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Review of Carbohydrates

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Chapter 15 Review of Carbohydrates * * * * * * * * * * * * * * KEY MESSAGE: Over time, high blood glucose can lead to serious medical problems. In 2004 68% of ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Review of Carbohydrates


1
Chapter 15
  • Review of Carbohydrates

2
The Chemists View of Carbohydrates
  • What three elements are carbohydrates made of?
  • carbon, hydrogen and oxygen

3
  • What are the two types of carbohydrates?
  • Simple sugars
  • Complex starch and dietary fiber

4
The Simple Carbohydrates
  • Monosaccharrides are single sugars
  • What are the three sugars that are
    monosaccharrides - page 221
  • Glucose basic sugar
  • Fructose found in fruits and tree sap
  • Galactose not found in nature, but is bonded to
    something else

5
  • Disaccharides sugars made of two monsaccharides
    bonded together.
  • What are the two most common sugars found in
    food. Page 221
  • Sucrose
  • Lactose found in milk

6
The Complex Carbohydrates
  • Few or many glucose units bound/linked together
    in straight or branched chains.

7
Complex Carbohydrates
  • Glycogen
  • Storage form of glucose in the body
  • Provides a rapid release of energy when needed
  • Starches
  • Storage form of glucose in plants
  • Found in grains, tubers, and legumes

8
  • Lactose Intolerance
  • Symptoms include bloating, abdominal discomfort,
    and diarrhea.
  • Causes include lactase deficiency due to a
    natural decrease that occurs with aging or
    damaged intestinal villi.

9
Carbohydrates in the Body
  • Used and stored by the body
  • Help supply the body with a steady stream of
    energy.
  • What percentage of your daily calories should
    come from carbohydrates?
  • 55-65 (or about 60)

10
  • Energy Production
  • Carbohydrates are efficient fuel for the body.
  • What is the ratio of digested carbohydrates to
    kcalories of energy page 226
  • 1 g to 4kcalories

11
Diabetes
12
  • What is the main carbohydrate found in blood?
    Refer to page 226 for answer.
  • Glucose, blood sugar
  • It affects the health and functioning of all the
    bodys cells. What is it most critical for? Page
    226
  • Brain and nervous system.

13
  • Blood Glucose Levels
  • Pancreas monitors the flow of glucose to the
    cells.
  • Name the hormone secreted by the pancreas. Page
    227
  • Insulin
  • Signals the bodys cells to accept the surge of
    nutrients that have entered the blood.
  • Helps keep glucose in the blood at a normal level.

14
  • What are the two conditions related to diabetes?
    Pages 227 228
  • Hyperglycemia abnormally high blood glucose
    level.
  • Hypoglycemia abnormally low level of blood
    glucose.

15
Hyperglycemia Can Cause Serious Long-Term Problems
16
Hypoglycemic Symptoms
17
Diabetes
  • Prevalence of Diabetes 25.8 million adults in
    US
  • Metabolic Syndrome Risk factors related to
    obesity.
  • What are the three types of diabetes? Page 227

18
  • Type I pancreas secretes little or no insulin,
    occurs in children or young adults.
  • Type II most common, accounts for over 90 of
    all cases. Pancreas produces insulin, but either
    not enough or the insulin cant be used
    effectively.
  • Gestational Diabetes High sugars in Pregnancy.

19
Pathophysiology of Diabetes
When you eat, your body breaks food down into
glucose. Glucose is a type of sugar that is
your bodys main source of energy.
20
Pathophysiology of Diabetes
As blood glucose rises, the body sends a signal
to the pancreas, which releases insulin.
21
Blood glucose regulation
Blood glucose goes up and down throughout the
day
  • As your blood glucose rises
  • (after a meal), the
  • pancreas releases insulin.

22
Type 2 diabetes
Your pancreas may not produce enough insulin
(insulin deficiency).
Your cells dont use insulin properly. The
insulin cant fully unlock the cells to allow
glucose to enter (insulin resistance).
23
Risk factors for type 2 diabetes
Type 2 is more common in people who
  • Are overweight.
  • Are 45 or older.
  • Are physically inactive.
  • Have a parent or sibling with type 2 diabetes.
  • Are African American, Native American, Hispanic
    American, or Pacific Islander.
  • Have abnormal cholesterol levels.
  • Have had gestational diabetes, or given birth to
    a baby greater than 9 lbs.
  • Have high blood pressure.

24
  • Carbohydrates in Food Production

25
  • Add taste and texture to many food products.
  • Valued for sweetness.
  • Glucose most common monosaccharide in foods.

26
  • Sweeteners
  • What is the first thing that comes to mind when
    you think of sweeteners?
  • List other sweeteners that you can think of.

27
  • Table sugar sucrose extracted from sugar cane
    or sugar beets.
  • Brown sugar granulated sugar flavored with
    molasses.
  • Confectioners sugar powdered granulated sugar
    with an added anti-caking agent, such as
    cornstarch.

28
Sugar Substitutes
  • Sucralose
  • - chlorinated sucrose derivative
  • - body cannot recognize chlorinated
    carbohydrate
  • - not absorbed by the body, does not add
    calories to diet.
  • - does not break down with heat.

29
  • Aspartame
  • - an amino acid-based artificial sweetener,
    approved
  • by FDA in 1981.
  • - original form not stable when heated.
  • - does not promote tooth decay, doesnt
    have an after
  • taste.

30
Candy Making
  • Referred to as crystalline made by crystals
    formed from supersaturated sucrose solutions.
  • Smaller crystals produce a smoother texture
    and a superior product.
  • Sucrose tends to produce larger crystals.

31
Controlling Crystallization
  • Crystal formation starts when the solution,
    syrup, achieves the proper concentration of
    sugar.
  • Concentration is measured by the boiling point.
  • Interfering agents added to a sugar syrup to
    control crystal growth. Cream of tarter,
    vinegar, corn syrup.
  • Agitation, stirring or beating the solution
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