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Introduction to Computer Science

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Title: Introduction to Computer Science Author: John Torquato Last modified by: ITMS Created Date: 8/5/2004 4:05:47 PM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Introduction to Computer Science


1
(No Transcript)
2
Objectives
  • Explain the purpose and various phases of the
    traditional systems development life cycle (SDLC)
  • Explain when to use an adaptive approach to the
    SDLC in place of the more predictive traditional
    SDLC
  • Describe how the more adaptive Unified Process
    (UP) life cycle uses iterative and incremental
    development
  • Explain the differences between a model, a tool,
    a technique, and a methodology

3
Objectives (continued)
  • Describe the Unified Process as a comprehensive
    system development methodology that combines
    proven best practices with the iterative UP life
    cycle
  • Describe the disciplines used in a UP development
    project
  • Explain how automated tools are used in system
    development

4
The Systems Development Life Cycle
  • The entire process of building, deploying, using
    and updating an information system
  • Two approaches
  • Predictive approach
  • Assumes the development project can be planned
    and organized in advance and the new information
    system can be developed according to the plan
  • Adaptive approach
  • Assumes the project cannot be planned out
    completely in advance but be modified as it
    progress, especially after some preliminary
    development work

5
SDLC phases and objectives
a) Traditional SDLC
SDLC Phases and Objectives
6
b) The waterfall approach
The Waterfall Approach to the SDLC
7
c) The overlap of system development activities
Completion of major components of project
8
The Newer Adaptive Approaches to the SDLC
a) Spiral Model
  • The spiral model
  • Cycles over and over again through development
    activities until a the project is complete
  • Iteration of system development activities
  • Iteration 1 SOME analysis, SOME design, SOME
    implementation
  • Iteration 2 MORE analysis, MORE design, MORE
    implementation
  • Iteration 3 EVEN MORE analysis, EVEN MORE
    design, EVEN MORE implementation
  • All above process should be repeated until
    the system is closer to what is ultimately needed

9
The Spiral Life Cycle Model
10
b) Related approach Incremental Development
  • Completes parts of a system in several iterations
    and then puts them into operation for users
  • This process is continuously and finally we can
    complete the last part and integrate it with the
    rest
  • The object oriented approach is always described
    as highly iterative

11
The Unified Process Life Cycle
  • UP life cycle
  • Includes (4) phases which consist of iterations
  • Iterations are mini-projects
  • Inception develop and refine system vision
  • Elaboration define requirements and core
    architecture
  • Construction continue design and implementation
  • Transition move the system into operational mode

12
The Unified Process System Development Life Cycle

13
UP Phases and Objectives
14
Methodologies, Models, Tools and Techniques
Tools Helps to create models or other components
required in the project
CASE Helps s system analyst complete
development task
15
Some Models used in System Development
16
Some Techniques used in System Development
Technique A collection of guidelines that help
an analyst complete a system development activity
or task
17
Relationships of Models, Tools, and Techniques in
a System Development Methodology
18
The Unified Process as a System Development
Methodology
  • UP object-oriented system development
    methodology
  • Developed by Grady Booch, James Rumbaugh and Ivar
    Jacobson.

19
UP Life Cycle with Phases, Iterations, and
Disciplines
20
The UP Disciplines
  • Six main UP development disciplines
  • Business modeling, requirements, design,
    implementation, testing, and deployment
  • Each iteration
  • Similar to a mini-project
  • Results in a completed portion of the system
  • Three additional support disciplines
  • Project management, configuration and change
    management, and environment

21
a) Business Modeling
  • Purpose understand business environment
  • Three major activities part of business modeling
  • Understand the business environments
  • Create the system vision
  • Create business models

22
b) Requirements
  • Objective document business requirements
  • Key drivers of activities discovery and
    understanding
  • Requirements discipline and business modeling map
    to traditional systems analysis
  • Activities list
  • Gather detailed information
  • Define functional and nonfunctional requirements
  • Prioritize requirements
  • Develop user interface dialogs
  • Evaluate requirements with users

23
c) Design
  • Objective design system based on requirements
  • Six major activities in the design discipline
  • Design support services architecture and
    deployment environment
  • Design the software architecture
  • Design use case realizations
  • Design the database
  • Design the system and user interfaces
  • Design the system security and controls

24
d) Implementation
  • Objective build or acquire needed system
    components
  • Implementation activities
  • Build software components
  • Acquire software components
  • Integrate software components

25
e) Testing
  • Testing is critical discipline
  • Testing activities
  • Define and conduct unit testing
  • Define and conduct integration testing
  • Define and conduct usability testing
  • Define and conduct user acceptance testing
  • In UP, acceptance testing occurs throughout the
    building phase

26
f) Deployment
  • Goal conduct activities to make system
    operational
  • Deployment activities
  • Acquire hardware and system software
  • Package and install components
  • Train users
  • Convert and initialize data
  • Deployment activities prominent in transition
    phase

27
g) Project Management
  • Most important support discipline
  • Project management activities
  • Finalize the system and project scope
  • Develop the project and iteration schedule
  • Identify project risks and confirm feasibility
  • Monitor and control the projects plan
  • Monitor and control communications
  • Monitor and control risks and outstanding issues

28
h) Configuration and Change Management
  • Configuration and change discipline pertains to
  • Requirements
  • Design
  • Source code
  • Executables
  • The two activities in this discipline
  • Develop change control procedures
  • Manage models and software components

29
i) Environment
  • Development environment includes
  • Available facilities
  • Design of the workspace
  • Forums for team communication and interaction
  • Environment discipline activities
  • Select and configure the development tools
  • Tailor the UP development process
  • Provide technical support services

30
Tools to Support System Development
  • CASE (Computer Aided System Engineering)
  • Contains da atabase repository for information
    system
  • Set of tools that help analysts complete
    activities
  • Sample artifacts models, automatically generated
    code

31
A CASE Tool Repository Contains All Information
About the System
32
Tools to Support System Development (continued)
  • Microsoft Visio emphasizes technical drawing
  • Rational Rose
  • CASE tool supporting object-oriented approach
  • Strongly identified with  UP methodology
  • Together
  • Pioneers round-trip engineering
  • synchronizes graphical models with generated
    program code
  • Leverages UML diagrams

33
Tools to Support System Development (continued)
  • Embarcadero Describe
  • Visual Modeling
  • Round-trip engineering
  • Rational XDE Professional
  • Integrates Microsoft Visual Studio.NET IDE
  • Also provides visual modeling and round-trip

34
Summary
  • SDLC set of activities required to complete
    system development project
  • Predictive SDLC executes project in sequential
    phases (waterfall approach)
  • Adaptive SDLC accommodates change and phase
    overlap
  • Spiral SDLC model introduces iterations (cycles)
  • UP is an adaptive system development methodology

35
Summary (continued)
  • UP life cycle includes four phases-inception,
    elaboration, construction, and transition
  • UP phases decomposed into one ore more iterations
  • Iterations involve work in nine UP disciplines
  • CASE automation tools simplify development tasks
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