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TAXONOMY

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Title: TAXONOMY


1
TAXONOMY
  • BY SHAKTI NADAR
  • BSc BOTANY

2
INTRODUCTION
3
INTRODUCTION
  • MORPHOLOGY STUDYOF EXTERNAL FORM STRUCTURE
  • ANATOMY STUDY OF INTERNAL (SECTIONS) STRUCTURES
  • HISTOLOGY STUDY OF TISSUES UNDER MICROSCOPE
  • PHYSIOLOGY STUDYOF PROCESSES FUNCTIONS OF
    ORGANISMS

4
INTRODUCTION
  • TAXONOMY
  • IT IS THE MOST FUNDAMENTAL BRANCH OF BIOLOGY
  • IT DEALS WITH THE IDENTIFICATION, CLASSIFICATION
    NOMENCLATURE OF LIVING ORGANISMS

5
INTRODUCTION
  • SYSTEMATICS THE STUDY OF ORGANISMS COMPARITIVE
    EVOLUTIONARY RELATIONSHIPS
  • CLASSIFICATION IT IS A SUB-TOPIC OF SYSTEMATICS,
    DELS WITH ORDERING OF ORGANISMS
  • TAXONOMY IT IS THE STUDY OF PRINCIPLES
    PROCEDURE OF CLASSIFICATION

6
EVOLUTION
  • EVOLUTION is study of cumulative changes in the
    characteristics of population organisms that
    occur during the course of time in response to
    changes in the environment
  • The theory of evolution is the foundation upon
    which all of modern biology is built
  • Charles Darwin

7
HISTORY
  • Charles Darwin (1809-1882) provided concepts of
    evolutionary change through time
  • Subsequent botanists incorporated these into
    classifications
  • A different way to view taxa?groupings on an
    evolutionary tree

8
Cont
  • Knowledge commonly inscribed on walls of temples
    (e.g., Karnak)
  • Systematic knowledge originated as medicinal and
    economically useful plants during Egyptian times
  • Increasing written lore on uses of plants as
    medicines, food, ornamentals

9
Cont
  • Theophrastus (370-285 B.C.), pupil of Aristotle,
    created first artificial plant groupings based
    on habit (De Historia Plantarum)
  • Dioscorides (ca. 60 A.D.) wrote treatise on
    medicinal plants (De Materia Medica)
  • Greeks and Romans expanded knowledge to other
    plant life

10
SYSTEMS OF CLASSIFICATION
  • ARTIFICIAL SYSTEM
  • CARLOS LINNAEUS
  • HABBIT OF PLANT
  • NO. UNION LENGTH
  • OF STAMEN
  • PHYLOGENETIC SYSTEM
  • ADOLF ENGLER KARL PRANTL
  • EVOLUTIONARY HISTORY
  • GENITIC RELATIONSHIP
  • ETC
  • NATURAL SYSTEM
  • BENTHAM HOOKER
  • NATURAL AFFINITIES

11
Why is classification important?
  • THERE ARE MANY ORGANISMS

12
Why is classification important?
  • SOME ARE SIMILAR

13
Why is classification important?
  • SOME ARE LESS SIMILAR

14
Why is classification important?
  • SOME VERY DISSIMILAR

15
Cont
  • THERE ARE
  • 1 million species of plants,
  • 5-10 million species of animals
  • fungi, bacteria, etc.
  • no good estimates of numbers of species
  • Human mind needs to organize information

16
Cont
  • The main aim of a taxonomic study is to assign
    organism an appropriate place in a systematic
    framework of classification.
  • This framework is called TAXONOMIC HIERARCHY

17
TAXONOMIC HIERARCHY
  • Kingdom
  • Phylum
  • Class
  • Order
  • Family

  • Genus

  • Species
  • King Phil called old fat George stupid.

18
TAXONOMIC HIERARCHY
  • Kingdom
  • Division
  • Class
  • Cohort
  • Family

  • Genus

  • Species

19
FIVE KINGDOM CLASSIFICATION
  • Kingdom Monera (Bacteria)
  • Kingdom Protista
  • Kingdom Fungi
  • Kingdom Plantae
  • Kingdom Animalia
  • R.H.WHITTAKER (1769)

20
FATHER OF TAXONOMY
  • Swedish Botanist
  • May 23, 1701 -
  • Jan. 10, 1778
  • He based his plant classification system on the
    plants method of reproduction and structure of
    reproductive parts
  • Introduced binomial
  • nomenclature
  • Carolus Linneaus
  • (aka Karl von Linné)

21
BINOMIAL NOMENCLATURE
  • The system of giving scientific names to each of
    the identified plant or animal.
  • The names are unique and universally accepted.
  • Names consist of 2 parts hence called BINOMIAL
  • Names are in Greek and Latin

22
Cont
  • 1st part is GENUS NAME - NOUN
  • 2nd part is SPECIES NAME ADJECTIVE
  • E.g.
  • shoe flower-
  • Hibiscus rosasinensis
  • lion-
  • Panthera leo

23
Cont
  • Three codes
  • Animals
  • International Code of Zoological Nomenclature
  • Plants, Fungi, algae, etc.
  • International Code of Botanical Nomenclature
  • Bacteria Etc
  • International Code of Nomenclature of
    Prokaryotes

24
Plant classification
25
TOPICS COVERED
  • INTRODUTION
  • HISTORY
  • SYSTEMS OF CLASSIFICATION
  • HIERARCHY
  • FIVE KINGDOM CLASSIFICATION
  • NOMENCLATURE

26
THANK YOU
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