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First Language Acquisition

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L1 First Language Acquisition or How Do Children Learn to Speak? Bridget Green MFWI Extension Linguistics 2007; based on a handout by Maggie Dale – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: First Language Acquisition


1
First Language Acquisition
L1
  • or
  • How Do Children Learn to Speak?

Bridget Green MFWI Extension Linguistics 2007
based on a handout by Maggie Dale
2
First Language Acquisition
input You are such a beautiful baby.
  • First stage
  • Babbling
  • 5-10 months
  • Consonant vowel

output Ba!
At first, all babies babble in the same way no
matter what language they hear!
3
First Language Acquisition
  • Begins to demonstrate comprehension
  • Silent Period
  • Kisses! (Does.)
  • Wheres your belly? (Points.)
  • Wanna go bye-bye? (Gets her coat.)
  • Wheres the fish/kitty/birdie? (Points.)
  • Get a book and Ill read to you. (Does.)
  • No, thank you! (Stops doing what shes doing.)

Not silent! Baga bow ri? Dada mama baba!
Now, babies babble only in sounds that they hear
in their language!
4
First Language Acquisition
  • Second stage
  • Begins production
  • 12-18 months
  • One word sentences like Mama, Dada, Baba
    become real words
  • (14 months) Echoes
  • Say, More please. Nya Nya!
  • Night, night. Nie Nie.
  • (On the phone) Doh?
  • (Seeing a hot fire) Ta!

5
First Language Acquisition
But what does it mean?
  • Third stage
  • 18 months - 2 years
  • Two word sentences
  • Da mohk!
  • Ah dun. Ah gahn.
  • Wa pipuh?
  • Ah me peez.
  • Towtee.
  • Who da peepoh?
  • The milk!
  • All done. All gone.
  • Wheres the paper?
  • Help me, please.
  • Its dirty.
  • Who are those people?

6
First Language Acquisition
  • Third stage
  • 18 months - 2 years
  • Two word sentences
  • Da mohk!
  • Ah dun. Ah gahn.
  • Wa pipuh?
  • Ah me peez.
  • Towtee.
  • Who da peepoh?

Nouns and verbs are first!
7
First Language Acquisition
  • Fourth stage
  • 2 years - 5 years
  • Full sentences
  • Is it Papa van? Whered Papa go? Papa goed away
    in Papa van.

Wow! They make a lot of mistakes dont they?
8
First Language Acquisition
  • ALL children go through the SAME stages in ALL
    languages.
  • They all go through in the same order.

Full sentences
Two word sentences
One word sentences
(Demonstrates comprehension) Babbling in L1 sounds
Babbling in all sounds
the silent period
9
First Language Acquisition
  • ALL children go through the SAME stages in ALL
    languages.
  • They all go through in the same order.

s She runs.
articles Its a ball.
s Daddys hat.
irregular past He went.
plural -s books
This is called the order of acquisition.
Tcont Mommy running
nouns/verbs
How Languages are Learned Patsy Lightbown and
Nina Spada, OUP, 1993
10
First Language Acquisition
  • ALL children go through the SAME stages in ALL
    languages.
  • BUT
  • How do children learn a language?

11
First Language Acquisition
  • IMITATE?
  • Children imitate their mother
  • (or their caregivers).

Polly want a cracker?
Polly want a cracker?
12
First Language Acquisition
  • IMITATE?
  • Children imitate their mother
  • (or their caregivers).

Papa went to the store.
Papa went to the store.
13
Really?
  • Remember this?
  • Is it Papas van? Whered Papa go? Papa goed
    away in Papas van.
  • Is that Papas van? Where did Papa go? Papa went
    away in his van?

Parents never say goed. Why do children?
14
First Language Acquisition
Children dont just imitate their caregiver.
  • Children have a language acquisition device?

like a computer in their brain They learn a
language by trying to understand the rules, by
experimenting.
15
First Language Acquisition
  • Whats happening?
  • Papa goed away?

cry ? cried love ? loved go ? goed
This is called over-generalization. It means
that you learn a rule and then you apply that
rule every time.
16
First Language Acquisition
  • Whats happening?
  • Zeke (Holding up a shirt) Is this my clo?

boy ? boys path ? paths clo ? clothes
over-generalization The child tries new things
to see if they work, to see if people understand.
17
First Language Acquisition
Bridget Ceilan, you are beautiful! Ceilan Why
arm I?
over-generalization Eventually, the child
learns to speak correctly. But correcting doesnt
work!
he is ? is he? they are ? are they? you are ? are
I ? are my ? arm I
18
First Language Acquisition
  • The most important thing is the message, not the
    grammar or pronunciation.
  • Ceilan I cant pit it in.
  • Bridget Put it in.
  • Ceilan I cant!

correcting her pronunciation
continues with her message
Correcting doesnt work!
19
First Language Acquisition
  • Children use learning strategies

The listener doesnt understand.
  • Ceilan Izit dafai, Mama?
  • Bridget Whats a dafai?
  • Ceilan Da fai! Da fai! Da bug? A bug? Izat a
    fai?
  • Bridget Yes, thats a fly.

The child doesnt give up she talks around,
she explains her message.
20
First Language Acquisition
So a child just needs input to learn a language?
  • So

No! A child needs interaction and communication
with humans!
21
Second Language Acquisition
L2
  • How do adults learn a second language?

22
Second Language Acquisition
  • Is L1 the same as L2?

No!
Yes!
Yes and no!
23
Second Language Acquisition
  • Is L1 the same as L2?
  • Some things are the same
  • Adults need interaction and communication.
  • Adults learn slowly.
  • Adults make a lot of mistakes while theyre
    learning.
  • Adults also have an order of acquisition.

Really?
24
Second Language Acquisition
  • ALL adults go through the SAME stages in ALL
    languages.
  • They all go through in the same order.
  • ALL adults go through almost the SAME stages in
    ALL languages.
  • They all go through in almost the same order.

longer sentences
short sentences
(Demonstrates comprehension) Babbling in L1 sounds
Demonstrates comprehension
Babbling in all sounds
the silent period?
25
Second Language Acquisition
s She runs.
  • They all go through in (almost) the same order.

articles Its a ball.
s Daddys hat.
irregular past He went.
plural -s books
It depends a little bit on your L1.
This is called the order of acquisition.
Tcont Mommy running
nouns/verbs
How Languages are Learned Patsy Lightbown and
Nina Spada, OUP, 1993
26
A child learning a first language (L1) or an
adult learning a second language (L2)?
L1 or L2?
Can you guess who said it?
  • I was fighting with one of my friend.
  • Here are some flowers for your anniversity.
  • How much o'clock is it?
  • I don't have nothing to say.
  • I don't like that one - it's unpretty.
  • I readed it last night.
  • Mermaid is fish and girl.
  • Phew! I'm exhausting!
  • What he is doing in Africa?
  • You are not understand why they are doing that.

L2 - adult
L1 - child
L1 - child
L2 and L1!
L1 - child
L1 - child
L1 - child
L2 and L1!
L1 - child
L2 - adult
27
Second Language Acquisition
But children can learn a language better than
adults do, right?
Not really! Except pronunciation!
How Languages are Learned Patsy Lightbown and
Nina Spada, OUP, 1993
28
Second Language Acquisition
  • Adults can learn from correction
  • Adult I cant pit it in.
  • Teacher Put it in.
  • Adult Put it in.

correcting her pronunciation
making the correction
Correcting works!
29
Second Language Acquisition
  • Adults advantages
  • No babbling time
  • Can organize information (study!)
  • Wants to learn from corrections
  • Childrens advantages
  • Surrounded by input
  • Not afraid of making mistakes
  • Always trying
  • Play with language

Adults who act child-like learn the fastest!
How Languages are Learned Patsy Lightbown and
Nina Spada, OUP, 1993
30
Second Language Acquisition
Adults who act child-like learn the fastest!
This is where personality comes in
Learners have to make mistakes to learn.
Learners who make mistakes learn from their
mistakes, so they learn faster.
Learners who are afraid to make mistakes cant
learn from their mistakes, so they learn more
slowly.
31
Second Language Acquisition
But what if thats not ME?
personality
open talkative risky unembarrassed curious outgoin
g unafraid
32
Second Language Acquisition
personality
I can do THAT!
systematic hard-working very observant willing to
learn a reader
33
First Language AcquisitionSecond Language
Acquisition
What are the stages of first language
acquisition? What are the stages of second
language acquisition? What is the order of
acquisition? Is it the same for L1 and L2?
What is one difference? What is
over-generalization? What advantages do adults
have learning an L2? How important is
personality?
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