WELCOME TO ANCIENT ROME - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – WELCOME TO ANCIENT ROME PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 652d05-OTQ0O



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

WELCOME TO ANCIENT ROME

Description:

Title: Slide 1 Author: pmartin Last modified by: Christina Trejo Created Date: 4/3/2006 10:35:48 AM Document presentation format: On-screen Show Company – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:7
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Date added: 26 August 2019
Slides: 139
Provided by: pma124
Learn more at: http://www.bibb.k12.ga.us
Category:
Tags: ancient | rome | welcome | juno

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: WELCOME TO ANCIENT ROME


1
(No Transcript)
2
Introduction
WELCOME TO ANCIENT ROME
3
Rome began as a small village on the Italian
peninsula in Europe. Rome grew into an empire.
The little white dot on this map is the city of
Rome.
4
The orange-colored land shows all the territory
that Rome controlled. This territory was broken
up into smaller pieces called provinces.
5
Ancient Rome
In ancient times, you could apply to become a
Roman citizen. Would you have wanted to be a
citizen? You might have! Like Greece, Rome was a
lively place. But the Romans were very different
than the Greeks.
6
Ancient Rome
The Romans were realists, not idealists. If a
Roman leader had a big nose, thats how Roman
artists made him look. The Greeks would have
given him a perfect nose.
7
Ancient Rome
The Romans were great builders. Everywhere they
went, they built great roads. All roads led to
Rome.
8
But Rome was not built in a day.
9
Kingdom of Rome
ROME AS A KINGDOM
10
A New Home
It all started around 2750 years ago, when the
early Romans found the land of the seven hills on
the Tiber River, near the Mediterranean Sea.
11
A New Home
The ancient Romans had been looking for a place
to settle down. The land of the seven hills had
everything!
12
A New Home
Wow! What a place!
  • Seven hills
  • Tiber River
  • Mediterranean Sea
  • Fertile land

13
A New Home
They built homes on top of one of the seven
hills.
14
Protection
Wall They built awall around their city to
defend against attack. Bridge They builta
bridge across the Tiber River to reach their
farmlands easily.
15
Romulus and Remus
The early Romans boasted that the city of Rome
had been founded by the twin sons of the war god
Mars. The boys were named Romulus and Remus. As
the legend goes...
16
Romulus and Remus
Once upon a time, a beautiful princess heard
about a plot to harm her children, twin sons of
the war god Mars.
She put the boys adrift on the river, hoping
someone would find them and love them.
17
Romulus and Remus
First they were found bya she-wolf who fed
them.Then a shepherd and hiswife adopted the
twins. The boys did not want to take
care of sheep. They wanted to be
kings.
18
Romulus and Remus
The boys left home in search of a place to rule.
Many people came with them. One day, they entered
the land of the seven hills. They settled down
immediately and began to build a town.
19
Romulus and Remus
Both boys wanted to be king. The twins quarreled.
In a fit of rage, Romulus picked up a rock and
killed his brother. Romulus declared himself
king of Rome.
20
Early Roman Kings
The ancient Romans believed that to be a king,
you had to be related to a god. According to
the legend of Romulus and Remus, Rome was started
by two sons of a god and a princess.

21
Right to Rule
All the kings thereafter proved their right
to rule by claiming they were
descendants of Romulus and Remus,
twin sons of the war
god Mars.
22
King Tarquin
For centuries, kings ruled the ancient Romans in
the land of the seven hills. Some kings were
good. Some kings were bad. One king was very
bad indeed. His name was King Tarquin the Proud.
23
King Tarquin
Around 500 BCE, the people said, Weve had it
with you, King Tarquin the Mean, the Nasty, the
Unfair. Leave our city and never return. They
chased him out of town.
24
Roman Republic
ROMEAS A REPUBLIC
25
Roman Republic
The Roman people vowed never to be ruled by a
king again. Men from influential families set up
a new form of governmenta republic.
26
Republic Rulers
Rome was ruled by
  • The Senate (men from Romes important families)
  • Two consuls (elected by the Senate each consul
    served a term of one year)

27
SPQR
They chiseled the letters SPQR on Roman
monuments, armor, coins, and park benches. SPQR
means the Senate and the People of Rome.
SPQR
28
Twelve Tables
The Senate created a new set of laws called
theTwelve Tables. First, citizens voted
oneach law to determineif the law was fairor
not.
29
Twelve Tables
The laws voted fair were then written down on
metal tablets and put on display. Rich or poor,
everyone had to obey the law.
30
Twelve Tables
Here are two of the new laws
  • If you are called to go to court and do not show
    up, you can be taken to court by force.
  • If its your tree, its your fruit, even if it
    falls on another mans land.

31
Great Builders
More homes As time went on, they built homes and
streets on all seven hills. Big wall To protect
their city, they built a new wall that encircled
all seven hills.
32
Rome Grew
Rome was a crowded, noisy, dusty city with
beautiful temples, gracious homes, and apartments
for the workers. Shops lined the streets.
The republic was a lively place!
33
Roman Classes
Two groups of people lived in Rome
  • Patriciansrich nobles
  • Plebeianseveryone else, including well-to-do
    workers, all the way down to the poor

34
Roman Families
The oldest male was head of the family. In
ancient Rome, everyone in a family lived
togetherkids, parents, and grandparents.
35
Roman Families
The head of the family had great power.
He had the power to sell a family member into
slavery. A womans job was to care for the kids
and the house. Under the republic, women had
little freedom.
36
Rome Daily Life
The ancient Romans started their day with
breakfast. The rich ate fresh fish,fruits,
vegetables, bread,and honey. The poor ate bread,
olives, cheese, and raisins.
37
Togas and Tunics
Then they got dressed to go out. Only nobles
could weara toga. But togas were troublesome.
They kept falling off. Most Romans wore a tunic
instead.
Toga Tunic
38
Roman Men
Men Noblemen wore white tunics. Workers wore
black tunics. Rings were the only jewelry worn
by Roman men. It was considered good taste to
wear only one ring. Some men wore as many as
sixteen rings anyway.
39
Roman Women
Women Women wore long tunics, leather sandals,
and big red or blonde wigs. Necklaces, pins,
earrings, bracelets,and rings were popular. They
carried fansand parasols made of peacock
feathers.
40
Roman Girls
Girls Girls wore a simple tunic with a belt at
the waist. When they went outside, they wore a
second tunic that reached their feet. Around
200 BCE, many girls started to attend school
outside the home.
41
Roman Boys
Boys Boys wore a white tunic down to their knees
with a crimson border. At about age 16, a boy
became a man. From then on, he wore an all white
tunic, which signified that he was a citizen of
Rome.
42
Roman Bulla
Bulla Children wore a locket called a bulla,
which was given to them at birth. The Romans
believed a bulla protected a child from evil. A
girl wore her bulla until her wedding night. A
boy wore his until he became a citizen.
43
Roman Slaves
Slaves Slaves had no rights. They were property
and were bought and sold. Some slaves were well
treated. Others were not.
44
The Forum
The Forum was the main marketplace and business
center.
  • Shops
  • Banks
  • Temples
  • Festivals
  • Ceremonies
  • Poets
  • Jugglers

45
The Forum
The Forum was a place for public speaking.
The job of a Roman orator was to argue
persuasively. At the Forum, you might hear a
court case or someone giving a speech.
46
Education
The goal of education in ancient Rome was to be
an effective speaker.
The school day started at 5 a.m. and continued
until 5 p.m. Kids got a break for lunch and a
short nap.
47
Education
Kids learned how to read, write, and count.
  • Scrolls
  • Handwritten books
  • Roman numerals
  • Roman alphabet
  • Greek
  • Latin
  • Literature

48
Roman Baths
Next stop, the baths!
During the republic, the baths were for
patrician men only. They offered
  • Heated swimming pools
  • Reading rooms
  • Barber shops
  • Food

49
Roman Baths
A trip to the baths was an important part of
ancient Roman daily life.
Roman noblemen visited the baths once a day. It
was a place to conduct business, while soaking in
hot water.
50
Roman Siestas
In the afternoon, wealthy Romans enjoyed a midday
meal and a nap.
The upper class ate a cold lunch at home, then
took a nap or relaxed with friends. The poor
worked constantly.
51
Roman Homes
Plebeians lived in small apartments.
  • One room
  • Made of wood
  • Threat of fire
  • No running water
  • No toilets
  • No sanitation

52
Roman Homes
Patricians lived in large houses.
  • Single-family homes
  • Brick, with red tile roofs
  • Running water
  • Bathrooms
  • Paintings
  • Mosaic tile floors

53
Roman Gods
The ancient Romans had gods for everything.
Each major god, like Mars, had his or her own
temple. There were temples all over Rome.
Every home had a household god.
54
Roman Gods
The ancient Romans believed everything had a
spirit in charge of it, right down to the latch
spirit who lived in their front door and kept
it from sticking.
The ancient Romans made time each day to honor
their many gods.
55
Roman Gods
The ancient Romans were always adding new gods.
If another culture had a god that appealed to
them, they gave the god a Roman name and adopted
it.
They adopted all the Greek gods.
56
Roman Gods
Although Jupiter (Zeus) was adopted from the
Greeks, he soon became the most powerful Roman
god of all. His wife Juno (Hera) was incredibly
jealous, just as she was in Greek mythology.
57
Roman Gods
Greek
Zeus Hera Poseidon Hades Apollo Aphrodite Ares Hermes
Roman
Jupiter Juno Neptune Pluto Apollo Venus Mars Mercury
Jobs
King Queen Sea Underworld Reason Love War Speed/Travel

58
Roman Theater
Plays were performed during religious festivals
only. Actors were men. Actors used masks and
pantomime to make sure everyone could follow
along.
59
Roman Sports
  • Ball games
  • Riding
  • Wrestling
  • Throwing
  • Catching
  • Swimming
  • Hunting
  • Fishing

60
Chariot Racing
Races were conducted on public roads that wound
between the seven hills.
Winners won prizes. Losers were wished better
luck next time.
61
Court Cases
Trials were held at the Forum.
Both sides talked at once. A judge tried to hear
what they were shouting, and then made a decision
on the case. Some people found this vastly
entertaining.
62
Kids Games
  • After school, kids played
  • Ball games
  • Board games
  • Kites
  • Dolls
  • Wooden swords

The ancient Romans loved games.
63
Entertainment
  • Theater
  • Sports
  • Chariot racing
  • Court cases
  • Visits with friends
  • Kids games
  • The baths
  • Stories
  • Festivals

64
Evenings at Home
Wealthy Romans lit oil lamps to enjoy the
evening. The poor went to bed as soon as it got
dark. They were exhausted.
65
Roman Legions
Roman legionaries were paid professional
soldiers.
Their job was to conquer people and claim land
for Rome. They did a really good job!
66
Expansion
Soldiers gained land wealth.
Conquered people had to
  • Pay taxes
  • Provide troops
  • Give up their land
  • Relocate

67
Roman Legions
The army was organized into legions. Each legion
had
  • 5000 men
  • Its own leader
  • Its own banner
  • Its own number

Each legion had a nickname.
68
Roman Legions
They moved camp every day. Every night, they
fortified a new camp space.
  • Looked for open land
  • Set up camp in the middle of the open land
  • Camp was always in a rectangle shape
  • Carried a wood fence and fenced the camp
  • Dug a ditch beyond the fence for added protection
  • Guards stood watch along the perimeter

69
Roman Legions
Each legion flew its own banner.
Each fighting group within a legion had its own
banner. As men wandered around camp, greeting
friends or drilling, they could easily find their
way back to their group by looking for their
banners flying high.
70
Roman Legions
A legionarys uniform included
  • Rectangular shield
  • Short sword
  • Dagger
  • Belt
  • Metal jacket
  • Dress helmet
  • Kilt and shirt
  • Hobnailed sandals

71
Roman Legions
Romes army won again!
Some towns accepted defeat before the battle even
started. The common soldiers helped to build
roads in the new provinces.
72
Roman Roads
Each time a new city was conquered, a road was
built from that city back to Rome.
Roads were built in straight lines. Many had
gutters. Some had curbstones.
73
Milestones
Milestones told how far it was to Rome.
Some milestones were six feet high so you could
read them from a chariot. Milestones were road
signs.
74
Punic Wars
Carthage was a city-state on the coast of North
Africa. Carthage controlled three islands
Sicily, Sardinia, and Corsica.
75
Punic Wars
One day, Rome decided that Carthage needed to
join the Roman Republic. Carthage disagreed.
They fought for 20 years!
76
Punic Wars
Carthage said, If youll go away and leave us
alone, well give you the island of Sicily.
Rome took the deal. Rome, however, also took
Sardinia and Corsica.
Carthage was furious, but it was tired of
fighting Rome.
77
Hannibal
Hannibal swore an oath.
Carthage sent a general to Spain to make up for
the land Rome had taken. The general made his
son Hannibal swear that as soon as he was old
enough, he would make Rome pay for all the lives
lost in the Punic War.
78
Hannibal
A military genius!
Hannibal joined the military. He won most of his
battles by coming up with tricky ideas. One
time, he had his men dump barrels of live snakes
on the deck of an enemy ship.
79
Hannibal
Elephants crossed the Alps!
Hannibal attacks Rome from the north.
80
Hannibal
The provinces were afraid to join him.
Hannibal and his men stayed on the Italian
peninsula for 15 years, causing trouble where
they could.
81
Republic Fails
Many years passed
The legions were busy conquering new territories.
Rome grew and grew. Rome had problems. Things
were not fair anymore.
82
Republic Fails
In the provinces
Elected officials used their positions to get
rich. Tax collectors began demanding huge sums of
money.
83
Republic Fails
In the city of Rome
  • Crime was everywhere
  • No police force
  • People were afraid
  • Private armies
  • People were unhappy

84
Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar was a powerful leader. People
gathered in the Forum to hear what he had to say.
I can solve Romes problems! said Julius Caesar.
85
Julius Caesar
Caesars legions enter Rome.
The law stated that no general could enter Rome
with an army. Julius Caesar ignored this law. He
took over the government. The people called him
Father of the Homeland.
86
Cicero and Caesar
Cicero, one of the leaders of the Senate, said
I see no reason for my being alarmed except the
fact that, once departure has been made from law,
everything is uncertain and nothing can be
guaranteed as to the future which depends upon
another mans will, not to say caprice When
Caesar declared himself dictator for life, his
action was in direct violation of the principles
of a constitutional republic.
87
Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar ruled for five years.
The Senate recognized that Caesar was solving
some of Romes problems, but it did not want
Caesar in charge. Caesar did not call himself a
king, but he acted like a king.
88
Julius Caesar
Et tu, Brute?
In 44 BCE, Julius Caesar was assassinated by
twenty senators. They stabbed him to death. They
were all people Caesar trusted. One of his
killers was his best friend, Brutus. Et tu,
Brute? is the famous phrase Caesar supposedly
said as he died. (You too, Brutus?)
89
Roman Empire
ROME AS AN EMPIRE
90
Civil War
After the assassination of Julius Caesar, civil
war broke out. The war lasted for 13 years.
Octavian promised the people peace. He managed
to gain absolute rule. The Senate gave him the
title Augustus.
Augustus, first Roman Emperor
91
Augustus
Augustus kept his promises. He established peace,
which allowed trade to flow more smoothly. He
introduced a uniform code of justice. The
Senate maintained some power, but it was clear
that real power was held by Augustus.
92
Pax Romana
Augustus ruled for 45 years. During that time,
Rome was at peace. This period is called the Pax
Romana, or Roman Peace. The people got used to
being ruled by a single leader. Rome went on to
greatness as an empire, but the Roman Republic
was no more.
93
Similarities
Some things stayed the same under the leadership
of the emperors
  • Families still lived in one home
  • Old age still honored
  • Everyone still had to worship Roman gods
  • The forum was still the center of each town
  • The rich lived in beautiful homes
  • The poor worked all the time

94
Improvements
Roman legionaries kept the peace.
Fighting in the streets stopped. Emperors used
the Roman legion to keep the peace.
95
Government
The Senate lost power.
The great orators of the Senate were still
speaking in the Forum. Their role in government
was greatly decreased. They acted as advisors to
the all-powerful emperor.
96
Women
Women gained many freedoms.
Roman women could
  • Own land
  • Run businesses
  • Free slaves
  • Make wills
  • Inherit wealth
  • Get a paying job

97
Roman Baths
Anyone could use the baths.
The baths opened their doors to women and
plebeians. Baths had separate hours for men and
women.
98
Roman Baths
The baths grew in size and offered many
activities
  • Heated pools
  • Saunas
  • Steam rooms
  • Exercise rooms
  • Reading rooms
  • Beauty salons
  • Stores and shops
  • Fast food

99
Roman Theaters
Small theatres could seat 7000 people!
Plays featured
  • Paid actors
  • Music
  • Pantomime
  • Masks
  • Lively action
  • Puns

100
Roman Spectacles
Enormous public buildings were constructed.
The Romans loved the fabulous events offered to
the public. These events were called spectacles.
Admission was free!
101
Circus Maximus
Crowds of 250,000 came to see chariot racing!
102
Circus Maximus
There were races every day. People cheered for
their favorite team.
103
Colosseum
Gladiators! 50,000 seated spectators!
This huge public entertainment centeroffered
bloody combat.
104
Colosseum
Gladiators were superstars.
The Roman crowds decided if a loser lived or died.
  • Wave a handkerchief, he lived
  • Thumbs down, he died
  • Majority ruled

105
Campus
Outdoor park near the Tiber River
The campus was a public park. It was used for
field sports, wrestling, and exercising.
106
Spartacus
Famous slave and gladiator
Spartacus escaped from the slave quarters. He led
a small band of gladiators out of Rome. 90,000
slaves ran away to join him.
107
Spartacus
This threatened the Roman way of life.
The Romans were dependent upon slaves. They could
not let Spartacus succeed. They hunted him for
two years. When they finally caught him, they
killed Spartacus and everyone with him.
108
Pompeii
How do we know so much about ancient Roman daily
life? From Pompeii.
Pompeii was a Roman city that was buried by a
volcanic eruption. 2000 years later,
archaeologists uncovered Pompeii.
109
Mosaic Tile
One of the things archaeologists found were
ancient Roman mosaics made of small pieces of
colored tile. Several mosaics said Cave Canem,
which means Beware of Dog.
110
Nero
The empire lasted for 500 years.
In the 500 years Rome was an empire, there were
over 140 emperors. Some emperors were good.
Some emperors were bad. One of the bad emperors
was Nero.
111
Nero
Christianity began.
While Nero was emperor, a new religion sprang up
in Rome. It was called Christianity. Christians
believed in one god. They refused to worship the
Roman gods.
112
Nero
Nero persecuted Christians.
Nero told his army to hunt down Christians. Once
they confessed to being Christians, they were
thrown to the lions in the Colosseum as part of
the entertainment.
113
Nero
Nero threw many Christians to the lions.
  • He murdered his mother.
  • He murdered his wife.
  • He ordered members of the Senate to kill
    themselves (which they did not do).
  • He killed himself.

Nero was insane.
114
Christians Persecuted
Over the next 200 years,other emperorspersecuted
Christians.
Christians refused to worship Roman gods. This
was illegal. Christians were perceived as
criminals.
115
Rise of Christianity
In spite of persecution, Christians grew rapidly
in numbers.
Christians looked for converts. They told people
about the benefits of being Christian.
116
Rise of Christianity
What was the appeal of Christianity to the
poor?
  • Life after death
  • Equal opportunity

117
200 Years Later
Rome was still in charge of the Mediterranean,
but Rome had problems!
Rome had suffered under the leadership of many
crazy and inept emperors. The army decided to
choose an emperor. They chose Diocletian.
118
Two Roman Empires
Emperor Diocletian split the Roman Empire into
two pieces!
Our empire is too big for one person to rule. I
declare the empire is now in two pieces! said
Emperor Diocletian.
119
Reforms
Emperor Diocletian
  • Limited military service
  • Levied new taxes
  • Restored the treasury
  • Made coins that had value

120
Roman Coins
Coins were used to promote the empire.
Coins were not just used to buy things. They also
  • Depicted the emperor
  • Depicted new buildings
  • Praised wise decisions

121
Christians Persecuted
Emperor Diocletian believed Christianity was a
threat to the empire.
He ordered
  • A return to the temples
  • The worship of the old Roman gods
  • The destruction of Christian places of worship
  • The death of all Christians

122
Constantine
Christianity became legal!
Finally in 313 CE, Emperor Constantine ruled that
Christians would no longer be persecuted for
their beliefs.
123
Constantinople
The city of Constantinople was founded.
124
Eastern Empire
The Eastern Empire flourished!
125
Back in Rome
Things were falling apart
  • Barbarians were attacking outposts
  • Provinces were overtaxed
  • Roman roads needed repair
  • Supplies were not reaching the provinces
  • Trade goods were not reaching Rome
  • Prices increased, trade decreased
  • Poor people were starving
  • The rich were not interested in Romes problems

126
More Problems
By 400 CE, things in Rome were even worse!
Rome suffered from
  • Daily barbarian attacks in the provinces
  • Corruption in the military
  • Bad leadership in the government

127
More Problems, Continued
  • High unemployment
  • Excessive taxation
  • Starvation and disease
  • Low food supplies from poorly managed farms

128
Rome Falls
Five barbarian tribes were attacking
  • Huns
  • Franks
  • Vandals
  • Saxons
  • Visigoths

In 476 CE, the Visigoths sacked Rome.
129
Achievements
GIFTS FROM THE ROMANS
130
Rome Rule
In the Mediterranean, Rome was in charge for a
very long time
  • Rome was a monarchy for 200 years
  • Rome was a republic for 500 years
  • Rome was an empire for 500 years

All roads led to Rome for 1200 years.
131
Legacies
Two important legacies survived the fall
  • The Latin Language
  • The Christian faith

132
Roman Gifts
Here are some gifts we enjoy today from the
ancient Romans.
Concrete
133
Roman Gifts
Here are some gifts we enjoy today from the
ancient Romans.
Concrete
RomanRoads
134
Roman Gifts
Here are some gifts we enjoy today from the
ancient Romans.
Concrete
RomanRoads
Aqueducts
135
Roman Gifts
Here are some gifts we enjoy today from the
ancient Romans.
Concrete
RomanRoads
Aqueducts
LatinLanguage
136
Roman Gifts
Here are some gifts we enjoy today from the
ancient Romans.
Concrete
RomanRoads
Aqueducts
Latin Language
ChristianFaith
137
Roman Gifts
Here are some gifts we enjoy today from the
ancient Romans.
Concrete
RomanRoads
Aqueducts
LatinLanguage
ChristianFaith
Rings,Games
138
Quiz
  1. Name two important things that happened during
    the Roman Republic.
  2. What is an empire?
  3. Why did the Romans offer free spectacles to all
    the people of Rome?
  4. Name two reasons Rome fell.
  5. Name two important legacies of the Roman Empire.
About PowerShow.com