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20th Century European History

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20th Century European History Short & Long Questions www.historyvault.ie - Billy McSweeney (c) 2014 Phase III: 1945 1990 The Cold War ContainmenT Korean War Zones ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: 20th Century European History


1
20th Century European History
Short Long Questions
2
20th Century International Relations
  • Phase I 1919 1939
  • The Uneasy Peace (SLIDES 3-38)
  • Treaty of Versailles
  • Weimar Republic
  • Mussolinis Italy
  • Wall Street Crash
  • Great Depression
  • Rise of Extremism
  • League of Nations
  • Nazi Germany
  • Appeasement
  • Munich Conference
  • Phase III 1945 1990
  • The Cold War (Slides 62-74)
  • Divided Germany
  • Europe Divided
  • NATO Warsaw Pact
  • SuperPowers
  • Operation Vittles Berlin Blockade
  • The Truman Doctrine
  • The Korean War
  • Sputnik I
  • Yuri Gagarin
  • NASA
  • Cuban Missile Crisis
  • The Vietnam War
  • SALT
  • Phase II 1939 1945
  • World War II (Slides 39-65)
  • Invasion of Poland
  • Blitzkrieg
  • The Phoney War
  • Hitlers Turns West
  • The Maginot Line
  • Fall of France
  • Vichy France
  • Operation Dynamo
  • Operation Eagle (Battle of Britain)
  • Operation Sealion
  • Operation Barbarossa
  • Battle of Stalingrad
  • Pearl Harbour
  • Final Solution
  • Operation Overlord D-Day
  • The Battle of the Bulge

3
Phase I 1919 1939 The Uneasy Peace
Rearmament
  • War Guilt Clause

Anschluss
Hyperinflation
Night of the Long Knives
Squadristi
Der Fuhrer
Kristallnacht
Reparations
Brownshirts (SA)
Acerbo Law
Nuremberg Laws
Wall Street Crash
Lebensraum
Herrenvolk
Il Duce
Appeasement
March on Rome
Propaganda
Enabling Law
OVRA
Great Depression
Fourteen Points
Battle for Grain
Weimar Republic
4
Treaty of Versailles (1919)
  • Germany
  • Lost Alsace-Lorraine to France City of Danzig
    was administered by League of Nations. Also lost
    Posen to Poland (and all its overseas colonies)
  • Had to reparations of 6.6 billion marks to
    France, Belgium Britain
  • Army reduced to 100,000 men
  • U-boats scrapped
  • Surface navy reduced

Article 231 War Guilt Clause Whereby Germany
accepted complete responsibility for the war and
the damage it caused
5
War Guilt Clause (1919)
  • Article 231 War Guilt Clause Whereby
    Germany accepted complete responsibility for the
    war and the damage it caused
  • This would become a item of contention
    controversy in Germany from 1920 on, providing
    Hitler the Nazis with a reason to call the
    Weimar Republic a nation founded in defeat and
    a means to attract German Nationalists to their
    extreme ideology.
  •  Dolchstoßlegende Stab in the back myth
    (Nazi accusation towards German politicians of
    1918)

6
4 New Countries Created after World War I
  • Austria
  • Hungary
  • Yugoslavia
  • Czechoslovakia

Woodrow Wilsons Fourteen Points One of
President Wilsons 14 Points was that of
self-determination of small nations. This
helped to break up old empires and create many
new small nations throughout Europe.
7
March on Rome (22nd 29th October1922)
  • The Italian National Fascist Party marched on
    Rome, demanding to be made the new government of
    Italy
  • The Blackshirts (Squadristi) led the march on
    Rome
  • 30,000 men took part in the march
  • The Italian King, fearing a civil war, invited
    Mussolini and his party to form a new government
    for Italy
  • Contrary to popular belief, Mussolini did not
    take part in the march. Staged photos were later
    taken

8
The Blackshirts Squadristi
  • Italian Fascist Militia
  • Strongly pro-nationalist
  • Supported Mussolini the Italian Fascist Party
  • Intimidated political opponents
  • Attacked Communist parties groups

9
Acerbo Law (1923)
  • A law passed in Italy in 1923 whereby the
    political party who won the most seats would
    automatically get 2/3 of the seats in the Italian
    Parliament.
  • Ostensibly introduced to create strong, stable
    governments, the law was in fact introduced to
    give Mussolini and the Italian Fascists dominance
    over the parliament.

10
Reasons Why Mussolinis Party Gained Support
after 1919
  • Many Italians felt that they should have received
    more land in the Paris Peace Settlement and
    resented the little they received.
  • Mussolini promised to crush communism and take on
    the mafia gangs
  • Italy was heavily in debt after the First World
    War and Mussolini promised to bring strong,
    stable government to Italy
  • Effective use of propaganda

11
OVRA Organization for Vigilance and Repression
of Anti-Fascism
  • Italian Secret Police in Mussolinis Italy
  • Founded in 1927
  • Leader  Arturo Bocchini
  • Arrest, detain torture opponents of fascism in
    Italy

12
Battle for Grain
  • Poor marshland was drained reclaimed for wheat
    production. Government gave grants to farmers to
    invest in machinery fertiliser.
  • Tariffs placed on imported bread
  • Mussolini wanted to reduce Italys balance of
    trade deficit (due to imports). He wanted to make
    Italy as self-sufficient as possible
  • Italy was almost entirely self-sufficient in
    wheat production by 1940

Mussolini working in the fields, bringing in
the harvest (Propaganda)
13
Weimar Germany 1919 - 1933
  • Founded in the aftermath of the abdication of
    Kaiser Wilhelm II.
  • City of Weimar was the capital of the new
    republic.
  • Gustav Streseman was the Prime Minister of Weimar
    in 1923 and Foreign Minister from 1924 1929.
  • The Young Plan Dawes Plan (American loans)
    helped to alleviate the financial burden on
    Weimar, particularly reparations employment.

14
Threats to the Weimar Republic (1919
1933)
  • Both Communist (KPD) and Fascist (NSDAP) parties
    threatened the stability of Weimar Germany.
  • Associated with defeat of World War One, many
    Germans disliked the Weimar Republic as being
    artificial and weak.
  • Weimar suffered from depression hyperinflation
    from 1920 1923 due to the enormous strain on
    its economy from payment of the war reparations.
  • Weimar Republic joined the League of Nations in
    1925 with the signing of the Locarno Pact, which
    declared that Germany would respect the western
    borders set out in the Treaty of Versailles.

15
Extremist Uprisings in Weimar Republic
  • Communist
  • Nationalist Fascist
  • Spartacist Uprising (1919)
  • Kapp Putsch - nationalist uprising (1920)
  • Beer Hall Putsch Fascist (1923)

16
2 Reasons for Growth of Fascism in Europe after
World War One
  • Fear of Communism
  • Unstable Economies High Unemployment
  • Most western countries were afraid of communism
    spreading to their countries after the Bolshevik
    Revolution of 1917 in Russia.
  • Because of this, many people supported fascist
    parties as they were seen to be strongly
    anti-communist
  • Many European countries suffered greatly from the
    Wall Street Crash and following Depression
    throughout Europe.
  • In Germany, there were over 6 million workers
    unemployed by the time Hitler the Nazis took
    power in 1933, promising to eradicate unemployment

17
Wall Street Crash (1929)
  • 4th October 29th October 1929
  • Investors (up to 25,000,000) had invested
    steadily in a growing American Stock Exchange
    during the 1920s.
  • However, when rates began to drop, people rushed
    to sell their shares and caused the Stock
    Exchange to collapse
  • On 29th October Black Tuesday the American
    Stock Exchange lost 30 Billion Dollars worth of
    shares through hurried sales. The event plunged
    USA into the Great Depression, which also
    affected all of Western Europe

18
Lateran Treaty (1929)
  • The Treaty recognised
  • Catholic religion as the official state religion,
    with the Church being granted special authority
    over education marriage laws
  • Also, the treaty meant that Italy recognised the
    Vatican as an independent city-state

19
Reasons Why Hitler Nazis Came to Power in 1933
  • Resentment at the Treaty of Versailles
  • Failure of democratic governments to deal with
    economic crisis following the Wall Street Crash
  • Fear of communist groups staging a revolution
    taking power in Germany

20
The Brownshirts (SA) Germany
  • Ernst Rohm (leader)
  • Militia of ex German soldiers officers (WW1)
    that supported Nazi party demonstrations
    speeches
  • Strongly pro-nationalist anti-communist
  • Disrupted rival party gatherings and clashed with
    communist groups

21
Enabling Act (1933)
  • Introduced in 1933 after the Reichstag Fire, this
    law granted Hitler the right to rule by decree
  • This meant that Hitler could make decisions and
    enact policies without consulting the German
    Parliament, in times of emergency
  • In effect, it made him a dictator as soon after
    this, all other political parties were banned in
    Germany, creating a totalitarian state.

22
Night of the Long Knives ( June 30th July
2nd1934)
  • Ernst Rohm hundreds of leading members of the
    Brownshirts (SA) assassinated by Nazis.
  • The SA leadership was targeted by Hitler as they
    refused to become part of the German Army
    (Wehrmacht)
  • Hitler knew he needed the support of the German
    High Command, who refused to allow a second
    private army operate in Germany.

23
Nuremberg Laws (1935)
  • Under these laws, Jews ........
  • Were forbidden from marrying Germans (non-Jews)
  • Lost their citizenship of Germany (became state
    subjects)
  • Could not hold public office or own property
  • Forced to wear the Star of David

24
Nuremberg Rallies 1927 - 1939
  • Nazi Party annual parades of the Nazi Party and
    its followers
  • Organised by Albert Speer
  • Leni Riefenstahl made a documentary based on the
    1934 Rally Triumph of the Will
  • Speeches, parades and celebrations of National
    Socialism

25
Hitler Youth League of German Maidens
  • Hitler Youth
  • League of German Maidens

Indoctrinate young German girls to become Wife,
mother, homemaker
Indoctrinate young German boys in military
exercises Nazi ideology Hitlerjugend 14 18
years old Deutsches Jungvolk 10
14 (essentially a youths version of the
original SA)
26
Joseph Goebbels Propaganda
  • Minister for Propaganda Popular Enlightenment
    (Reich Propaganda Ministry)
  • Strictly controlled the press, cinema and all
    forms of media. Banned books that were contrary
    to Nazi ideology.
  • Promoted disseminated anti-Semitic material
    The Eternal Jew (1940)
  • Spoke at the Nuremberg Rallies, inciting greater
    military effort support from all Germans and
    demanded absolute loyalty to Hitler.
  • Launched the Nazi newspaper Das Reich (1940)
  • "The essence of propaganda consists in winning
    people over to an idea so sincerely, so vitally,
    that in the end they succumb to it utterly and
    can never escape from it." Goebbels

27
Gestapo
  • Nazi Germanys secret police
  • Founded by Hermann Goering (1933)
  • Under Himmlers (SS) control from 1934 onwards.

28
SS - Schutzstaffel
  • Heinrich Himmler (leader of SS 1929 1945)
  • Paramilitary organisation who absorbed the police
    and Gestapo under its control. The most feared
    powerful organisation in the Third Reich.
  • Membership was based solely on ability, obedience
    physical mental excellence.
  • Swore an oath to Hitler (daggers)
  • Responsible for many of the crimes against
    humanity (Jews) SS Einsatzgruppen (death
    squads)

29
Appeasement
  • The practise whereby European leaders ( the
    League of Nations) gave in to Hitlers demands in
    the hope that he would eventually stop being
    aggressive militarily
  • Reasons Nobody in Europe wanted a repeat of WWI
    (deaths)
  • Britain could not afford another war in Europe

Hitler meets Chamberlain at the Munich Conference
(1938)
30
Munich Conference (1938) Peace in Our Times
  • The Munich Conference of 1938 was convened to
    attempt to prevent war in Europe.
  • Four European leaders attended Chamberlain
    (UK), Daladier (France), Hitler (Germany)
    Mussolini (Italy). No Czech representative was
    invited.
  • At this conference, it was decided to allow
    Germany to take control of the Sudetenland, where
    3 million German speakers lived inside the border
    of Czechoslovakia
  • Chamberlain returned to Britain, declaring that
    they had secured peace in our times

31
Anschluss (12th March1938)
  • Austrian Nazi Party pushed for unification with
    Germany between 1934 1938. Hitler demanded that
    the Austrian Chancellor (Von Schussnigg) put
    Austrian Nazis in his government.
  • Von Schuschnigg held a referendum on Austrias
    independence in 1938, hoping to preserve
    Austrias independence. He was defeated
    resigned.
  • Seyss-Inquart (a leading Austrian Nazi) became
    the Chancellor of Austria in March 1938. He then
    invited Hitler to send the German Army into
    Austria to restore order. The Anschluss took
    place on 12th March 1938.

Anschluss Union of Germany Austria
32
Hitlers Foreign Policy Aims
  • Destruction of The Treaty of Versailles
  • Grossdeutschland A unified country of all
    German-speaking people in Europe
  • Anschluss Union of Germany Austria
  • Lebensraum living space in the East (whereby
    Germany would forcibly take land from Slavic
    Russian people to increase the living space of
    Germany)

33
Pact of Steel (1939)
  • Pact of Friendship and Alliance between Germany
    and Italy
  • Italy Germany were to deepen their friendship
    communication, while undertaking to combine
    their foreign policies and military action. It
    was also a common defense policy.

34
Nazi-Soviet 10-Year Non-Aggression Pact (1939)
35
Nazi-Soviet 10-Year Non- Aggression Pact
(1939)
  • Also known as the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact
  • It laid the foundations of a ten-year declaration
    of non-aggression.
  • Neither side truly believed in this, but it did
    buy time for Stalin to prepare for the eventual
    German attack (1941)
  • The Pact also contained secret clauses to divide
    Poland between the two countries

36
Reasons why League of Nations failed to prevent
war in 1939
  • The League of Nations had no standing army to
    enforce its decisions
  • The League failed to stand up to aggression by
    its members (Italy invading Abyssinia, 1935)
  • The USA never joined the League of Nations

37
League of Nations
38
Timeline 1919-1939
  • Key Periods
  • Key Events
  • 1919 Treaty of Versailles
  • 1922 March on Rome (Italy)
  • 1923 Acerbo Law (Italy)
  • 1923 Beer Hall Putsch (Ger.)
  • 1929 Lateran Treaty (Italy)
  • 1929 Wall Street Crash (USA)
  • 1933 Hitler comes to Power (Ger.)
  • 1933 Enabling Law (Ger.)
  • 1934 Night of the Long Knives (Ger.)
  • 1935 Nuremberg Laws (Ger.)
  • 1936 Berlin Olympic Games (Ger.)
  • 1938 Kristallnacht (Ger.)
  • 1938 Munich Conference
  • 1938 Anschluss (Ger. Aus.)
  • 1939 Pact of Steel
  • 1939 Nazi-Soviet Pact
  • Specific
  • 1914 - 1918 First World War
  • 1919 - 1933 Weimar Republic
  • 1922 1944 Mussolinis Italy
  • 1933 1945 Nazi Germany
  • General
  • 1930s Appeasement
  • 1920s 1930s Failure of League of Nations

39
Phase II 1939 1945 World War II
Manhattan Project
  • Blitzkrieg

Luftwaffe
Final Solution
RAF
Roosevelt
Battle of Britain
Operation Overlord
Operation Eagle
Operation Sealion
Atlantic Wall
Pearl Harbour
Holocaust
U-Boats
Battle of the Bulge
Vichy France
Desert Fox
Allies v. Axis
Operation Dynamo
Operation Barbarossa
Blitz
Stalin
Churchill
Maginot Line
40
(No Transcript)
41
Blitzkrieg (lightning war)
  • Devastating effective German offensive strategy
    involving
  • Aerial Bombardment of defenses, depots
    airfields (Stuka dive-bombers)
  • Tanks Infantry followed up to mop up
    remaining defenses.

42
German Armies Invade Western Poland (1939)
43
Junkers Ju 87 Stuka
Highly-effective dive bomber used in Blitzkrieg
warfare, attacking defensive positions and tanks
44
The Maginot Line
  • French defensive barrier located along the border
    with Germany, constructed after World War One.
  • Concrete bunkers, artillery guns and even an
    underground railway system connecting bunkers
    made it a formidable defensive barrier
  • WEAKNESS The Maginot Line extended along the
    border with Germany, but with only a much weaker
    defensive system along the border with Belgium

45
Evacuation of Dunkirk Operation Dynamo
300,000 British French troops rescued by over
800 ships and pleasure craft
46
Third Reich Military Conquests (1939 1940)
  • Poland (September 1939)
  • Norway (April 1940)
  • Denmark (April 1940)
  • Netherlands (May 1940)
  • Belgium (May 1940)
  • Luxembourg (May 1940)
  • France (June 1940)

47
Fall of France (June 1940)
48
Vichy France (1940 1944)
Governed by Marcel Petain
49
Operation Sealion
  • Hitlers plan to invade Britain in 1940-1941
  • The plan depended entirely on first gaining air
    superiority over Britain leading to Operation
    Eagle (Battle of Britain)
  • The Luftwaffe failed to destroy the RAF in the
    Battle of Britain and Hitler decided to
    indefinitely postpone Operation Sealion on 17th
    September 1940

50
Battle of Britain
Spitfire Mk IV
Radar
Messerschmitt Bf109
51
The Blitz (October 1940 April 1941)
52
Invasion of USSR - Operation Barbarossa (June
October 1941)
Hitler invades Russia with over 3 million men
4,000 tanks, supported by the Luftwaffe 3 Army
groups invade Army Group North Leningrad Army
Group Centre Moscow Army Group South
Stalingrad Hitlers target was the oil-rich
region of the Caucasus
53
Pearl Harbour (7th December 1941)
54
Operation Overlord D-Day (6th June 1944)
55
(No Transcript)
56
D-Day Landings Operation Overlord (6th June
1944)
57
D-Day Landing Sites
58
D-Day Landings
59
Battle of the Bulge (1944)
  • Last German counter-offensive in the west
    attempting to stop the Allied advance into
    Germany (1944)

60
Fall of Berlin (1945)
61
The Manhattan Project
  • The research development of the atomic bomb in
    USA
  • Led by Dr. Oppenheimer

62
Hiroshima Nagasaki 6th 9th August 1945
Oppenheimer
63
Final Solution (1942 1945)
Finalised at the Wannsee Conference in Germany in
1942, many different branches of Nazi Germany
came together to organise the efficient means
to exterminate or expel the Jewish population
from Europe. This would ultimately lead to the
Holocaust. Reinhard Heydrich (SS) was given the
task of coordinating this effort throughout
Nazi-occupied Europe
64
The Holocaust
By the end of WWII, after the concentration
extermination camps were liberated throughout
occupied Europe, it was estimated that over 6
million Jews had been murdered as part of The
Final Solution the plan to eradicate all Jews
from Europe between 1942 1945.
65
Timeline 1939-1945
  • Key Battles
  • Key Events
  • 1939 Germany invades Poland
  • 1940 Germany invades Norway, Denmark, The
    Netherlands, Belgium France
  • 1940 Operation Dynamo - Dunkirk
  • 1940 (June) Fall of France
  • 1940 (August-Sept.) Operation Eagle (Battle of
    Britain)
  • 1941 Operation Barbarossa
  • 1941 (December) Pearl Harbour attack
  • 1942 Final Solution
  • 1944 (June) Operation Overlord (D-Day)
  • 1944 Mussolini deposed in Italy
  • 1945 (May) Fall of Berlin
  • 1945 (August) Hiroshima Nagasaki A-Bombs
  • 1945 (August) End of 2nd World War.
  • 1939 - 1940 Phoney War
  • 1940 Battle of Britain
  • October 1940 April 1941 The Blitz
  • 1940 1943 North African Desert War
  • 1942 1943 Battle of Stalingrad
  • 1943 Battle of the Kursk
  • 1944-1945 Battle of the Bulge
  • March May 1945 Battle of Berlin

66
Phase III 1945 1990 The Cold War
NATO
Operation Vittles
Sputnik I
Hydrogen Bomb
Korean War
Truman Doctrine
Satellite States
Berlin Wall
Berlin Blockade
Zones of Occupation
Iron Curtain
Fidel Castro
NASA
Cuban Missile Crisis
Bay of Pigs
  • ContainmenT

Marshall Plan
John F. Kennedy
Warsaw Pact
S.A.L.T.
38th Parallel
Yuri Gagarin
Nikita Khruschev
Tsar Bomba
Space Race
67
United Nations
68
Division of Europe post-1945
  • The Iron Curtain

69
Cold War (1945 1990)
The two Superpowers - USA USSR - dominated
international relations from 1945 onwards. Both
countries founded their own military alliances to
further their respective foreign policies
military defenses
70
Armed Alliances (1945 - 1990)
NATO
Warsaw Pact
71
The Truman Doctrine (March 1947)
  • "the policy of the United States to support free
    people who are resisting attempted subjugation by
    armed minorities or by outside pressures."
  • (Truman effectively declared that it would be the
    policy of the USA whereby they would help defend
    democratic countries from take-over by Communist
    groups or external Communist aggression)

72
Marshall Plan
73
Berlin Blockade (1948 1949)
74
Berlin Blockade
  • Operation Vittles
  • When Stalin closed all road and rail access to
    West Berlin in response tot he unification of
    West Germany, the Western Allies responded with
    an enormous airlift Operation Vittles to
    supply West Berlin.
  • The operation lasted from 1948 to 1949, with a
    total of flights, before Stalin relented and
    re-opened the roads and rail access to West
    Berlin from West Germany

75
The Korean War (1950 1953)
76
Korean War (1950-53)
77
Cuban Missile Crisis (1962)
78
Cuban Missile Crisis
79
Cuban Missile Crisis
80
(No Transcript)
81
Containment
  • Containment was a US foreign policy to prevent
    the spread of Communism throughout Asia, Africa
    Eastern Europe.
  • With the threat of nuclear war ever-present, the
    US adopted this policy to both contain communism
    from spreading while also minimising the risk of
    all-out nuclear warfare.

82
  • Slide 58 description of D-Day landings (detail)
  • Slide 60 Description of the fall of berlin
  • Slide 61 - Manhattan Project
  • Slide 67 UN
  • Slide 71 Berlin Wall
  • Slide 72 Marshall Plan
  • Slide 76 Korean War
  • Slide 78 Cuban Missile Crisis
  • Slide 79 Cuban Missile Crisis
  • Slide 80 Finish Off Effects of Cuban Missile
    Crisis
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