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Cold War: 1945-1991

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Title: The Cold War in Asia Author: teacher Last modified by: boe Created Date: 2/7/2007 10:53:25 PM Document presentation format: On-screen Show Company – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Cold War: 1945-1991


1
Cold War 1945-1991
  • Cold War State of hostility between the United
    States and the USSR
  • Escalation and De-escalation throughout
  • Characterized by USs hatred of communism and
    USSRs desire to spread communism
  • Led to brink of war

2
Korea
3
The situation in Korea
  • Japan took over in 1910
  • End of WWII-Japanese troops North of 38th
    parallel surrendered to USSR, south of 38th
    surrendered to US
  • Two nations developed
  • Republic of Korea (ROK)- South Korea-Rhee,
    Seoul
  • Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea- North
    Korea- Kim Il Sung, Pyongyang

4
North Koreans cross the 38th parallel- June 25,
1950
5
Korean War Summary
  • 1) June 25th, 1950- NK cross 38th parallel, SK/US
    limited to Pusan
  • 2) Sept-Oct 1950- Inchon- back to 38th parallel,
    recaptures Seoul
  • 3) Oct-Nov 1950- US pushes North to Yalu River
  • 4) Nov-Dec 1950- Chinese push US back to 38th
    Parallel
  • 5) 1951-53- Stalemate- 38th parallel (Armistice
    signed in 1953)

6
The Space Race-US vs. USSR
  • Arms race turned into technology race and space
    race
  • Sputnik- first unmanned artificial satellite-(Oct
    1957) USSR
  • US response
  • Jan 1958-Explorer I
  • July 20, 1969-US put first men on the moon

7
Arms Race Bomb Timeline
  • 1945- US- atomic bomb
  • 1949- USSR- atomic bomb
  • Nov 1952- US- hydrogen bomb
  • August 1953- USSR- hydrogen bomb
  • US vs. USSR-in competition to build nuclear
    arsenal
  • Escalation!

8
CUBA
9
Cuba
  • Castro took control of Cuban govt in 1959 and
    relied heavily on Soviet aid
  • Enemy of US-wants him out of power

10
Bay of Pigs Invasion- April 1961
  • Set up by Eisenhower, JFK inherited
  • US hoped invasion would trigger uprising against
    Castro
  • US covert action (trained Cuban exiles)
  • 1400 Cuban exiles against 20,000 Cuban troops ?
    US Failure
  • Results?US failed and humiliated
  • Castro strengthened
  • Contributes to Khrushchevs decision to build
    Berlin Wall

11
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12
The Berlin Wall
  • West Berlinshowcase for democracy
  • Khrushchev reacts?starts the night between the
    12th 13th of August 1961(completed with/in
    days)- surrounds entire city of West Berlin
  • Wall constructed?Guard towers were installed, and
    no-mans-land between inner and outer walls was
    mined and booby-trapped.
  • Almost impossible for E. Germans to escape to W.
    Berlin without being killed or captured.
  • Became most famous symbol of Cold War. (Torn down
    in 89)

13
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16
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17
Cuban Missile Crisis Background
  • Khrushchev promised to defend Cuba with nuclear
    arms
  • Nuclear bases being built in Cuba (U-2)
  • Oct 22, 1962- JFK announces Soviet missile sights
    in Cuba- stand off begins
  • Neither side willing to concede
  • World stood on brink of all-out nuclear war for
    nearly 2 weeks.
  • Result Khrushchev offered to remove the
    missiles if the United States ended the blockade.
  • Kennedy quickly agreed and offered to remove from
    American warheads in Turkey aimed at the USSR.
  • Washington and Moscow agree to install hotline
    between capitals

18
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21
Vietnam War
22
Ikes Domino Theory
23
Geneva Accords
  • 17th Parallel
  • Ho Chi Minh in North, capital Hanoi
  • Nationalists in South Diem, capital Saigon
  • 1956 to have an election to unify the country

24
War in the Jungle
  • US thinks advanced weapons win
  • Vietcong hit and run/ambush attacks/ knowledge
    of the jungle
  • No frontline
  • Enemy among civilian population, didnt know who
    the enemy was
  • Countless booby traps/land mines
  • Heat, leaches, bugs

25
  • Began assembly during war w/ Fr
  • Connected villages throughout the countryside,
    home to guerrilla fighters
  • Inside ate, slept, stored arms, built land
    mines, treated wounded

26
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27
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28
Ho Chi Minh Trail
  • Minh supplies arms to Vietcong
  • guerrilla warfare
  • S. Vietnam more unstable

29
Campaign Hearts and Minds
  • To win Hearts and Minds of S. Vietnamese
  • Ended up hurting rural population
  • Napalm gasoline-based bomb set fire to the
    jungle
  • Agent Orange leaf-killing toxic chemical that
    devastated the landscape

30
Napalm Attack
31
Agent Orange
32
Agent Orange Victims, 1999
33
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34
1976 Postwar
  • Ho Chi Minh City (formerly Saigon)
  • Comm takeover Saigon is renamed to Ho Chi Minh
    City.
  • Vietnam's most populous city remained unstable
    under Communist rule.

35
Khmer Rouge
  • US invasion of Cambodia created civil war
  • Communist grp Khmer Rouge1975 wanted to
    transform country to a peasant society, executed
    govt officials/academics, believed to kill
    2million Cambodians

36
The End of the Cold War-1980s
  • Causes
  • 1. Information Age
  • 2. Global Democratization-( of new democracies
    grew 5X btw 1950-2000
  • 3. Travelers from the West
  • 4. World Leaders

37
RONALD REAGAN 40th President of U.S. (1981-89)
38
SDI (Star Wars)
  • USSREvil Empire
  • Increased military spending
  • Strategic Defense Initiative- missiles defense
    system

39
The Reagan Doctrine
  • Put pressure on USSR to give up its evil empire
  • U.S. pledges support to any national groups
    interested in protecting their governments from
    Communist takeover

40
Mikhail Gorbachev Gen. Party Secy (1985-1991)
1st Soviet Leader Born after Russian Revolution
41
Gorbachevs Plan
  • perestroika a restructuring of the Soviet
    economy
  • glasnost -openness

42
BOTH LEADERS-PRAGMATIC
Note the Time Background What do you see?
43
And they do three times.
  • Making agreements to disarm over time
  • Geneva Summit (85)
  • Reykjavik Summit (86)
  • INF Treaty (87) first arms reduction treaty

44
World Leaders Play a Role
  • Reagan Gorbachev Margaret
    Thatcher (PM of GB)
  • Lech Walesa Deng Xiopiang Pope John Paul II
  • Solidarity Mvmt.

45
Early Revolutions in E. Europe?Iron Curtain
Remains
  • 56-Poland-unsuccessful
  • 56-Hungary-unsuccessful
  • 68-Czech-unsuccessful

46
Democracy Sweeps Through Eastern Europe
  • POLAND
  • CZECHOSLOVAKIA
  • GERMANY
  • ROMANIA
  • BULGARIA
  • HUNGARY

47
Why?
  1. Decades of patient containment by NATO
  2. Economic Burden of Arms Race
  3. Glasnost and Perestroika
  4. Presence of underground student movements

48
1989
  • Soviets invade Afghanistan in 79-leave in 89
  • May 89-Hungary-May 1989-Dismantled barbed wire
    fence along Austrian border-E. Germans fled to W.
    through Hungary.
  • Aug. 89-Under Lech Valesa-First ever
    non-communist post-WWII govt takes charge in
    Poland

49
JUNE 12, 1987
Reagan at B. Wall Mr. Gorbachev, tear down this
wall Nov 9, 1989- the Berlin Wall fell
50
East Germany
51
1950-1953 The Korean War
Oct 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis
1964 1973 American Military Involvement In
Vietnam
Bush Sr.
Truman
Eisenhower
Kennedy
Johnson
Nixon
Ford
Carter
Reagan
1960
1970
1980
Cher nen ko
An dro pov
Stalin
Khrushchev
Brezhnev
Gorbachev
1956 Hungarian Uprising
1961 Berlin Wall Built
1968 Prague Spring Czechoslovakia
1980-81 Solidarity In Poland
1989 Collapse of Communism In Eastern Europe
1991 Collapse of Soviet Union
52
1950-1953 Korean War
1962 Cuban Missile Crisis
1979-1990s War in Afghanistan The Afghan govt
supported by Soviet Forces in fight against
US-backed guerrilla fighters
1960s-1980s In Central South America the USA
supported anti-Communist regimes (e.g. General
Pinochet in Chile). The USSR supported Communist
rebels
1956-1989 USSR encounters communist protests
from Eastern Bloc countries
1967-1980s Israel supported by the US govt in
Middle East conflict w/ Arabs. The USSR
supported the Palestinians Arab states
1965-1973 Vietnam War
53
USSR-soon split into 15 republics-The
Commonwealth of Independent States (Dec. 25,
1991)-USSR is DISSOLVED!
54
End of the Soviet Union
55
End of Communism?
56
Also in 1989
57
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58
Cultural Revolution
  • Cultural Revolution 1966-goal to est. a
    proletarian society
  • Many left classrooms and formed Red Guard
  • No individual or institution was safe from attack
  • Colleges shut down
  • Lashed out against anyone with special
    privileges-1,000s of casualties
  • Factories closed, and farm production declined
  • Went too far-Red Guards shut down

59
Spring 1989
  • Students began demonstration in Tiananmen Square
    in Beijing- demanding more freedom and rights
  • Brought on by Deng Xiaopings economic
    liberalization
  • Immediately caused by death of more liberal
    leader, Hu Yaobang
  • Gorbachev visited mid-May, praised by Chinese
    students (foreign press)

60
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61
June 1989
  • Deng cracked down against protestors
  • Machine guns fired into crowds, tanks charged
    into square
  • Exact number of deaths unknown
  • Bush response Condemned Deng, suspended military
    sales to China, cut off normal relations with
    China but behind the scenes still maintained
    relations with China

62
So why was China different than Europe?
  • There had long been an underground in Europe,
    dissidents new in China
  • Europe workers rebelling, China elite students
    rebelling
  • Differences in Gorbachev and Deng

63
With the Cold War Over
  • 1945-1991-Cold War dictated Foreign Policy
  • At the same time Post WWI-attention will be on
    the Middle East as America becomes more dependent
    on oil.
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