which has dire consequences. -These next
two slides show that while Sub-Saharan Africa
bears the brunt of the epidemic in terms of
the number of people affected, HIV/AIDS spares no
one.
23
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24
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25
Population Growth
  • -Over the last century Africa's population has
    grown at a rapid rate.
  • - Various estimates of the population size of
    Africa indicate that prior to 1900 the annual
    growth rate of population was less then 0.1
    percent. During the period 1900-1950. It was 1.2
    percent in the period 1950-1970, the growth rate
    was estimated at 2.8 percent. In the period
    1980-1990, the rate was at 3.2 percent. This data
    Shows that the recent demographic trends in
    Africa are characterized by unprecedented rapid
    growth rates.

26
  • Africa's population which was estimated at 257
    million in 1960 had increased to 482 million by
    1983. In 1993 the population of the continent
    was estimated at 682 million. The average annual
    growth rate during the decade was 3.2 percent,
    the highest among a Third World region.
  • Current population estimates of the continent are
    around 1 billion people.
  • Africa faces a major population explosion in the
    near future.

27
Poaching and the Ivory Trade
  • Although international ivory trade has been
    banned since 1989, elephant tusks are hot
    commodities on the black market.
  • The tusks are actually elongated incisors. Since
    about a third of their length is inside the
    skull, the tusks cannot be fully removed while
    the animal is alive. Poachers therefore shoot
    into an elephant herd, cut off the trunks of any
    fallen animals, and hack out the tusks with an
    axe.

28
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29
  • In the decade before the ivory ban, the number of
    African elephants plummeted from roughly 1.3
    million to fewer than 600,000.
  • Before the ban, about 7.4 percent of the animals
    were killed for their tusks each year. This ban
    helped during the early and mid 1990s but is now
    on the rise again.

30
  • Current estimates suggest that the annual rate is
    now 8 percent, worse then before the ban. This
    could bring African elephants to extinction by
    2020 according to the Convention on International
    Trade in Endangered Species or CITIES. Today the
    current African elephant population is around
    450,000 (Aug.2008). That means that roughly
    36,000 African elephants are poached each year
    for their ivory tusks.

31
Crisis in Sudan
  • Sudan has been at war with itself for almost its
    entire post- colonial history since 1956. All of
    its major ethnic religious groups have fought
    or are fighting each other today.
  • In 2004 government troops and militia groups
    known as Janjaweed moved to crush the black
    African ethnic groups that have been neglected by
    the Muslim Central government.

32
  • Estimates of 300,000 people dead and roughly 2.7
    million have fled their homes to get away from
    the crisis. Currently there are almost a dozen
    armed groups across the country, each with its
    own political agenda.

33
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34
Child Soldiering
  • Currently there are 300,000 child soldiers
    world-wide. Most of these children live in Africa
    today. These children are controlled by warlords
    new rebel groups that are motivated by
    financial gain through violence and crimes. These
    warlords use poor young children who are
    impressionable, fearless and in abundant supply.
    In recent years such countries as Sierra Leone,
    Liberia, Mozambique, Somalia, Uganda, and the
    Democratic Republic of Congo have all been
    locations for child soldiering.

35
Child Soldier
36
Mountain Gorillas in Rwanda
  • In the 1970s -1980s, mountain gorillas were
    being killed for profit in Rwanda Uganda. In
    the 1990s they were causalities of Rwandas
    bloody civil war. In 2003 the last know gorilla
    killing was committed by former park employees.
    They murdered 2 females, stole one infant and
    were sentenced to 4 years in prison.

37
  • Current- Since the end of the civil war and the
    establishment of a new democratic government the
    gorilla population has not only stabilized, it
    has increased. The new Rwanda government has made
    tourism into a growing industry. Rwanda is
    educating its population on the importance of the
    gorilla. Not only is saving the gorilla a human
    act it has become a profitable one. The gorilla
    population in Rwanda has grown from 324 in 1985
    to 380 in 2008 for an increase of 17. While this
    is the case in Rwanda it is not as optimistic in
    the Democratic Republic of Congo.

38
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39
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40
Piracy off the Somalia coast
  • Last year 12 Japanese ships were attacked by
    pirates, a total of over 100 ships from different
    countries were attacked. Some of these ships were
    hijacked for multi-million dollar ransoms.
    Pirates use fast moving skiffs to pull along side
    ships were they are often boarded by ladders /or
    grappling hooks.
  • Current- On 3/23/09 a Japanese cargo ship,
    Jasmine Ace, was attacked by 2 small boats that
    fired rocket propelled grenades (RPGs) and
    automatic weapons into the bridge before fleeing.
    The ship escaped hijacking but increasing speed
    and evasive maneuvers.

41
  • This was the 3rd attack that day on a cargo ship.
    Attacks on ships during January and February of
    2009 are up 10 times from the same period in
    2008. Although the number of attacks is up, the
    number of successful hijackings is down. This is
    mainly because an international anti-piracy
    mission is underway.

42
North Africas CLIMATES
North Africas major climates are Arid (Desert)
Semi-arid (Steppe)
43
Sahara Desert
The Sahara is the worlds largest desert,
stretching 3.5 million square miles.
44
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45
  • Sahara
  • Averages less than five inches of rain each year.
  • Temperatures there can run to the extreme
  • -freezing at night
  • -Can be more than 130 degrees Fahrenheit at the
    peak of day.

46
Wildlife of the Desert
47
Horned Viper
48
Houbara
49
Fennec Fox
50
Sand Cat
51
Sahel -Steppe region below Sahara that is
spreading into a desert region.
52
Atlas Mountains
  • Separates the northern moist Mediterranean
    climate from the arid south.

53
Atlas Mountains in Morocco
Atlas Mountains of Morocco
54
Water
  • Water is the most precious resource for this
    region of deserts and steppe areas.

55
Wadis
  • Wadis dry streambeds that fill with water only
    after rainfall in a desert or steppe region.

56
OASIS
  • Oasis is a place where water comes to the surface
    in desert area.
  • "oasis" is believed to come from an ancient
    Egyptian word, "wah," meaning "fertile place in
    the desert."
  • About 75 percent of the Sahara's population live
    in oases

57
Major Water Features
  • Mediterranean
  • Sea
  • Red Sea
  • Arabian Sea
  • Persian/Arabian
  • Gulf
  • Nile River

58
The Nile and its tributaries flow though nine
countries.
59
The Nile River
  • Length From White Nile Source to
  • Mouth- 4184 miles, longest river
  • in the world
  • Name The Nile gets its name from the
  • Greek word "Nelios", meaning
  • River Valley.
  • Sources The White Nile Lake Victoria,
  • Uganda.
  • The Blue Nile Lake Tana,
  • Ethiopia.

60
ASWAN DAM on the Nile River
  • The Dam was created in 1971
  • The Dam wall is 365 feet high
  • Created artificial lake- Lake Nasser, which
    covers 300 miles

61
Positive effects of Dam
  • Prevents flooding
  • Controls irrigation
  • Can plant 3 crops instead of only 1 a year
  • Creates Hydroelectric power- supplies Egypt with
    40 of its electricity
  • Amount of farmland has increased by 2.9 million
    acres

62
Negative Effects of Dam
  • New layer of fertile soil no longer deposited by
    annual flood, must use fertilizers
  • Very expensive
  • Run off pollutes river, pollution kills fish
  • New soil not added to Delta, which causes erosion


63
  • Water flow has decreased.
  • Stagnant water allows disease to increase.
  • Salt content has increased, which can ruin crops
  • Some experts think weight of Lake Nasser may be
    producing earthquakes

64
Sinai Peninsula located between Egypt and the
Arabian Peninsula
65
Suez Canal
  • The 101-mile waterway connects the
    Mediterranean Sea to the Red Sea.
  • The Suez Canal is used to transport goods to
    and from three continents.

66
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67
History
  • Early Civilization
  • Ancient Egypt- was the birthplace of one of the
    world's first civilization. It began over 5000
    years ago and lasted for 2000 years.
  • The Nile River was the life blood of ancient
    Egypt it provided rich soil, irrigation, and
    transportation. The Egyptians named their nation
    Kemet, Black land, after the rich dark soil of
    the Nile River.

68
Egyptian Contributions
  • Egyptian civilization made many contributions to
    the world. Among them are a 365 - day calendar,
    hieroglyphics (picture writing), and papyrus
    (paper like writing material). They also had one
    of the first national governments and developed a
    religion that emphasized life after death.

69
  • However their best known accomplishment are the
    pyramids, gigantic stone structures built as
    tombs for the pharaohs (kings) that were
    constructed 4500 years ago and are still
    standing.

70
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71
Pyramids at Giza
72
Sphinx
73
  • Beginning in about 3500BC King Menes of Upper
    Egypt conquered Lower Egypt. Memphis became the
    capital of this new nation. It is near present
    day Cairo.
  • He also established the first of 30 dynasties to
    rule Egypt. Egyptian history can be divided into
    three main periods - the Old Kingdom, The Middle
    Kingdom, and the New Kingdom.

74
The Old Kingdom
  • The Old Kingdom began in 2686 BC and was lead by
    Dynasty III. During this period a strong central
    government developed. It is also known for the
    construction of the Great Pyramid and other
    pyramids at Giza.
  • Dynasty IV was headed by King Khufu. As priests
    and government officials fought over power, the
    pharaohs of Dynasty V became weak. The Old
    Kingdom lasted until 2181 BC.

75
The Middle Kingdom
  • The Middle Kingdom was ruled by Dynasty XII. In
    1991 BC Amenemhet seized the throne and moved the
    capital to Itjawy near Memphis.
  • Egypt's wealth and power was restored by this
    dynasty. Egypt conquered Nubia and traded with
    Syria and Palestine.
  • The Middle Kingdom ended in 1786 BC and had been
    a period of growth in architecture, literature,
    and art.

76
The New Kingdom
  • The New Kingdom lasted for 500 years beginning in
    1554 BC.
  • Such rulers as Thutmose I, and Queen Hatshepsut
    created an empire that reached its height in 1400
    BC. During this period Egypt regained control
    over Kush and Nubia. These two areas were sources
    of slaves, copper, gold, ivory, and ebony.

77
  • During the reign of Amenhotep IV huge religious
    changes occurred. Amenhotep IV devoted himself to
    Aten, the sun god.
  • These changes angered many Egyptians and his
    successor King Tutankhamun, he restored the old
    religion.

78
  • With the advent of the XX Dynasty ancient Egypt
    began to decline. It broke into smaller states
    because of the struggle for power between the
    priests and nobles and lost its empire. Foreign
    invaders would take advantage of the situation.

79
Natural Resources
  • Natural Resources - Most valuable natural
    resources are oil and natural gas - Rich fishing
    grounds off Moroccos Atlantic coast - Rain or
    irrigation makes farming possible in areas with
    good soil

80
Moroccan Fishermen
81
THE REGION TODAY
  • Economic Activities - Oil and natural gas are
    basis of Libyan and Algerian economies -
    Agriculture is very important in this region
    despite dry climates - Tourism is another
    important activity which falls victim to
    violence - Still not enough jobs due to rapid
    population growth - Many skilled and educated
    workers leave to find better jobs in Europe or
    oil-rich countries in Southwest Asia

82
  • Urban environments
  • - Cities have a mix of modern and traditional
    buildings - Many cities are becoming overcrowded
    with a ring of slums (shantytowns) surrounding
    the older core - Not enough housing

83
  • Environmental Challenges - Desertification
    (spreading of desert conditions) - Pollution
    from oil refining - Polluted water supplies -
    Health of the Nile River

84
Unit 7Chap 21-24 Africa
85
Chap 22 West and Central Africa
  • Landforms and Rivers
  • Plains and low hills make up most of the
    landscape in West and Central Africa.
  • The El Djouf is a desert region in eastern
    Mauritania and Western Mali near the Niger River.

86
  • The Congo and Niger river are the two largest
    rivers in West and Central Africa.
  • The Congo flows northward from Zambia toward the
    Congo (DROTC) and then takes a West then South
    West course until it empties into the Atlantic
    Ocean on the border of the Congo and Angola.
  • The Niger flows Northeast through the Sahel and
    then the Sahara until it reaches central Mali. It
    then flows Southwest until it empties into the
    Gulf of guinea in Nigeria.

87
The Congo River at Sunset
88
Niger River
89
Climates, Plants, and Animals
  • Climates
  • In the Northern regions in the countries Mali,
    Niger, Mauritania and Chad lies the worlds
    largest arid desert, the Sahara.
  • It is characterized by giant sand seas called
    ergs and extensive gravel covered plans referred
    to as regs.
  • To its immediate South lies the region known as
    the Sahel, a semi-arid region.

90
  • The Sahel vegetation is limited to small shrubs,
    grassland areas and sporadic tree growth.
  • Most indigenous people in the Sahel are
    subsistence farmers, growing crops such as
    peanuts and grains or raise cattle and goats.
  • The combination of droughts and growing
    population have caused desertification in the
    region.
  • Currently desertification is spreading southward
    from the Sahara into the Sahel.

91
Sahel
92
  • South of the Sahel is a tropical wet/dry climate
    and a tropical humid climate.
  • In the tropical wet/dry climates Northeast winds
    from the Sahara bring hot, dry, dusty conditions
    in winter months and winds blow in the opposite
    direction from the ocean and bring rain in the
    summer.
  • In this region small trees, grasslands and shrubs
    are common vegetation.
  • Many animals such as Elephants, Giraffes, Zebras
    live in this region.

93
Congo Rainforest
94
  • Currently many are in a population decline
    because of growing human population and
    conversion of grassland into farmland.
  • The tropical humid region closest to the equator
    is a dense tropical rainforest that is one of the
    worlds most diverse ecosystems.
  • These rainforests have large trees that form
    canopies that are formed by the uppermost layer
    of the trees, where the limbs spread out.
  • Almost all of the worlds Great Apes live in these
    forests except the Orangutan.

95
Natural Resources
  • This region has a wide variety of natural
    resources such as timber and minerals.
  • Much of the timber in this region is being cut
    down at an alarming rate and is causing
    deforestation throughout the region.
  • Oil is the most valuable resource within the
    region.
  • What country exports the most oil in Africa?

96
History
  • Early Empires
  • Ghana was a trading state that was one of the
    first kingdoms in West and Central Africa.
  • With this trade came the transportation of
    different foreign goods and Islam, which many
    empires in the region adopted.
  • Mali was also a great empire that replaced Ghana.
    Its main city was Timbuktu, a center of trade and
    education during its time.

97
Timbuktu
98
  • The Songhai Empire was the last great early
    empire in the region. Like Ghana and Mali they to
    were a trading based empire.
  • Europeans first arrived in West Africa in the
    late 1400s.
  • They came in search of a water route to Asia and
    were lured by gold.
  • Starting in the 1500s the demand for labor in the
    Americas shifted the main trade of gold to slaves
    in West Africa.

99
  • The Colonial Era
  • West Africa
  • Europeans did not hesitate to deceive Africans in
    order to get their land and natural resources.
  • Driven by of rivalries among themselves, Great
    Britain, France, Germany, Belgium, and Portugal
    placed almost all of Africa under European rule
    between 1880 and 1890.
  • West Africa was particularly affected by the
    slave trade, but trafficking in slaves had
    declined after it was declared illegal by both
    Great Britain and the United States by 1808.

100
  • By the 1890s slavery was abolished in all the
    major countries of the world.
  • As slavery declined, Europes interest in other
    forms of trade increased for example, trading
    manufactured goods for peanuts, timber, hides,
    and palm oil.
  • In the early nineteenth century, the British
    established settlements along the Gold Coast and
    in Sierra Leone.
  • The growing European presence in West Africa
    caused increasing tensions with local African
    governments, who reared for their independence.

101
  • In 1874 Great Britain annexed (incorporated a
    country within a state) the west coastal states
    as the first British colony of Gold Coast.
    Simultaneously, it established a protectorate
    over warring Nigerian groups.
  • France controlled the largest part of West
    Africa, and Germany controlled Togo, Cameroon,
    and German Southwest Africa (now Namibia).

102
Central Africa
  • European explorers had generated European
    interest in the dense tropical jungles of Central
    Africa.
  • David Livingstone was one such explorer. He
    arrived in Africa in 1841 and trekked through the
    unexplored interior for 30 years.
  • A journalist from America, Henry Stanley, sailed
    down the Congo River in the 1870s.
  • He encouraged the British to send settlers to the
    Congo River basin. When Britain refused, Stanley
    turned to king Leopold II of Belgium.

103
  • King Leopold II was the real driving force behind
    the colonization of Central Africa.
  • In 1876 he hired Henry Stanley to set up Belgian
    settlements in the Congo.
  • Belgiums claim to the vast territories of the
    Congo worried other European states.
  • France especially rushed to gain territories in
    Central Africa.
  • Belgium ended up with the territories south of
    the Congo River, and France received the
    territories north of the Congo River.

104
  • Colonialism left many effects on West and Central
    Africa.
  • People went from subsistence farmers to a new
    commercial economy.
  • Local economies went from being based on trading
    gold, salt, and ivory to the exporting of
    minerals and farm products.
  • Modern medicine improved the quality of life.
  • High unemployment and low wages
  • Ethnic rivalry

105
Culture
  • West and central Africa are very diverse
    societies.
  • There are three major cultural influences in this
    region.
  • Traditional African cultures, Islam, and European
    culture
  • Most of the languages spoken in this region are
    of the Niger-Congo language family.
  • During the colonial age English and French became
    the lingua francas.

106
  • Islam, Christianity and indigenous African
    religions are dominant in these regions.
  • Indigenous religions believe that the spirits of
    their ancestors play an important part in their
    lives.
  • Education is low throughout both regions with
    only a small percent graduating high school and
    little or none from college.
  • Childrens learned skills come from mainly
    growing crops or raising animals to help provide
    for their families.

107
  • The Region Today
  • All countries in West and central Africa are
    categorized as developing countries.
  • People in these regions on average make less
    income, live shorter lives, have lower levels of
    education and less access to health care then
    developed countries.
  • Farmers in these regions plant and harvest many
    different types of crops.
  • This is done so that if one crop is diseased
    other crops can still be harvested for food.

108
  • Most of the countries in these two regions export
    primary goods.
  • Many countries in the region depend heavily on
    only a few main exports. This has two main
    disadvantages.
  • - It makes economies vulnerable to changes in
    the price of their main exports. Why?
  • - The export of primary goods is less profitable
    than the export of manufactured goods. Why?
  • Rapid population has caused shortages in housing,
    electricity and potable running water.

109
Unit 7Chap 21-24 Africa
110
Chap 23 East Africa
  • Landforms and Water
  • Tectonic activity has shaped the geography of
    East Africa, forming two rift valleys, known as
    the Western and Eastern Rift Valleys.
  • The Western rift runs from Lake Malawi on the
    border of Tanzania and Mozambique northwards
    through Tanzania and the valleys of Lake
    Tanganyika and then ending in Southern Sudan.
  • The Eastern rift runs from Mozambique northward
    through the East coast of Africa and into
    Southwest Asia.

111
  • Along these rift valleys lies the most popular
    mountain in all of Africa, Mount Kilimanjaro.

112
  • Two rivers form in Northern Sudan to make the
    Nile River. The Blue Nile and the White Nile.
  • The headwaters of the Nile River are located in
    two different countries.
  • The White Niles origins are in Lake Victoria and
    run northward until it meets with the Blue Nile
    near Khartoum, Sudan.
  • The Blue Niles origins are in the Ethiopian
    Highlands and run south-southeast before taking a
    West- Northwest turn into Sudan.

113
Blue Nile Falls
114
Climates, Biomes, Natural Resources
  • Latitude and variations in elevation contribute
    to the diverse climates of East Africa.
  • The Equator Region
  • Has alternating wet and dry seasons.
  • Has vegetation on the high plains which is a
    mixture of savannas and forests.
  • Forests grow on the mountain slopes of the region
    and rainfall is heavy.

115
North and South regions
  • Regions North and South of the equator are
    characterized by seasonal droughts.
  • Weather is frequently hard to predict in East
    Africa.
  • To little rain causes grass to die and as a
    result the livestock of the region often dies.
  • The exact opposite also occurs, to much rain
    causes flooding and locust populations to
    increase.

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  • These locusts eat all plant life in their path
    and once again livestock and animals die as a
    result.
  • Swarm of Locusts

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The Tsetse Fly and its impact
  • Tsetse flies transmit a disease called sleeping
    sickness.
  • This disease does not effect most native animals
    but has devastating effects on livestock in the
    region.
  • As a result farmers and herders have not entered
    the area in great numbers.
  • This leaves Africas Serengeti Plan to the native
    animals where little human population exists.

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Tsetse Fly
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Natural Resources of the Region
  • East Africa has very few energy or mineral
    deposits.
  • Most of the soil in the region is not fertile
    enough to sustain any large production of
    agriculture.
  • To much salt or lime in the soil contributes to
    this lack of production.
  • One of East Africas main resources is its
    natural scenery.

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  • Many tourists come from around the world to see
    the Serengeti and beaches of East Africa.
  • Video of Serengeti

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Kenyan Coast
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History
  • By 1875 Britain and Germany had become the chief
    rivals in East Africa.
  • Germany was one of many European nations
    interested in East African colonies.
  • At the 1884 Berlin Conference, the major European
    powers divided up East Africa, giving recognition
    to German, British, and Portuguese claims. No
    African delegates were present at the conference.

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Culture
  • There are hundreds of diverse ethnic groups
    within East Africa.
  • - All can be organized into three different
    groups according to their language.
  • -Nilotic speaking people- They are a herding
    people that live along the Nile River and the
    plains of Sudan.
  • -Cushitic-speaking people- They live along the
    Read Sea coast all the way down to the Horn of
    Africa.

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  • -Bantu speaking people- The live in the
    countries of Kenya, Rwanda and into Southern
    Africa.

Other people of East Africa
  • Along the coastline is where many people of Arab
    traditions and South Asian descent live.
  • During the colonial period many South Asian
    people (Indonesia, India etc) came to this region
    and settled it.

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Religion in East Africa.
  • Like West and Central Africa many people have the
    same belief that your ancestors are a strong
    force in your daily life and future.
  • -There traditional religions are animist based.
  • -Animists believe the natural world contains
    spirits that live in animals, mountains, trees,
    and water.
  • -Mixed Religions- Many East Africans mix
    characteristics of both native animist
    religions with Christianity and Islam.

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  • Ethiopian Woman Making injera

Made form teff flour, injera is the staple food
of many East African countries.
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The Region Today
  • Economy
  • East Africas economy is mainly locally based
    with little impact on the global economy.
  • Many locals work by growing and harvesting plants
    like coffee and gum arabic, the sap of acacia
    trees.
  • Farming and herding are the two main jobs of East
    Africans.
  • Many women often farm the land while men take
    care of the livestock.

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Acacia tree
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Commercial Agriculture
  • There are few large commercial farms in East
    Africa.
  • These few large farms have technology like
    tractors and combines.
  • These farms produce large amounts of crops due to
    the access to modern seeds and fertilizers.
  • These farms supply the regions cities with much
    of their food supply.

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Nairobi Market
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Industry In the Region
  • All countries in this region are developing
    countries.
  • - Addis Ababa- The largest city and capital in
    Ethiopia, headquarters of regional organizations.
    Pop.est. 2,450,000
  • -Nairobi- The largest city and capital in Kenya,
    regions most important commercial center.
    Pop.est. 2,150,000
  • -Dar es Salaam- The largest city and capital in
    Tanzania, Pop. Est. 1,400,000

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  • -Khartoum and Omdurman- Largest cities in Sudan,
    face each other across Nile.

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Tourism
  • Tourism is a major economic business in East
    Africa.
  • -Tourism is a growth industry in the region.
  • -Many people have jobs that are dependent on
    tourism.
  • Challenges to tourism
  • -Recent political strife and degradation to
    national parks all deter tourism.

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Bombing of U.S. Embassy in Nairobi, Kenya 1998
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Unit 7Chap 21-24 Africa
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Chap. 24 Southern Africa
  • Landforms and Water
  • Southern Africa has three major landform regions.
  • - a narrow coastal plain- Runs along the coast
    of South Africa.
  • - an inland plateau- covers the largest area
    in Southern Africa and is in the inland region.
  • - an escarpment- Lies between the plateau and
    the costal plain. The Drakensberg Range is
    located here.

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Water bodies
  • Major Rivers
  • -Orange
  • -Limpopo
  • -Zambezi
  • Victoria Falls

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Climate Desert types found in region
  • Climates
  • Tropical wet
  • Dry
  • Semiarid
  • Deserts
  • -Namib- Located on the coast of Namibia.
  • -Kalahari- Located in central Southern Africa.

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Namib Desert
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Resources
  • Angola- Petroleum
  • Zambia- Copper and iron
  • South Africa,Botswana and Namibia- Diamonds
  • South Africa- Gold and platinum
  • South Africa and Zimbabwe- Coal

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Kimberly Mine South Africa
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History
  • European presence in Africa grew most rapidly in
    the south. By 1865 close to two hundred thousand
    white people had moved to the southern part of
    Africa.
  • The Boers, also called Afrikaners, were the
    descendents of the original Dutch settlers who
    occupied Cape Town in South Africa in the
    seventeenth century.
  • Later, the British seized these lands. In the
    1830s the Boers fled British rule, going
    northward and establishing the independent
    republics of Transvaal later the South African
    Republic and the Orange Free State.

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  • The Boers believed white supremacy was created by
    God therefore, they put a lot of the indigenous
    (native) peoples on reservations.
  • The Boers frequently battled the Zulu, an
    indigenous people. The Zulu had risen to
    prominence under their great ruler, Shaka. Later
    the British defeated the Zulu.
  • In the 1880s British policy in South Africa was
    directed by Cecil Rhodes, he set up diamond and
    gold companies that made him wealthy. He named
    the territory north of the Transvaal Rhodesia,
    after himself.

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  • Rhodes ambitions led to his downfall in 1896.
    The British government forced him to resign as
    prime minister of Cape Colony after finding out
    he planned to overthrow the Boer government of
    the South African Republic without British
    approval. Conflict broke out between the British
    and the Boers, leading to war.

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  • The Boer War went form 1899 to 1902. Fierce
    guerrilla resistance by the Boers angered the
    British, who burned crops and herded more than
    150,000 Boer woman and children into detention
    camps, causing 26,000 to die.
  • In 1910 the British created the Independent Union
    of South Africa, combining the Cape Colony and
    the Boer republics. This was a self-governing
    nation within the British Empire. To appease the
    Boers, the policy was that only whites could
    vote.

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Boer War
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Apartheid
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