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Correlation between Pre-primary Education and Achievements in PISA 2009 Joel Rapp, PhD Amihai Rigbi, PhD

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Information about PPE from PISA 2009. The Student Questionnaire of the 2009 survey included a question regarding PPE: In the context of the Israeli educational system ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Correlation between Pre-primary Education and Achievements in PISA 2009 Joel Rapp, PhD Amihai Rigbi, PhD


1
Correlation between Pre-primary Education and
Achievements in PISA 2009Joel Rapp, PhDAmihai
Rigbi, PhD
Accession Seminar for Israel OECD/Ministry of
Education 22-23 November 2011 Caesarea, Israel
2
PISA in Israel
  • Israel has participated in PISA studies since
    2002 (PISA), including in 2006 and in 2009, and
    it will also participate in 2012.
  • 5761 students participated in the 2009 study.
  • These students constituted a representative
    sample of 15-year-old students in Israel (with
    the exception of ultra-orthodox boys).

3
The Pre-primary Education (PPE) System in Israel
  • Israels Ministry of Education and local
    authorities finance PPE starting at the age of
    five (in some cases, at the age of three).
  • PPE is divided into the following two stages
  • Pre-kindergarten (ages 3-5).
  • Kindergarten/pre-elementary school (ages 5-6).
    According to Israeli law, parents must ensure
    that their children go through the latter PPE
    stage. Pre-kindergarten, on the other hand, is
    not compulsory.

4
Information about PPE from PISA 2009
  • The Student Questionnaire of the 2009 survey
    included a question regarding PPE

Response rate 96
  • In the context of the Israeli educational system,
    those who checked the RED encircled statement
    were assumed to have attended pre-elementary
    school only (age 5), while those who checked the
    BROWN encircled statement were assumed to have
    attended pre-kindergarten as well (ages 3-4).

5
Analysis of PPE Status and PISA Achievements
  • A substantial part of the PISA 2009 report is
    dedicated to explaining the relationship found
    between the PISA achievements and background
    data.
  • In the context of PPE, it was found that

OECD (2010), PISA 2009 results overcoming social
background-equity in learning opportunities and
outcomes (Volume II). http//dx.doi.org/10.1787/97
89264091504-en (pp. 95-99).
6
Correlation between PPE and Reading Achievement
Israel manifested the largest difference in
reading achievements between students who had
attended PPE and those who had not.
7
Correlation between PPE and Math and Science
Achievements
  • Differences of a similar magnitude, as a function
    of PPE attendance, were also found in math and
    science achievements.

8
Present Study Aims and Methods
  • The present study sought to understand and
    explain the pronounced differences in PISA 2009
    achievements found in Israel between students who
    had attended PPE and those who had not.
  • This aim was achieved by re-analyzing Israels
    data, taking into consideration the students
    ethnic background (Hebrew- vs. Arabic-speaking
    students).
  • In Israel, there is a pronounced difference in
    educational outcomes between Hebrew-speaking and
    Arabic-speaking students.

9
PISA Achievements and Ethnic Background in Israel
  • On average, the Arabic-speaking students scored
    about 100 points less than the Hebrew-speaking
    students. These results are consistent throughout
    the PISA studies and apply to the three fields of
    literacy measured in PISA.

10
Distribution of PPE Attendance in Israel (1)
11
Distribution of PPE Attendance in Israel (2)
  • In Israel, the attendance rate of PPE for more
    than one year is very similar to the equivalent
    rate in OECD countries (74 and 72,
    respectively).
  • However, PPE attendance for more than one year is
    much more prevalent among Hebrew-speaking
    students than among Arabic-speaking students (86
    and 35, respectively).
  • Not attending PPE is rare in the Hebrew-speaking
    sector (2), while in the Arabic-speaking sector
    it is more common and reaches 16.

12
Distribution of PPE Attendance in Israel (3)
  • Once again, it can be seen that most of the
    students who did not attend PPE at all belong to
    the Arabic-speaking sector, while most of the
    students who attended PPE for more than one year
    belong to the Hebrew-speaking sector.

13
Characteristics of Students Who Did Not Attend PPE
  • In both sectors lower ESCS, greater proportion
    of ninth-graders.
  • In the Hebrew-speaking sector about half are
    immigrants (mainly from Ethiopia), greater
    proportion of boys and greater proportion of
    students from religious schools.
  • In the Arabic-speaking sector greater
    proportion of Bedouin students.

14
PISA Reading Achievements as a Function of ESCS
15
PISA Reading Achievements as a Function of ESCS
(2)
  • The results show a consistent difference of about
    40 points (for Arabic-speaking students), and 45
    points (for Hebrew-speaking students), in reading
    achievements between students who attended PPE
    and those who did not.
  • These differences are stable along the entire
    ESCS range.
  • Similar results were found in science literacy.
  • Somewhat smaller differences were found in math
    literacy 25 points (Arabic) 30 points (Hebrew).

16
PISA Reading Achievements as a Function of ESCS
(3)
  • In the Hebrew-speaking sector there was also a
    slight difference (of about 5 score points),
    between the two levels of PPE attendance, while
    in the Arabic-speaking sector the difference was
    between the levels of none and some PPE
    attendance.
  • Thus, it appears that attending the PPE stage of
    pre-elementary school (5 years old) is the
    critical variable in the context of PISA
    achievements.

17
Summary and Conclusions (1)
  • PISA 2009 reported that significant differences
    in educational achievements exist between
    students who had attended PPE ten years earlier
    and those who had not (even after accounting for
    ESCS background).
  • Although a casual conclusion cannot be drawn from
    these results, they are still of high importance
    to educators, policy makers and researchers.
  • PPE plays an important role in the educational
    continuum. Several studies have indicated a link
    between the quality of such education and
    educational and financial success at a later age
    (e.g. Chetty et al., 2010).

18
Summary and Conclusions (2)
  • Of all participating countries, this difference
    was the most prominent in Israel.
  • However, a cautious analysis revealed that this
    difference is mainly explained by the sector
    variable since there are large differences in
    PISA scores between Hebrew-speaking and
    Arabic-speaking students.
  • Within each language sector, the difference in
    PISA achievements between students who had and
    had not attended PPE is about 45 points, and it
    is stable along the entire ESCS range.
  • This difference ranks at about the tenth place
    among the PISA 2009 participating countries.

19
Summary and Conclusions (3)
  • In the wake of the results presented, Israel's
    Ministry of Education decided to take steps to
    reduce the number of children who do not attend
    PPE at all, mainly in the Arab sector.
  • The results presented also shed light upon a
    possible vulnerable population, i.e. students who
    did not attend PPE. Teachers and educators should
    be aware of such students when they enter school.

20
The EndThank You!Questions?
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