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Title: IbrahimABajunid


1
AMERICAN EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH ASSOCIATION ANNUAL
MEETING and CONFERENCEDenver 4 May 2010
  • IDEAS, INSTITUTIONS and NATION BUILDING
  • The Role of Education and Intellectual Capital
    Creation in National Development and Societal
    Change
  • Ibrahim Ahmad Bajunid
  • Deputy President
  • INTI-UC LAUREATE INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITIES
  • Visiting Professor Universiti Sains Malaysia
  • and
  • Adjunct Professor Universiti Utara Malaysia

2
GLOBAL CHANGES
  • 1. Management and Educational Events

The Personalization of the Computer and the
Internet
EVENTS THAT CHANGE THE EDUCATION WORLD
The Fall of Industry
Learning Across The Life Span
Biotechnology and Other Initiaves
Use of English and Indigenous Languages
The Rise in OnesAsset Value
The Coming of True Globalization
Knowledge Economy
The Age of RD
Transformation of Schools and Modes of Learning
Edutainment and Creativity
Demography and Population People Power-Knowledge
Power
Influence and contribution of Woman in Education
Quality Obsession
Social Capital
The Rebirth of Strategy
The Future
Religious Revivalism
The Mass Merchandising of Ideas
The Info/Knowledge Revolution
Environmental Consciousness
Cognitive Sciences
The Ascendance of Asia
3
Civilization Changes
Leapfrog
POST-INDUSTRIAL/ ADVANCED INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY
VISION 2020 IMPERATIVE Leapfrogging development
stages
DEVELOPED SOCIETY
Manipulating Synthesizing
INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY
Recycling Synthesizing
Knowledge Services
Manufacturing Processing
Information Services
Labor Land Capital Entrepreneur
Information RD Technology Knowledge
DEVELOPING SOCIETY
LAST DEVELOPED SOCIETY
Utility Services
Labor Land Capital Entrepreneur
Information RD Technology
PRIMITVE SOCIETY
Agricultural Mining
Labor Land Capital Entrepreneur
Information
Shifting Farming
Hunting gathering
Labor Land Capital
Labor Land
Labor
INFORMATION KNOWLEDGE AS FACTORS OF CHANGE AND
VALUE-CREATION NITA_MIMOS
4
National IT Agenda The Vision and Goals

Virtue-based Knowledge Society
5
The National IT Agenda Framework
PEOPLE Comprehensive Human Development
QUALITATIVE TRANSFORMATION
ACCESS EQUITY
Values-BasedKnowledgeSociety
CONTENT APPLICATIONS Solutions for Info. Age
work and life
CREATING VALUE
INFOSTRUCTURE Info. Age Development Foundation
6
How do we model Lifelong Learning?
TRADITIONAL STRATEGIES
To Know / Understand
To Be
To Do
To Live With Others
The Pillars of Learning
Learning Individual/Families/Institutions/Communit
ies/Societies
Central Role of National Library and other
libraries as knowledge Repository
Life-long Learning Agenda
Employment
Social Inclusion
Active Citizenship
Personal Development
ICT DRIVEN STRATEGIES
Professor Ibrahim Bajunid (2000), NITC, MIMOS
7
The Age of Unreason
  • Reforms and Revolutions-Radical and Incremental
  • The Digital Era-Nanotechnology-E-Learning
  • Borderless World-Global Village
  • Boundarylessness
  • Globalization, Liberalization, Internationalizatio
    n.
  • Competitiveness-World Class Qualitocracy-Meritocr
    acy
  • K Economy

8
Education, Training and Human Resources
Development Accountability Framework
  • Human Capital-Human Talent
  • Politics, Policies, Planning
  • Strategic Alignment
  • Knowledge Management
  • Talent management
  • Leadership
  • Performance Culture
  • Civilizational-Cultural-National and Community
    Accountability

9
Recognizing Knowledge and Intellectual Assets
  • Gender Oriented Knowledge
  • Culture Specific Knowledge
  • Multiple Intelligences
  • Adversity Intelligence
  • Emotional Intelligence
  • Moral Intelligence
  • Spiritual Intelligence
  • Business Intelligence
  • Universal Knowledge

10
Types of Knowledge Capital
  • Of Human Capital
  • Of Knowledge Capital
  • Of Social Capital
  • Of Intellectual Capital
  • Of Cultural Capital
  • Of Values Capital
  • Of Human Resources

11
The Leadership Agenda
  • Leaders and Lifelong Learning
  • Leaders and Lifewide Learning
  • Leaders and the Quality of Life
  • Leaders and the Quest for Truth
  • Leaders and the Straight and Ethical Path
  • Other Types of Leaders

12
HUMAN RESOURCE CHALLENGES
  • The National Mission
  • First To move the economy up the value Chain.
  • Second To raise the capacity for knowledge and
    innovation and nurture first class mentality.
  • Third To address persistent socio-economic
    inequalities constructively and productively.
  • Fourth To improve the standard and
    sustainability of Quality of Life.
  • Fifth To strengthen the institutional and
    implementation capacity.

13
QUALITY of LIFE CHALLENGES-Work-Life Balance
  • Dimensions of Quality of Life Indicators
  • Education
  • Employment
  • Energy
  • Environment
  • Health
  • Human Rights
  • Income
  • Infrastructure
  • National Security
  • Public Safety
  • Recreation
  • Shelter

14
Bringing Things Together Learning and
Living-Education-Training and Development
  • Development Imagination
  • Sociological Imagination
  • The Immediate and the Long Term
  • Lifelong Learning
  • E Learning
  • Religion
  • Champions of Development
  • Cumulative Deficits and Cumulative Advantages
  • All Kinds of Divides

15
  • Internalization of Great Ideas and Virtues in
  • Families
  • Knowledge Justice Truth
    Liberty
  • Goodness Equality Beauty
    Wisdom
  • Caring Compassion
    Consideration Excellence
  • Helpfulness Humility
    Respect Self-Discipline
  • Tolerance Cleanliness
    Self-Confidence Courageous
  • Dignity Honesty Patience
    Tact
  • Loyalty Responsibility Conscientious
    Peaceful
  • Gratitude Risk-Taking Focused
    Enthusiastic
  • Committed Idealistic
    Forgiving Lifelong Learner

16
Reconstruction of the story of civilization and
national development
  • The honing of the literacies of the citizenry
    through the ages.
  • The story of the dawn of civilization
  • Drawing
  • Scribes
  • Wheels
  • Story telling
  • Digital Era

17
So Many-Reinventing the Wheel Differently
  • Scribes
  • Discoverers
  • Pioneers
  • Inventors
  • Innovators
  • Researchers
  • Heroes

18
The Scribe, Magician and Scientist On Knowledge
Evolution
  • Drawing
  • Hieroglyphics
  • Alphabet-Alphanumeric
  • Print
  • Audio
  • Multimedia
  • Symbolic, Iconic, Enactive

19
LINKING-MAKING THE CONNECTIONS
  • linked to basic literacies
  • interwoven with the story of multiple
    intelligences
  • Understanding manpower planning
  • The emergence of human capital
  • Understanding Human resources, Talents and
    Potentialities.

20
Vicegerency. and Stewardship
  • The Athenian and Spartan models of citizenry.
  • Citizenry in Darul Islam and Darul Harb-The
    Muslim State and the Islamic State.
  • Communist and Democratic milieu.
  • Communities and Societies
  • International Organizations

21
Literacy of Reverence
  • The notion of Latin and Arabic as the languages
    of Prayers
  • The context of the anatomy of the sacred.
  • The anatomy of the secular.
  • Of Highness and Holiness and Wholeness

22
Independence and E Sovereignty
  • Of universal Franchise
  • The programmes of adult literacy in the early
    years of Malaysian independence.
  • The present day of newly emerging basic
    literacies.
  • Intermediate and Advanced Literacies.
  • Multimedia Super Corridor-The Dreams and the
    Realities
  • The Digital Era of virtual and global
    communities.

23
CONTEXTS of CITIZENRY EDUCATION
  • The education of the citizenry in-
  • formal
  • non formal, and,
  • informal contexts.
  • The elitist, mass and universal stages of
    educational provisions.
  • Democratization of Higher Education.
  • Lifelong Learning

24
INTERNATIONAL SKILLS- GLOBAL SKILLS
  • Of generic Skills and Competencies.
  • The international and national agenda regarding
    development in all dimensions, specifically
    through education.
  • The context of global skills as literacies.
  • Employment Mobility
  • Europe as an Economic Area
  • The European Higher Education Area.

25
NOTIONS OF CAPITAL and LITERACIES
  • The interrelationship among the notions of
    Potentialities-
  • cultural multicultural literacy
  • political literacy
  • economic literacy, and,
  • The notions of
  • Social Capital
  • Intellectual Capital
  • Knowledge Capital.
  • Spiritual Capital
  • Levels and contexts of Interrelationships

26
Awakening and Senses and Sensibilities.
  • Awareness of The Multiple
  • The Symbolic
  • The Iconic
  • The Enactive
  • The Multimedia
  • The Multiple Intelligences
  • NeuroLinguistic Programming
  • Brain Sciences

27
FOUR THEATERS OF BRAIN
  • PERCEPTION
  • ATTENTION, CONSCIOUSNESS, COGNITION.
  • BRAIN FUNCTION.
  • IDENTITY AND BEHAVIOUR
  • John J. Ratey-2002- A Users Guide to the Brain.

28
Literacies of Mindfulness
  • In control of Automatic Behaviours
  • Understanding of Trapped Minds Trapped by
    Categories.
  • Understanding the Illiteracy of viewing Realty
    from a Single Perspective.
  • Understanding personal Cognitive Incapacity
    because of Mindlessness

29
Overarching abstract and structural power bases
of Literacies Determiners
  • Ideology, Knowledge and Literacies.
  • Those who sanction the parameters of literacies
    for the citizenry.
  • Of censorship, and,
  • banning decisions.
  • Forbidden knowledge, information and skills
    literacies.

30
Literacies Compendium
  • Literacies as tools,
  • Competencies, and,
  • contents for the enlightenment of citizenry.
  • Citizenry with a repertoire of multiliteracies or
    social and interpersonal global skills.

31
An enlightened citizenry in states of becoming.
  • Unraveling of the web of fragmented notions
    citizenry
  • The achieving society.
  • The creative society.
  • The Learning Society.
  • The Knowledge Society.
  • The Virtues based society.
  • Individuals, Families and Societies in the
    making in diverse circumstances

32
CREATIVE PROCESSES Perspectives for
Understanding Talents
  • Originate Problems
  • Design Methods for Solving Problems
  • Hypothesize-Deductive Reasoning
  • Test Hypotheses
  • Infer
  • Produce Original Artistic-Scientific Works
  • Communicate in Unique Ways
  • Evaluate and Generate better approaches
  • Perceive Hidden relations
  • Invent New Uses for Objects
  • Resourceful

33
PRODUCTS OF CREATIVITY
  • Sketch
  • Sonota
  • Song
  • Phrase
  • Poem
  • Mathematical Process
  • Idea
  • New Mental Synthesis
  • A New Invention
  • Fragments of the Whole

34
  • Inventiveness Thinking
  • Adaptability and Complexity Management Thinking
  • Inquisitiveness, Creativity and the willingness
    to take risks.
  • High Order Cognitive Competencies and sound
    reasoning.

35
  • Intelligent Robots substituting for Human
    Labor/Manpower
  • Trading Opportunities in isolated areas including
    in mountains.
  • Interactive Purchasing and Customers Own design
    for Required Goods.
  • Revolution of the Arts and Entertainment by
    Computers.
  • The Shift of Educational Sites from the
    Classrooms to the Home Lounge.
  • Virtual Reality and Artificial Intelligence.
  • Agriculture in the seas and oceans.
  • Mining in other planets in space.
  • Prevalent use of biochips.

36
Understanding of FILTERS INFLUENCING THINKING
  • SUBCONSCIOUS FILTERS
  • Values
  • Culture and Heritage
  • Religion
  • SURVIVAL FILTERS
  • SOCIAL FILTERS
  • (Desires, Goals, Aspirations)
  • (Jim Wheeler, 1998)

37
LEVELS OF PARADIGMS
  • ANCHORING AWARENESS LEVEL(AHA, Safe, Danger)
  • MESSAGE CONTENT (Known and Unknown Information)
  • AWARENESS LEVEL (Unaware how much one knows,
    Aware, Unaware how much one does not know)
  • Jim Wheeler (1998)-The Power of Innovative
    Thinking

38
Fostering ETHICAL MANAGEMENT Across Departments
  • Perspective
  • Purpose
  • Patience
  • Persistence
  • Pride
  • Kenneth Blanchard and Norman Vincent Peale- 1990-
    The Power of Ethical Management.

39
Competencies Evaluation by Several International
Systems.
  • Basic Literacies
  • Numeracy
  • Scientific Literacy
  • Problem Solving
  • Information Communications Technology (ICT)

40
Competencies and Empowerment
  • Elegance and
    Artistry of
  • Products and
    Services
  • Originality
  • Uniqueness
  • Specialized Competencies
  • Advanced Competencies
  • Multiliteracies
  • Basic Skills and Literacies

41
Conceptual Distractors and Conceptual Confusion
  • Westernization
  • Modernization
  • Nationalization
  • Privatization and Corporatization
  • Localization
  • Centralization
  • Decentralization
  • Devolution
  • Islamization
  • Globalization
  • Internationalization
  • Liberalization

42
Global Citizenship
  • Peace Education
  • Multicultural Education
  • Inter religious Dialogue and Discourse
  • Celebrating Differences
  • Working Towards the Education of Every Person.

43
CONTENTS of LITERACIES SOCIETAL DEVELOPMENT
AGENDA
  • The Generational Experiences of Public
    Literacies
  • Colonialism and Independence.
  • Westernization
  • Nationalization and Malaysianization
  • Indigenization
  • Regionalization
  • Localization
  • Globalization, Internationalization and
    Liberalization

44
Official Knowledge and National Agenda Across the
Literacies of Generations
  • The Rukunegara
  • The New Economic Policy
  • Malaysian History and Civics Education
  • The New Primary and Secondary School Curriculum
  • The Philosophy of Education
  • Vision 2020 and Educational Vision
  • Islam Hadhari
  • The National Mission

45
Nation-Building and National Literacies
  • Collective Historical Experiences and Memories
  • The Significant Trivia in National Memory
  • Of Popular and High and Great Traditions.
  • Community Literacies
  • Family Literacies

46
Professionalism as Universal Literacies
  • Professional Values and Literacies in Every
    Family-Understanding Professional Codes and
    Family Codes.
  • The Professions
  • Professionalism
  • Professionality in Families, Communities and
    Societies.
  • Socio-Economic Mobility because of the Mastery of
    Knowledge.
  • New Values and Assumptions.
  • New Action Rules a and New Linguistic and
    Cognitive Structures regarding Literacies
  • Reference Peter Senges notions.

47
On Sustainability Literacies for All Ages and
Across the Ages
  • The Quest for Lasting Wisdom
  • The Notions of Eternity and Timelessness in Value
    of Knowledge and Character.
  • Learnability.
  • Educability.
  • Lifelong Learning.
  • Life wide Learning.
  • Timeless Leadership.
  • Wisdom for All Ages

48
Understanding Social Capital
  • Foundations and Fundamentals of Literacies of
    Citizenry
  • Trust in Neighbour
  • Trust in Government
  • Trust in Other Citizens.
  • Trust in Social Institutions.
  • Trust in Communities

49
New Literacies for the Citizenry
  • Sovereignty
  • E-Sovereignty
  • Cyber Laws
  • Mobile Etiquette
  • Email and SMS Etiquette
  • The courtesies and aesthetics of Cyber
    relationships .

50
Everyperson's potentialities and
responsibilities.
  • Living Life to the Fullest
  • Lifelong learning as a sustainable educational
    agenda.
  • To create opportunities for citizens across the
    life span to acquire relevant emerging
    literacies.
  • To realize potentialities of species.

51
Citizenship Education
  • Since the birth of the Malaysian nation in 1957,
    there have been the continuing definitions of
    nationhood, sovereignty, citizenship, national
    character and national identity. While there are
    contentious debates in the political arena
    regarding citizenship issues in the multiracial
    state, the school system has faithfully been
    teaching some form of citizenship education.

52
Citizenship Curriculum Metamorphosis
  • Over the years through successive reviews, the
    curriculum of citizenship education underwent
    curriculum metamorphosis. Whatever, the
    curriculum revisions and structures, the
    curriculum still somehow maintained the
    fundamental objectives of citizenship education.
    Civics, History, Moral Studies, Islamic
    Education, Malaysian Studies, Co-curricular
    activities and even Language learning, Values
    education, and Thinking Skills have all been the
    promoters and repertoires of the contents of
    citizenship education.

53
The continuing challenge of citizenship education
in Malaysia
  • To foster a sense of multiracial, multireligious,
    multilingual nationhood and enlightened citizenry
    where all peoples are equal before the law,
    irrespective of origins.
  • Rukunegara is the basis of the Malaysian
    Citizenship Education

54
National Ideology- the Rukunegara
  • OUR NATION, MALAYSIA, being dedicated
  • To achieving a greater unity of all her peoples
  • To maintaining a democratic way of life
  • To creating a just society in which the wealth of
    the nation shall be equitably shared
  • To ensuring a liberal approach to her rich and
    diverse cultural traditions,
  • To building a progressive society which shall be
    oriented to modern science and technology
  • We, her peoples, pledge our united efforts to
    attain these ends guided by these principles
  • Belief in God
  • Loyalty to King and Country
  • Upholding the Constitution
  • Rule of Law and
  • Good Behaviours and Morality.

    (Ministry of Information, 1971)

55
From National to Global Citizenship
  • The new challenge of citizenship education is the
    challenge for Malaysians to take on the duties,
    responsibilities, and obligations of being global
    citizens while being nationally patriotic.
  • With the new realities and agenda, new
    literacies-multi literacies are required to be
    achieved

56
The Quest for Authenticity
  • The rhetoric and practices of citizenship
    education.
  • The initiatives for citizenship developments in
    the wider society and in the education system.

57
Building overarching principles of Citizenship
Literacies
  • Principles, ideas, programmes and institutions
    which promote citizenship education among school
    children, university students, adult learners and
    the public at large.
  • Current initiatives which indicate the trends and
    future directions of citizenship education and
    the making of knowledge and virtues based
    citizenry.

58
The notion of social contractAbdullah Ahmad
Badawi (2004a)
  • any society and especially diverse
    multicultural societies will benefit from a
    social contract. It provides a framework for
    political, social and economic intercourse that
    is agreed upon by all communities. It reduces
    misunderstanding and conflicts of interest, and
    allows people to focus upon improving their lives
    in peace and harmony. The failure to put place
    viable social contracts is at the root of many
    conflicts afflicting nation states around the
    world.Malaysias experience is that a strategy
    of inclusion, participation and respect fro the
    legitimate rights of all ethic, religious and
    cultural groups, and just recognition of the
    special position due to the indigenous peoples is
    the best formula to mange its diversity.

59
The Objectives of History Teaching 1973
  • 1. To understand national identity from the
    history of the nation.
  • 2. To foster the development of belongingness
    towards the Malaysian society and nation as one
    united unit.
  • 3. To foster a collective historical memory as
    the framework of national consciousness among
    Malaysian citizens.
  • 4. To foster international understanding.
  • 5. To foster interest in /towards history
  • 6. To stimulate and develop critical thinking.


  • (Kementerian Pendidikan Malaysia 1978)

60
The Objectives of the Revised History Curriculum
1980
  • 1. To articulate the significance of History as a
    knowledge discipline and practice the principles
    learned lifelong in autonomous independent and
    self-reliant ways.
  • 2. To clarify the stages of the development of
    the society and nation from the historical,
    economic and social perspectives.
  • 3. To describe the features and characteristics
    of Malaysian communities and cultures and to
    practice the best habits daily.
  • 4. To appreciate the efforts and contributions of
    the personalities who have struggled to for
    independence, sovereignty and national
    development and defended national pride.
  • 5. To acquire and posses the patriotic spirit and
    to be engaged in the efforts to defend
    sovereignty, national progress and development.
  • 6. To clarify Malaysias position as a part of
    world civilization and to clarify Malaysias
    contribution at the international l/global level.
  • 7. To learn lesson from history with the aim of
    improving the power and maturity of thinking.
  • 8. To practice good values and virtues.
  • 9. To analyze, conclude and evaluate historical
    facts and the outside wolf in rational ways.


    (Kementerian Pendidikan Malaysia
    2002b)

61
New Integrated Secondary School Curriculum
  • The History Curriculum integrates three related
    threads-
  • The overall notion of Patriotism.
  • The Contents of History, and,
  • The Structure of the Discipline of History.
  • The history syllabus contains concepts such as
    the family community, the local community, the
    affiliative community, the school community, the
    state community, the regional community and the
    world community.
  • Key citizenship concepts in the curriculum
    which involve political and historical literacy
    simultaneously, include ideas of citizen's
    national and international rights, duties,
    obligations, entitlements, privileges.

62
Key citizenship concepts
  • Justice and fairness, rights and
    responsibilities, laws and rules and regulations,
    and charters, power and authority and ruling
    elites and interest and pressure groups,
    democracy and community, conflict and
    cooperation, dialogue, discourse and negotiation,
    diversity and independence, freedom and
    constraints.
  • The Patriotic Component emphasizes the
    development of the citizen who is proud to be a
    Malaysian, who is loyal to the country, who has
    the spirit of belongingness, who is disciplined,
    industrious and economically and culturally
    productive.

63
Of Historical Emphathy
  • Historical empathy means the attainment of
    thinking which enables the understanding of
    continuity and change as to why People did what
    they did and why present circumstances and
    realities are as they are today. This
    understanding of Historical Empathy is supposed
    to be from multiple perspectives. The student who
    looks at history from the perspective of
    historical Empathy is actually building an open
    pattern of thought which is tolerant and mature.
    History education is regarded as the tool which
    will achieve citizens who are more responsible.


  • (Kementerian Pendidikan Malaysia 2002)

64
The generic skills
  • The skills identified for students to master in
    the discipline of history encompass
  • Communication skills technology utilization
    skills planning and organizing skills
  • Teamwork and group work skills problem solving
    skills information selection,
  • management and analysis skills skills for using
    mathematical ideas and techniques
  • and culture understanding skills.


  • (Kementerian Pendidikan Malaysia 2002b, p.8)

65
The two categories of thinking skills and
citizenship education.
  • Critical thinking and Creative thinking
    skills for decision-making and problem solving
  • Critical thinking skills include the skills of
    categorization, comparison and contrast,
  • collection and classification, prioritization,
    analysis, identification of trends,
  • evaluation and generalization and conclusions.
    Creative thinking skills include ideas
  • generation, inference making, searching and
    making relationships and synthesis,
  • predicting and projections, hypothesis making,
    synthesizing, sequencing, generalizing,
  • analogizing, making mental pictures, creating and
    innovating.
  • (Kementerian Pendidikan Malaysia 2002b, pp.
    9-16)

66
Dahrendorfs definition of the precise concepts
of rights civil, political and social
  • Civil rights entail equality before the law,
    the due process of justice, and the right to
    conclude contracts as equals-that is, the rule of
    law in its widest sense. Political rights include
    the right to vote and to express ones views.
    Social rightsin part embrace civil and political
    rights-they liberate people from insecurity, and
    include the right to an education and the right
    not to fall below a certain level of income.
  • (See, Baglin Jones and Neville
    Jones, 1992.)

67
The objectives of the TITAS course Islamic and
Asian Civilization
  • 1 To foster true understanding and the attitude
    of mutual respect among Malaysian Citizens from
    different religions, origins, races and cultures.
  • 2 To reinforce the Malaysian philosophy and way
    of life through consensus and Negotiation
    (musyuarah and ijmak).
  • 3 To foster Malaysian identity as a plural
    society which practices high tolerance?
    (Tolerance here takes on the meaning of
    understanding).
  • (See, Pro-Forma Kursus UM-PT01-PK03-BR003-S00
    Kod Kursus GXEX1403 Tamadun Islam dan Tamadun
    Asia Kertas 1 2.)

68
The importance of Patriotism and Citizenship
Education.
  • The spirit of Patriotism is the essence of
    national strength and the citizens happiness. To
    foster the feeling/spirit of patriotism is one
    aspect of comprehensive and integrated education.
    As Malaysian citizens, every school
    administrator, teacher and student do come
    together to take the serious attitude regarding
    loyalty and undivided love for the nation. The
    ceremonies of raising the Malaysian Flag, singing
    the national anthem, and taking the pledge should
    be ideally conducted during daily or weekly
    assemblies. If the ceremony cannot be conducted
    in weekly or daily group assemblies, the ceremony
    should be conducted simultaneously in the
    respective classrooms according to the discretion
    of the school. Schools which have a good public
    address system, the facilities should be used to
    ensure that the ceremony takes place
    simultaneously for the whole school.
  • (Surat Pekeliling Ikhtisas Bil.6/1994 Usaha
    Menanam Semangat Patriotisma Di Kalangan Pelajar
    dan Senaman Ringkas dalam Bilik Darjah.)

69
Institute for the Study of History and Patriotism
  • To study the characteristics of patriotism which
    need to be fostered in the heart and mind of
    every Malaysian?
  • To become the Advisory and advocative body to the
    government, to the private sector agencies and
    volunteer organizations regarding the patterns
    and characteristics of patriotism these bodies
    practice and the various types of activities they
    should do in order to reinforce the spirit of
    patriotism.
  • To study aspects and values of history as well
    as world and national civilization in order to
    ensure the continuing maturity of the patriotic
    spirit among Malaysians, particularly among the
    younger generation.

70
Objectives of the Institute of Integrity.
  • To formulate strategies and give direction to all
    sectors of society so that they can work
    cooperatively and participate directly in the
    efforts to develop ethics and integrity.
  • To work to attain the fourth objective of Vision
    2020 specifically, the challenge of establishing
    a fully moral and ethical society, whose citizens
    are strong in religious and spiritual values and
    imbued with the highest of ethical standards.
  • To increase awareness, commitment and cooperation
    of the people from various sectors in the efforts
    of achieving integrity.

71
The National Integrity Plan
  • First, to effectively reduce corruption, abuse
    and misuse of power
  • Second, to improve competence in the delivery
    system of The Public Services and to overcome the
    barriers of bureaucracy.
  • Third. To improve corporate governance and
    business ethics.
  • Fourth, to strengthen the family unit.
  • Fifth, to improve the quality of life and the
    happiness of the people.

72
Rethinking the Malaysian Future
  • By the year 2020, Malaysia can be a united
    nation, with a confident Malaysian society,
    infused by strong moral and ethical values,
    living in a society that is democratic, liberal
    and tolerant, caring, economically just and
    equitable, progressive and prosperous, and in
    full possession of an economy that is
    competitive, dynamic, robust and resilient.

73
The National Social Policy
  • The Principles identified as guidance for the
    overall, holistic development of the individual,
    encompassing physical, intellectual, emotional,
    spiritual and social are as follows
  • Responsibility towards the self, the family and
    other people.
  • Committed towards religious teaching
  • Conscious and sensitive towards the environment
  • To foster peace and harmony in life.
  • Patriotic spirit
  • Respect for basic human rights, and,
  • Practice democratic principles in life.

74
The domains of learning Seven Learning Areas
  • I Values related to personal development.
    (Belief in God Trustworthy Self-respect
    Responsibility Consideration (hemah Diri)
    Tolerance Independence/autonomy
    Industrious/diligence caring just rational,
    moderation).
  • ii Values related to the family. (Love towards
    family respect and loyalty towards the family
    to sustain family tradition responsibility
    towards the family).
  • iii Values related to the environment (To love
    and value the environment Harmony between man
    and the environment sustaining the environment
    aware and sensitive towards environmental
    issues).
  • iv Values related to Patriotism (Love for the
    nation Loyalty to King and Country willingness
    to sacrifice for the nation).
  • v Values related to Basic Human Rights (To
    protect childrens rights/the rights of the
    child to respect womens rights, to protect the
    rights of employees to respect the rights of the
    handicapped to protect consumer rights)
  • vi Values related to democracy. (To adhere to
    laws and regulations to respect the freedom of
    speech to respect religious freedom to be
    involved in nation building to foster the open
    attitude/open-mindedness).
  • vii Values related to Peace and Harmony. (To
    live together in peace and harmony, to foster
    mutual cooperation and supportiveness/collaboratio
    n to foster respect between/among nations.)

75
The National Social Policy towards a Balanced
Development
  • 1 To ensure that the basic needs of the
    individual, the family and the society are met.
  • 2 To develop and memperkasakan individual
    through the life span.
  • 3 To strengthen and develop a support social
    system and service system.
  • 4 To initiate multisectoral synergy
  • (Malaysia 2003, Dasar Sosial Negara. Kuala
    Lumpur, Kementerian Perpaduan Negara dan
    Pembangunan Masyarakat 2003).

76
Functions of the Malaysian Human Rights
Commission
  • To foster awareness and to prepare educational
    programmes related to basic human rights
  • To investigate complaints regarding human rights
    abuses/transgressions.
  • To foster awareness related to human rights and
    to pledge to conduct research and run seminar
    programmes and workshops to disseminate
    information pertaining to human rights.
  • To vista prisons based on established procedures
    and the laws and to make recommendations.
  • To make public statements about human rights when
    necessary.

77
The significance of values in the study of
citizenship
  • Define values and recognize their importance in
    the day to day life of the individual
  • Distinguish between personal and social values
    and realize the need for people in a society to
    share basic social values.
  • Realize that the school deals with values because
    they facilitate or inhibit the learning of
    content or skills.
  • Realize that values are instrumental in the
    resolution of issues, a basic concern in
    contemporary social studies.
  • List (values) in a logical sequence and explain
    the steps in the process of resolving issues.
  • recognize the similarity between the process of
    decision making and the process of resolving
    issues
  • Become familiar with the techniques of value
    clarification and value assessment.
  • design plans for teaching the process of
    resolving issues for young children
  • Accept the best way to teach lasting social
    values is not through direct traditional methods
    or indoctrination, but through values assessment
    and the application of the rational process.
  • Become more aware of the basic values of United
    States Society (in this case of Malaysian
    society) expressed or implicit in the declaration
    of Independence, the Constitution and the Bill of
    Rights (The Constitution, the Rukunegara, Vision
    2020, the philosophy of Education in the
    Malaysian context).

78
On the PROFESSIONS
  • "Teaching is the profession upon which all
    professions rest
  • Linda Darling Hammond, Stanford University
    Professor of the
  • Charles L Du Commun Chair of Education.

79
The Human and the Culture- Specific
  • The story of educational reforms and teacher
    education changes seem to be played out in
    similar ways across different societies but with
    distinct cultural variations

80
Coherence and Consistency
  • At the heart of educational reform is school
    reform and curriculum reform which are
    intricately linked to reforms in teacher
    education. The curriculum, pedagogy and the
    assessment systems, when well aligned are likely
    to achieve the articulated goals of education,
    but when inconsistent and not well aligned are
    likely to create incoherence in the educational
    system.

81
Formulating and Raising the Question
  • Whether it is relatively easier to reform the
    school curriculum and school practices or it is
    easier to reform teacher education practices.
    Both the school and teacher education subsystems
    are embedded in the cultural, social, economic
    and political systems of the various societies.

82
Education and Employment
  • To make Europe the most competitive and dynamic
    Knowledge-based economy in the world, capable of
    Sustainable economic growth, with more and better
    jobs and greater social cohesion
  • New Strategic Goal for Europe by 2010, set by
    the European Heads of State at the Lisbon Summit
    in March 2000.

83
ARTICULATING REFORM IDEALSCore of National
Reforms.
  • Thinking schools, learning nation."

  • Singapore
  • "Smart Schools and the creation of a knowledge
    and virtue based society."

  • Malaysia
  • No Child Left Behind
  • United
    States of America

84
Of knowledge evolution in teacher education
  • There are really no detailed studies of knowledge
    evolution in teacher education in Malaysia.
  • The lack of passion for research and writing has
    been the subject of criticism of the state of
    knowledge in teacher education as well as in
    academia.

85
The Quest for Seminal Works in Education
  • While hundreds of papers are presented in
    hundreds of national and international
    conferences and seminars, there seem to be few
    seminal works on education.

86
A Question Of Professional-Academic Identity
  • there are often the apparent disconnect between
    curriculum changes in schools and curriculum
    changes in teacher education. changes in the
    economic sector occur so fast that the education
    sector sometimes do not keep trackthe
    educational bureaucracy grew in size with a large
    number of leaders in compartmentalized domains,
    coordination became problematic. To some extent
    both teachers colleges and university teachers
    tended to align themselves more to the colleagues
    in the world of academia and to get peer
    recognition from colleagues in academia more than
    to get recognition from colleagues in schools.

87
The universal technical and administrative and
faith and ideology-based concerns
  • The teacher in Muslim society is not a mere wage-
    earner or a professional worker, but a committed
    member. His excellence does not depend only on
    his qualification or his Knowledge it depends
    upon what type of person he is in terms of his
    faith and belief and in terms of his conduct and
    character. His role transcends that of an
    instructor in-so-far as he becomes the mentor,
    teacher and guide of the
  • younger generation.

88
Honing Educational Leadership
  • The aspect of the contesting ideology pertaining
    to teacher education has been a neglected aspect
    of teacher education curriculum which had
    traditionally focused on the technical and
    professional aspects of competence acquisition
    and not any in-depth debates on contesting
    ideologies. However, teachers in the Islamic
    Teachers Colleges and the International Islamic
    University do have their own faith based debates
    on the ideologies of teacher development vis-vis
    secular models of Teacher Education

89
Criticisms of Education Schools
  • Critics blame education schools for intractable
    social problems
  • they did not create and cannot solve, while
    education schools
  • do business as usual, refusing to acknowledge the
    real problems
  • that confront them. P. 6
  • The findings of the report were very
    disappointing. Collectively,
  • Educational administration programs are the
    weakest of all programs
  • at the nation's education schools p.13
  • The majority of programs range from inadequate to
    appalling,
  • even at some of the country's leading
    universities. P.23
  • (Levine 2006).

90
On Tacit Pedagogical Expertise
  • The worlds of training, for business, industry
    and the public services have vast repertoires of
    tacit and explicit knowledge and skills on
    employment and relevant training.

91
The education sector as one of the flagships of
the Multimedia Super Corridor
  • As the nation was engaged in the national
    Information Technology Agenda, the clarion call
    in school was that the "teacher is no longer a
    sage on stage, but, as a guide by the side." As
    teachers in schools especially older ones have to
    master IT skills and become IT literate, in the
    same way, lecturers in teachers college have to
    quickly master the new skills in order to
    function relevantly in the context of the Digital
    Age in education. What is clear is that teacher
    Education institutions and teacher educators are
    expected to be the leaders of educational
    knowledge leadership if they want to remain
    relevant and contribute effectively towards the
    professionalization of the profession

92
Continuities and Discontinuities in the
Education Knowledge Corpus.
  • The emergence of the idea of the Smart School
    came in the wake of the initiatives of the
    Multimedia Super Corridor (MSC) together with the
    establishment of Committees, for instance, the
    National Information Technology Committee (NITC),
    the establishments of Institutions, such as the
    Multimedia Development Corporation the
    development of Polices, Frameworks, Blueprints
    like the K Economy Master Plan and Action Plans
    such as the National IT agenda

93
Education Development Plan 2001-2010- Generating
Educational Excellence through Collaborative
Planning
  • The Quality Agenda underpins the thrust of the
    Master Plan which focuses on these following
    areas
  • To build a Malaysian nation
  • To develop human capital
  • To Make national Schools Attractive
  • To narrow the Educational divides
  • To raise the prestige and status of the Teaching
    Profession
  • To Quantum Leap Excellence of Educational
    institution.

94
The 9th Malaysia Plan and the National Mission
  • The National Mission presents Five thrusts as
    follows
  • 1st Thrust To raise the Malaysian economy up the
    value chain.
  • 2nd Thrust. To raise national knowledge and
    innovation capacity and to foster the development
    of "first class mentality."
  • 3rd To address the recurring socio-economic gaps
    and imbalance sin constructive and productive
    ways.
  • 4th To raise the level and sustainability of the
    Quality of Life.
  • 5th To strengthen institutional capacity building
    and implementation capacity.

95
The Millennium Goals (United Nations 2003)
  • Goal 1 Eradicate Extreme Poverty and Hunger
  • Goal 2 Achieve Universal Primary Education
  • Goal 3 Promote Gender Equality and Empower women
  • Goal 4 Reduce Child Mortality
  • Goal 5 Improve Maternal Health
  • Goal 6 Combat HIV/AIDS., Malaria and Other
    diseases.
  • Goal 7 Ensure Environmental Sustainability.
  • Goal 8 Develop a Global Partnership for
    development.

96
Benchmarks for national and educational
development for ASEAN societies, nations and
governments.
  • While the contributions of SEAMEO are notable,
    these are not sufficiently integrated in ways
    that the Europeans have moved forward.
  • ASEAN educators, for instance, have not explored
    the common curriculum of Peace Education,
    Environmental Education and ASEAN Multi-Cultural
    Education as subjects in the school curriculum or
    as subjects in the Teacher Education Curriculum.

97
From "the divide and rule period" to the era of
power at the finger tips
  • The two-pronged goal of the elimination of
    poverty and the restructuring of society for all.
  • several initiatives were taken which include the
    following the Textbook Scheme Educational
    Television, Residential Schools, as well as
    hostels for day schools, rural hostels, the food
    aid scheme, health services for school children
    and scholarships and bursaries. The New Primary
    School Curriculum was implemented in 1982 while
    the New Secondary School Curriculum was
    implemented in 1988.

98
Challenges facing Teacher Education Institutes
and Faculties of Education Building a New
Citizenry.
  • The challenges from the world of training
  • The challenges from Pre School Education System
  • The challenges from teachers colleges abroad
  • The challenges from public universities and
    private universities
  • The challenges from e-learning
  • The challenges of lifelong learning
  • The challenges of special education and
    exceptional students
  • The challenges from the past
  • The challenges from the future
  • The challenges from Best Practices Schools such
    as the Cluster Schools
  • The challenges of breakthrough knowledge with
    implications for education
  • The challenges of knowledge and technology
    obsolescence
  • The challenges of gender based realities
  • The challenges of contesting ideologies

99
Taking a Position Regarding the Quality of
Teachers
  • A position articulated regarding the teaching
    profession is noted thus
  • Development and change occurring today in the
    field of education requires a change of the
    society's perception towards the teaching
    profession. The teaching Profession cannot be
    regarded as a career for just anyone. Only those
    with quality, competencies, authority,
    qualifications, interest, will and committed as
    teachers should be admitted into the profession.
  • (PIPP p.111).

100
Surface Structure and Deep Structure Changes in
Teacher Education Reforms
  • Changes, reforms and transformations can be
    qualitative or quantitative and at different
    degrees and levels of deep structure or surface
    structure change (Bruner, 1996). Rebuilding a
    school from wooden structure to brick and cement
    structure is really not educational reform.
    However, changing the medium of instruction or an
    examination system is deep structure change and
    more so when it is the change in the contents and
    structure of the knowledge corpus and its
    reorganizations

101
Conservatism and Guided Enlightenment
  • Few educators have created the opportunities to
    explore education from multiple perspectives at
    the level of connoisseurship for such subjects
    have not been subjects of directions for
    continuous professional growth.
  • in the conservative and ideologically cautious
    cultural traditions, there are few intellectual
    spaces for education critiques in the traditions
    of teaching as a subversive activity, the
    pedagogy of the oppressed, deschooling society,
    the bell curve wars and the ideologies of the
    curriculum.

102
Interrogating Knowledge Formulation, Policy
Making, Teacher Education and Citizenship
Education
  • While there are relatively transparent procedures
    in the selection of pre service teachers, the
    selection criteria for teacher educators to be
    the intellectual, pedagogical and knowledge
    leaders responsible in influencing the next
    generation of teachers have not been clear. The
    efforts to make sense of educational happenings
    are acts of knowledge leadership. Making Sense of
    national Concerns and making the connections with
    Teacher Education would involve understanding
    such diverse concerns as Maintenance Management
    and strong philosophy and policy studies
    background, understanding the challenges of
    national accountability and integrity, Human
    Rights Watch, Human Resources development and
    Interfaith dialogues.

103
Areas of terra incognita, hiatus and gaps in
Teacher Education
  • The study of teacher trade unionism and
    professional associations and educational
    philanthropy. These knowledge areas are actually
    aspects of in the politics of education.
  • This neglect of making the connections is because
    of the compartmentalization and sub
    specializations of subjects and also because it
    is assumed that that with such emphases strong
    and good character would be automatically shaped
    and cultivated. Understanding of Character
    Education is limited to becoming a good person
    and not related to the professional or
    intellectual character or civic character of
    teachers or of students and the shaping of the
    national character of the citizenry. It is clear
    that the exciting script and drama of educational
    Knowledge management has not been explored in
    imaginative ways, sometimes in dramatic ways as
    in the domain of Teacher Thinking and the (wo)
    man in the Principals Office and the minds and
    souls of children.

104
The Craftsmanship and Artistry of Teacher
Education
  • The more esoteric but high order conceptions of
    understanding education and Art and Science of
    Teaching and Learning have therefore not received
    due attention. These so called higher levels are
    actually not just about the character of teachers
    and their competencies, but about, for instance,
    mindfulness and intellectual character (Rusk,
    1965 Langer, 1989 Lipman, 1991 Ritchhart
    2002). One aspect of the higher level is, for
    instance, the mindful and profound understanding
    of Alignment of Curriculum, Pedagogy and
    Instruction and Assessment (Formative and
    Summative) and synthesizing state of the
    knowledge of education at the present time
    (Freiberg, 1999 Ratey, 2002 fuller, 2002).

105
The teaching-learning ideas and practices of
indigenous educators
  • Every subject has its own unique structure and
    some different possibilities to create and set
    induction and maintain the interest of learners
    (Gross, 1991 DePorter, and Hernacki,
    1992'Sullivan, 1999 Mapes, 2003). Also, every
    subject has great possibilities to enable
    students to generate the important questions
    within the cognitive, affective and psychomotor
    domains, thus honing high order conceptual skills
    the unique possibilities the art and techniques
    of questioning offer in the pursuit of profound
    knowledge, systematically. From the scattered
    ingredients of educational knowledge, the
    critically reflective and concerned educator can
    get to work crafting with artistry and meaning
    and simplicity the lore of educational
    connoisseurship.

106
Courses Taken by Public School Principals in the
United States of America for or in relation to
their Jobs leading to Advanced Education Degrees.
  • Instructional Leadership
  • School Law
  • Educational Psychology
  • Curriculum Development
  • Research Methods
  • Historical and Philosophical Foundations of
    Education
  • Teaching and Learning
  • Child and Adolescent Psychology
  • School Principalship
  • Needs of Exceptional Children
  • Schools as Organizations
  • Organizational Behavior
  • Community/Parent Relations
  • Managing Change
  • Financial Reporting and Controls
  • Human Resource Management
  • Supporting Teachers for Instructional
    Improvements
  • Ethics
  • Politics of Education

107
Recurring Challenges The Knowledge and Digital
Divides.
  • Income and Geographical Divide
  • The Ethnic Divide
  • The Gender Divide
  • The Internet Subscription, ICT Literacy and ICT
    Handicapped Divide
  • Other Divides

108
Knowledge Sources and References
  • Revealed and Acquired Knowledge
  • Tacit and Explicit Codified Knowledge
  • Inappropriate Knowledge
  • Erroneous Knowledge
  • Scientific Research Indexes
  • Knowledge in Journals
  • Banned Knowledge

109
Types of Knowledge Capital
  • Of Human Capital
  • Of Knowledge Capital
  • Of Social Capital
  • Of Intellectual Capital
  • Of Cultural Capital
  • Of Values Capital
  • Of Human Resources

110
Of Human Capital
  • Human Resource Management
  • Human Potentialities
  • Human Talents
  • The Nature of Intelligences
  • Competencies
  • Generic Skills
  • The Vision Factor
  • Character Matters-National Character

111
Recognizing Knowledge Assets
  • Gender Oriented Knowledge
  • Culture Specific Knowledge
  • Multiple Intelligences
  • Adversity Intelligence
  • Emotional Intelligence
  • Moral Intelligence
  • Spiritual Intelligence
  • Business Intelligence
  • Universal Knowledge

112
Political, Social, Economic and Cultural
Environment National Initiatives-The Wider View
  • The Bureaucratic Realities
  • The Professional Response
  • The Professional Champions-Leadership
  • Synergy

113
Errors in Development Implementation
  • Errors in Values and Assumptions
  • Errors in Intention
  • Errors in Ideation and Conceptualization
  • Errors in Thought Processes
  • Errors in Planning

114
Understanding Peak Performance in Organizations
and Society
  • 1. Understanding Paradoxes
  • 2. Understanding Uncertainties
  • 3. Understanding Contradictions
  • 4. Understanding Ambiguities
  • 5. Understanding Half Truths

115
Events that Influence Indigenous Contents and
Perspectivesof Citizenship Education
  • Political Events
  • Economic Events
  • Socio-Cultural Events
  • Religious Events
  • Educational Events
  • Military Events
  • Natural Catastrophes

116
Building A New Society
  • Enlightened and Just Society
  • Knowledge society
  • Civil Society
  • Learning Society
  • Developing Society

117
Civil Society
  • United
  • Citizenry Participation
  • Democratic
  • Liberal
  • Progressive and Prosperous
  • Happiness

118
Pursuit of Balanced Development
  • Economic Growth
  • Infrastructure Development
  • Social Development
  • Human Side of Development
  • A Kinder, Gentler Society
  • Caring Communities and Society
  • Caring Families
  • Caring Individuals

119
Practice of Good Common Values
  • Not dependent on economic, technological
    development
  • or Standard of Living
  • Kindness, Compassion, Honesty
  • False Piety and Pure Formalism
  • Lower Ethical Standards
  • Lack of Transparency and Accountability

120
Spiritual Leaders and Leadership
  • Soloman, Moses, Jesus, Mohammad, Asoka
  • Advice from the Sages.
  • To use time wisely when young before aging
  • When healthy before ill health
  • When rich before poverty
  • When there is time before busy-busy ness
  • While alive before death.

121
The Promise of the Intelligence Revolution
  • General Intelligence
  • Multiple Intelligences
  • Adversity Intelligence
  • Successful Intelligence
  • Emotional Intelligence
  • Spiritual Intelligence

122
Intellectual Capital
  • Knowledge that can be converted into value or
    profit.
  • It is the value embedded in the ideas embodied in
    people,
  • processes, and customers/stakeholders.
  • The ability to transform knowledge and
    intangibles assets
  • into wealth-creating resources Knowledge.
  • Dynamically interacting Inputs of Intellectual
    capital
  • Human Capital
  • Structural capital
  • Relationship or Customer Capital
  • Jay Chatzkel. 2002.
    Intellectual Capital.

123
Social Capital
  • Features of social organization, such as
    trust, norms and networks that can improve the
    efficiency of society by facilitating coordinated
    actions.
  • (Robert D. Putnam. 1993. Making Democracy
    Work Civic Traditions in Italy p.169).

124
Knowledge Management
  • Knowledge management is the leveraging of
    collective wisdom to increase responsiveness and
    innovation. Three criteria which must be made
    before information can be considered knowledge,
    distinguishing information management from
    knowledge manage are
  • Knowledge is connected and exists in collection
    of multiple experiences sand perspectives.
  • Knowledge management is a catalyst-knowledge, for
    the most part exists only in action (Peter
    Drucker). A Little knowledge that acts is worth
    more than much knowledge that is idle. Khalil
    Gibran.
  • Knowledge is applicable in unencountered novel
    situations for which no direct precedent exists.
  • (Karl Flappaolo. Knowledge Management, 2002)

125
The Autonomous Human Organization
  • The Individual Order, The Interactional Order,
    the Institutional Order (Richard Jenkings, 2005.
    Social Identity).
  • The Nature of Autonomy of Judgment
  • The Nature of Autonomy of Choices
  • The Nature of Freewill and Personal Will
  • The Nature of Autonomy of Decisions

126
Learning Traditionally for Enlightened
Citizenship
  • Problem Based Teaching
  • Inquiry and Discovery Based Teaching
  • Research Based Teaching
  • Internet Based Teaching
  • Socratic Teaching
  • Imagineering

127
Learning How to Learn
  • Learning how to Unlearn
  • Learning How to Relearn
  • Learning How to Integrate and Synthesize
  • Learning How to Question
  • Learning to Understand the Question behind the
    Question
  • Learning to Generate Solutions and Solve Problems

128
Quantum Learning
  • Self Knowledge
  • Personal Knowledge
  • Self Management and Proficiency
  • Constructive Self Criticism and Self Talk
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