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Time Period 1

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Title: Unit 1: Author: megan.best Last modified by: megan.best Created Date: 1/24/2011 6:44:41 PM Document presentation format: On-screen Show (4:3) – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Time Period 1


1
Time Period 1 Then Some
  • The Dawn of Civilization
  • (Prehistory 300CE)

2
Themes of History
  • There are 8 common themes that connect people
    society throughout history.
  1. Arts Ideas
  2. Belief Systems
  3. Economic System
  4. Geography Environment
  5. Government Citizenship
  6. Migration Diffusion
  7. Science Technology
  8. Society

3
History
  • History is the study of man the human
    experience
  • Prehistory Before writing
  • History Writing
  • Historians anthropologists learn about past
    societies by studying culture artifacts.
  • Culture A societys knowledge, art, beliefs,
    customs values
  • Artifacts Man made objects from the past
  • Ex clay pots, coins, tools, etc.

4
Key Discoveries
  • Donald Johnson
  • Lucy Partial skeleton proving that man walked
    upright at least 3mya
  • Mary Louis Leakey
  • Laetoli Footprints 3.5mya earliest evidence
    that man walked upright

5
Early Hominids (Early Man)
Homo Habilis
Australopithecine
  • Southern Ape
  • 4-5mya in Africa
  • Upright
  • Walked on 2 legs
  • Handy Man
  • 2.4mya in Africa
  • Simple stone tools

Homo Sapiens
Homo Erectus
  • Wise Man
  • 200,000ya in Africa
  • Same as modern man
  • Migrated around the world
  • Created fire
  • Upright Man
  • 2-1.5mya in Africa
  • Stone tools axe
  • Controlled fire
  • Migrated out of Africa

6
Human Migration (Movement)
  • It is believed that humans first appeared in
    Africa
  • About 200,000ya, early man began to move out of
    Africa
  • To Asia, Australia, Europe the Americas
  • The Ice Age made this movement possible
  • Created frozen land bridges that connected the
    continents

7
The Stone Ages (2.5mya 3,000bce)
  • Paleolithic Age
  • (2.5mya 10,000ya)
  • Neolithic Era
  • (8000 3000bce)
  • AKA The Stone Age
  • Major Advancements Tools
  • People
  • Nomads Moved from place to place following food
  • Hunter-Gatherers Men hunted women gathered
    plants/berries
  • Technology Specialized tools, clothing
    shelter
  • Art Cave paintings, stone carvings
  • Religion Animism the belief that all things
    in nature have a spirit
  • AKA The New Stone Age
  • Major Advancements Farming better tools
  • Neolithic Revolution (10,000ya)
  • Development of agriculture farming!!
  • Domestication of plants animals
  • Domestication selective breeding of plants
    animals to be more useful to humans
  • People
  • Pastoralists Herded live stock
  • Some began to create settlements
  • Technology farming tools, pottery, weaving
  • Religion More formalized w/gods

8
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9
CAUSES
EFFECTS
  • 10,000ya end of Ice Age
  • Warmer climate new plants
  • Man learned to farm

NEOLITHIC REVOLUTION (man begins to farm)
  • Domestication of plants animals
  • New farming tools
  • Larger more stable food supply
  • Early settlements farming villages
  • Pastoralists herd animals

10
The Bronze Age (3,000bce)
  • Man begins to use bronze tools
  • Bronze is metal that is stronger than copper

11
From Villages to Cities
  • Improved farming techniques (irrigation) led to a
    surplus (extra) in food supply
  • Extra food meant less people were needed to farm
  • Other people could focus on different jobs
  • Pottery making, weaving, etc.
  • Specialization Being really good at what you do
  • Division of Labor Each person has a specific
    job
  • Leads to trade

12
Traditional Economy
  • Type of economy in early farming villages
  • An economy based on customs traditions
  • Ex farmers trade food for pottery or blankets
  • Still around today
  • Ex S. American tribes, tribes in Africa, the
    Amish

13
Civilization Complex organized society. Most
early civilizations formed around rivers!
  • Developed Cities
  • Social Economic institutions
  • Art Architecture
  • Monuments, statues, pictures
  • Organized Govt.
  • Created laws, taxed, oversaw construction
  • Record Keeping Writing
  • Taxes, crop output
  • Writing beliefs ideas

7 Characteristics of Civilization
  • Formalized Religion
  • Ceremonies, rituals, religious leaders
  • Social Classes
  • Social order based on occupation
  • Specialized Labor
  • Farmers, tax collectors, builders
  • Artisans skilled craftsmen
  • Pottery, weaving,

14
Changes in Civilizations
  • Early civilizations relied on the environment
    began to trade for things they did not have
  • As people traded, they began to share ideas
  • Cultural Diffusion Sharing adopting new
    ideas, skills, beliefs.
  • As civilizations continued to grow, they began to
    compete with each other for resources, often
    leading to warfare

15
The Fertile Crescent
  • Fertile land between the Mediterranean Sea the
    Persian Gulf.
  • Due to the nutrient rich soil, many civilizations
    emerged
  • Fertile soil good for farming!!
  • Civilization is dependent on geography
  • 2 major rivers run through the Fertile Crescent
  • Tigris Euphrates Rivers
  • Mesopotamia Land between the rivers

16
Sumerian Civilization
  • Settled in Sumer
  • Cities developed around 3,000bce
  • Used mud bricks (example of how geography
    influence society)
  • City-states developed
  • Political unit with a government
  • Ziggurats were temples at the center of each
    city-states
  • Pyramid shaped

17
Sumerian Religion Govt.
  • Religion was the center of life
  • Polytheism Belief in many gods
  • Usually controlled nature, protected each
    city-state, were like humans
  • Priests initially governed city-states enjoyed
    high status
  • Successful war chiefs became kings formed
    dynasties
  • Dynasty rulers from the same family

18
Sumerian Culture
  • Math Sciences
  • Number system based on 60
  • Used geometry to build cities
  • irrigation systems
  • Invented wheel plow
  • Basic surgery
  • Arts
  • Ramps, arches,
  • Columns
  • Cylinder seals
  • Trade Society
  • Traded with other societies
  • Traders became wealthy
  • Class systems
  • Writing
  • 1st writing system
  • Cuneiform
  • Used stylus on clay tablets
  • Epic of Gilgamesh
  • Gilgamesh Interactive

19
Mesopotamian Empires
Akkadians
Babylonians
Hittites
  • Ruled by Sargon I
  • 1st permanent Army
  • 1st Empire
  • Empire Large area w/
  • many different people
  • Ruled by Hammurabi
  • Taxed traded
  • Hammurabis Code
  • 1st set of written laws
  • punishments
  • Adapted ways of
  • previous empires
  • Strong military with
  • Chariots
  • Began ironworking
  • Adapted ways of
  • previous empires

20
Hanging Gardens of Babylon
21
Mesopotamian Empires (Contd)
Assyrians
Chaldeans
Phoenicians
  • Military power with iron
  • weapons very harsh
  • System of roads
  • Kings ruled through
  • Local leaders
  • Library of Nineveh had
  • 20,000 cuneiform tablets
  • Babylon was the capital
  • Nebuchadnezzar II
  • Built Hanging
  • Gardens
  • Calendar based on phases
  • of the moon
  • Used astronomy to
  • predict weather
  • Wealthy trading society
  • Expert sailors
  • Dominated trade
  • Explored
  • Alphabet
  • Influenced Greek
  • English language

22
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23
The Hebrews
  • Ancestors of the Jews
  • Traced back to Abraham
  • Torah Sacred religious book
  • 1st 5 books of the Old Testament
  • The Torah states that God promised the Hebrews
    the promised land of Canaan
  • Modern day Israel
  • Abraham led people to Canaan land was divided
    into the 12 Tribes
  • 1 for each of Abrahams sons
  • Patriarchs Ancestral fathers of modern
    Israelites
  • Abraham his sons

24
Egypt the Hebrews
  • As the Hebrews became powerful, the kings of
    Egypt feared enslaved them
  • The Exodus Moses led the Hebrew slaves back to
    the promised land
  • 40 years in the desert
  • Moses asked prayed for help was given the 10
    Commandments
  • Moral laws
  • After reaching Canaan, Israel became very
    powerful, but divided around 722bce
  • Diaspora Movement of Jews outside of the
    promised land

25
Judaism
  • Monotheistic Belief on only 1 God
  • Believed to be the 1st monotheistic religion
  • Believed in
  • Justice righteousness
  • Obedience to the law
  • 10 Commandments
  • Mosaic laws govern worship prayers

26
The Persian Empire
  • Cyrus the Great Created the largest empire in
    the ancient world
  • He allowed the many different people to keep
    their customs cultures
  • Darius I Rebuilt Persian Empire after Cyrus
    death
  • Created permanent army
  • Satraps governors of certain regions w/i the
    empire
  • It was too big for Darius to rule on his own
  • Xerxes Last strong ruler of Persia

27
Zoroastrianism
  • New religion based on dualism
  • Dualism Belief that the world is controlled by
    two forces good v evil!!
  • People have free will can choose to act as they
    please
  • Declined after Persian Empire declined
  • However, ideas are still around today
    influenced many other religions

28
Persian Achievements
  • Blended cultures
  • Cultural diffusion.
  • Road system
  • Help rulers communicate with regions around
    empire
  • Easy for military to move around empire
  • Art
  • Gold cups
  • Stone carvings
  • Columns

29
Ancient Egypt
  • Civilization developed along the Nile River in
    Africa
  • Longest river in the world
  • Very fertile soil (silt) deposited when Nile
    flooded
  • Delta area around the mouth of the river
  • Richest soil
  • Divided into two kingdoms
  • Upper Egypt
  • Lower Egypt Near delta
  • Menes United Upper Lower Egypt

30
Basics of Egypt
  • Pharaohs Egyptian kings
  • Seen as gods
  • Theocracy Govt. ruled by religious figures
  • Pharaohs were god-like
  • The Pharaoh counted on many people to help
    him/her rule
  • Bureaucracy Structured system of govt.
    officials
  • Vizier Most powerful Pharaohs main advisor

31
Significant Pharaohs
  • Hatshepsut Only female pharaoh of Egypt
  • Took over when husband died
  • Funded huge long distant trading expositions
  • Akhenaten Changed Egyptian religion to
    monotheistic
  • Worship only 1 god (Aten sun god)
  • Ramses the Great Made peace with the Hittites
  • Most building projects

32
Egyptian Religion
  • Mainly polytheistic
  • Osiris Judge of the Dead
  • Isis Goddess of nature protector of women
  • Horus God of the sky
  • Anubis Protector of the dead
  • Amon-Re King of the Gods
  • Obelisks Tall pillars with detailed carvings
  • Priests cared for the gods common people played
    no role
  • Believed in an afterlife

33
Mummification
  • Process to preserve the body from decaying
  • How Egyptians prepared their pharaohs for the
    afterlife
  • Pyramids Burial tombs for the pharaohs
  • Size does matterthe bigger the pyramid, the more
    powerful the pharaoh

34
Egyptian Life
  • Class System
  • Govt. officials priests, doctors scribes
    (writers)
  • Artisans merchants
  • Peasant farmers (90)
  • Women had more rights in Egypt than anywhere else
    in the ancient world
  • Worked outside the home!!
  • Leisure time spent like we do
  • Played games, ate, swimming

35
Egyptian Writing
.
.
  • Hieroglyphics Egyptian form of writing that
    used symbols
  • Papyrus Plant that was made into paper for
    writing
  • Rosetta Stone Ancient stone with 3 different
    languages
  • Hieroglyphics, demonic, Greek
  • Unlocked the key to translating hieroglyphics
    other ancient texts

36
Art, Science, Math
  • Huge pyramids temples
  • The Great Sphinx
  • Huge statue 65 feet high!!
  • Basic math advanced geometry
  • Studied human anatomy
  • Heal broken bones, remove tumors, basic surgery

37
Ancient India
  • India is a subcontinent
  • Subcontinent Large land mass that is part of a
    continent
  • India is part of the Asian continent
  • Two major rivers helped support Indian
    civilization
  • Indus River
  • Ganges River
  • Monsoons Seasonal winds
  • Summer warm, rainy months
  • Winter cool, drier months

38
Indus Valley Civilization
  • Cities
  • Well planned with roads in a grid system
  • Sewer system
  • Economy
  • Based on agriculture trade
  • Society
  • Varnas Four social classes, which were divided
    into hundreds of smaller classes called castes.

39
Hinduism
  • Religion practiced by most Indians, even today
  • Believe that life is a pattern of birth, death
    rebirth
  • Reincarnation process of being reborn
  • Dharma Set of spiritual duties
  • Achieving dharma frees one from the cycle of
    rebirth (moksha)
  • 3 sacred texts
  • The Vedas
  • Writings inspired by the Vedas
  • Sacred epics (long heroic poems)

40
Jainism
  • Less ritualistic than Hinduism
  • Can achieve moksha by giving up all worldly
    possession carefully controlling actions
  • Strive to eliminate greed, anger, gossip, etc.
    from their lives

41
Buddhism
  • Based on the teaching of Siddhartha Gautama, aka
    Buddha
  • Four Noble Truths the Eightfold Path are
    essential to Buddhas teachings
  • All centered around overcoming suffering
  • Nirvana, a state of perfect peace, could be
    obtained by following the Eightfold Path
  • Freedom from suffering
  • Middle Way To live in moderation avoid
    excesses
  • Spread around the world

42
Ancient China
  • As with other ancient civilizations, two major
    rivers supported society in ancient China
  • Yangzi River
  • Huang He (Yellow) River
  • As the rivers flooded they deposited rich soil
    called Loess
  • Just like the Nile left silt

43
Shang Dynasty (1766BCE)
  • 1st dynasty of China
  • Governed by a bureaucracy
  • A system of governors
  • Most of what is known about the Shang came from
    exploring tombs
  • Afterlife b/c prisoners were buried with royals
  • Achievements
  • Writing
  • Bronze works
  • Architects
  • Astronomy Calendars
  • Money

44
Zhou Dynasty (1100BCE)
  • Ruled by the Mandate of Heaven
  • The gods would support a just ruler not allow
    the corrupt to govern
  • Dynastic Cycle Rise fall of dynasties
  • Just dynasties lasted those that were corrupt
    collapsed
  • Achievements
  • Iron working (stronger cheaper than bronze)
  • Army
  • Roads canals
  • Coins
  • Chopsticks

45
New Philosophies
Confucianism
Daoism
  • Based on the teachings of Confucius
  • People should show love respect for each other
    by honoring traditions rituals
  • Respect for tradition would restore stability to
    life society
  • Based on the teachings of Laozi
  • Encouraged people to reject the laws of man
    respect the laws of nature
  • Yin-Yang Balance of nature
  • Male Female
  • Black White
  • Hot Cold
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