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Chemical Bonding

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Chemical Bonding Sections 8.1-8.3 Objectives Identify types of chemical bonds Revisit Lewis symbols Analyze ionic bonding Compare and contrast ionic and covalent ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chemical Bonding


1
Chemical Bonding
  • Sections 8.1-8.3

2
Objectives
  • Identify types of chemical bonds
  • Revisit Lewis symbols
  • Analyze ionic bonding
  • Compare and contrast ionic and covalent bonding
  • Identify single, double, and triple bonds

3
Key Terms
  • Chemical bond
  • Ionic bond
  • Covalent bond
  • Metallic bond
  • Lewis symbol
  • Octet rule
  • Lattice energy
  • Lewis structure
  • Single bond
  • Double bond
  • Triple bond
  • Bond length

4
Chemical Bonds
  • Strong attachment between two atoms/ions
  • 3 Types
  • Ionic 8.2
  • Covalent 8.3
  • Metallic Chap 23

5
Lewis Symbols
  • Another name for electron-dot symbols
  • Named for American chemist
  • Shows only valence electrons
  • REVIEW Nitrogen, Oxygen, Bromine

6
Octet Rule
  • Atoms tend to gain, lose, or share electrons to
    get 8 valence electrons
  • Full s and p
  • Many exceptions BUT good framework

7
Ionic Bonding
  • Electrons transferred from atom to atom
  • Cation and anion formed
  • Electrostatic forces exist between ions of
    opposite charge

8
Ex NaCl
  • Na Cl ? Na Cl -

Each has an octet Na 2s22p6 Cl- 3s23p6
9
Energetics of Ionic Bond Formation
  • Formation is very exothermic
  • Lose of electron is endothermic
  • Gain of electron is exothermic
  • Attraction of opposite charges releases energy
    when stabilized

10
Lattice Energy
  • Measure of stabilization
  • Energy required to completely separate a mole of
    a solid ionic compound into its gaseous ions
  • Table 8.2 page 305
  • if separating
  • - if forming

11
Magnitude of Lattice Energy
  • Charge of ions
  • Ionic size
  • Arrangement of solids

12
Trends
  • Lattice Energy as charge of ions
  • and radii

13
Transition Metals
14
Polyatomic Ions
  • Do not forget about them!
  • They are often anion (or cation for NH4) of
    ionic compounds

15
Covalent Bonding
  • Majority of substances
  • Sharing of pairs of electrons

16
Ionic vs. Covalent
17
Lewis Structure
  • Electron-dot diagrams for molecules
  • Dots represent lone pairs of electrons
  • A line represents shared electrons

18
Lewis Structures
H-H H ö H
19
Multiple Bonds
  • Single bond- 1 pair of electrons are shared
  • Double bond- 2 pairs are shared
  • Triple bond- 3 pairs are shared

20
Single Bond
21
Double Bond
22
Triple Bond
23
Bond Length
  • Distance between nuclei of atoms in a bond
  • Decreases as number of shared pairs increases

24
Homework
  • 8.8-8.24 and 8.30-8.34 on page 336-337
  • Black problems only
  • Due Monday 3/23
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