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Overview of Secondary/Tertiary Tier Practices

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Title: Overview of Secondary/Tertiary Tier Practices


1
Overview of Secondary/Tertiary Tier Practices
Systems
  • George Sugai
  • OSEP Center on PBIS
  • Center for Behavioral Education Research
  • University of Connecticut
  • April 22, 2009
  • www.pbis.org www.cber.org www.swis.org
  • George.sugai_at_uconn.edu

2
PURPOSE Overview of practices systems for
non-responsive behavior Secondary/Tertiary Tier
Behavior Supports
Appendices
  • Review
  • Secondary/Tertiary Tier Behavior Supports
    Practices Systems
  • Action Planning (1100)

3
Integrated Elements
Supporting Social Competence Academic
Achievement
OUTCOMES
Supporting Decision Making
DATA
Supporting Staff Behavior
SYSTEMS
PRACTICES
Supporting Student Behavior
4
Evidence-based SWPBS Practices
School-wide
Classroom
Family
Non-classroom
  • Smallest
  • Evidence-based
  • Biggest, durable effect

Student
5
SCHOOL-WIDE Leadership team Behavior purpose statement Set of positive expectations behaviors Procedures for teaching SW classroom-wide expected behavior Continuum of procedures for encouraging expected behavior Continuum of procedures for discouraging rule violations Procedures for on-going data-based monitoring evaluation EVIDENCE-BASED INTERVENTIONPRACTICES CLASSROOM All school-wide Maximum structure predictability in routines environment Positively stated expectations posted, taught, reviewed, prompted, supervised. Maximum engagement through high rates of opportunities to respond, delivery of evidence-based instructional curriculum practices Continuum of strategies to acknowledge displays of appropriate behavior. Continuum of strategies for responding to inappropriate behavior.
INDIVIDUAL STUDENT Behavioral competence at school district levels Function-based behavior support planning Team- data-based decision making Comprehensive person-centered planning wraparound processes Targeted social skills self-management instruction Individualized instructional curricular accommodations NONCLASSROOM Positive expectations routines taught encouraged Active supervision by all staff (Scan, move, interact) Precorrections reminders Positive reinforcement FAMILY ENGAGEMENT Continuum of positive behavior support for all families Frequent, regular positive contacts, communications, acknowledgements Formal active participation involvement as equal partner Access to system of integrated school community resources
6
Response to Intervention
RtI
7
Tertiary Prevention Specialized
Individualized Systems for Students with
High-Risk Behavior
CONTINUUM OF SCHOOL-WIDE INSTRUCTIONAL
POSITIVE BEHAVIOR SUPPORT
FEW
5
Secondary Prevention Specialized Group Systems
for Students with At-Risk Behavior
15
SOME
Primary Prevention School-/Classroom- Wide
Systems for All Students, Staff, Settings
ALL
80 of Students
8
ESTABLISHING CONTINUUM of SWPBS
  • TERTIARY PREVENTION
  • Function-based support
  • Wraparound
  • Person-centered planning
  • TERTIARY PREVENTION

5
15
  • SECONDARY PREVENTION
  • Check in/out
  • Targeted social skills instruction
  • Peer-based supports
  • Social skills club
  • SECONDARY PREVENTION
  • PRIMARY PREVENTION
  • Teach SW expectations
  • Proactive SW discipline
  • Positive reinforcement
  • Effective instruction
  • Parent engagement
  • PRIMARY PREVENTION

80 of Students
9
Remember
10
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13
GENERAL IMPLEMENTATION PROCESS
Team
Agreements
Data-based Action Plan
Implementation
Evaluation
14
Tertiary Prevention Specialized
Individualized Systems for Students with
High-Risk Behavior
CONTINUUM OF SCHOOL-WIDE INSTRUCTIONAL
POSITIVE BEHAVIOR SUPPORT
FEW
5
Secondary Prevention Specialized Group Systems
for Students with At-Risk Behavior
15
SOME
Primary Prevention School-/Classroom- Wide
Systems for All Students, Staff, Settings
ALL
80 of Students
15
Examples
  • Check-in Check-out
  • Bethel School District, OR
  • Behavior Education Program
  • Fern Ridge Middle School, OR
  • H.U.G.
  • Tualatin Elementary School, OR
  • Social Skills Club
  • Missouri
  • Think Time
  • University of Nebraska

16
RTI Secondary Intervention in classroom
  • Fairbanks, Sugai, Guardino, Lathrop
  • (2007, EC)

17
RTI
  • Increasing intervention intensity based on
    responsiveness to effective interventions
  • Check In/Out at classroom level

18
Check In/Out Pt Card
Name____________________ Date ____________
GOALS 830 930 1030 1130 1230 130
1. RESPECT OTHERS 2 1 0 2 1 0 2 1 0 2 1 0 2 1 0 2 1 0
2. MANAGE SELF 2 1 0 2 1 0 2 1 0 2 1 0 2 1 0 2 1 0
3. SOLVE PROBLEMS RESPONSIBLY 2 1 0 2 1 0 2 1 0 2 1 0 2 1 0 2 1 0
Goal _____ Pts Possible _____ Pts Received_____
of Pts _____ Goal Met? Y N
Rating Scale 2 Great 1 Ok 0 Goal Not Met
19
Class B Results
Percent of Intervals Engaged in Problem Behavior

School Days
20
Class B Results Composite Peers
Peer
Percent of Intervals Engaged in Problem Behavior
Peer
Peer
School Days
21
Study 2 Results
Percent of Intervals Engaged in Problem Behavior
School Days
22
Summary Statement of Problem Behavior
Contingencies across Students
Setting Events Antecedents Behavior(s) of Interest Consequences
Marcellus N/A (a) Easy unstructured activities (b) Difficult math and writing tasks (a) Out of seat making faces (b) Talk outs, out of seat, work not completed (a) Peer attention (b) Escape work
Blair N/A Independent work time Out of seat talking to peers Peer adult attention
Ben N/A Teacher-led instruction When given direction. Non-compliance, talk outs, making jokes Peer adult attention
Olivia Thinking about the loss of her sibling During teacher- led instruction Playing with things, not looking at teacher, not following directions Teacher attention
23
Study 2 Results Composite Peer
Peer
Percent of Intervals Engaged in Problem Behavior
Peer
Peer
Peer
School Days
24
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25
FRMS Behavior Education Plan (BEP)(Hawkin,
Horner, March, 2002)
Referral, Assessment, Orientation
26
Basic BEP Cycle
  • Morning check-in
  • Prior to each period, give BEP to teacher
  • End of day check-out
  • Points tallied reward
  • Copy of BEP form taken home signed
  • Return signed copy next morning

27
Behavior Education PlanDaily Progress Report
28
Identification Referral
  • Multiple office referrals
  • Recommendations by
  • Teacher
  • Parent
  • Time to action 30 min to 7 days

29
Contract
  • Agreement to succeed
  • Student
  • Parent
  • BEP coordinator
  • Teachers
  • Written (pref.) or verbal contract

30
Organization Structure
  • BEP Coordinator
  • Chair BEP meetings, faculty contact, evaluation
  • BEP Specialist
  • Check-in, check-out, meeting, data entry, graphs
  • Coordinator Specialist 10 hrs/wk

31
  • BEP meeting 40 min/wk
  • Coordinator, specialist, sped faculty, related
    Services
  • All staff commitment training
  • Simple data collection reporting system.

32
Data Collection for Decision-Making
  • Monitor BEP points earned each day
  • Office discipline referrals
  • Regular data use by BEP team

33
Daily Data Used for Decision Making
34
Daily Data Used for Decision Making
35
Importance of Functional Assessment in BEP
36
Importance of Functional Assessment in BEP
37
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38
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39
HUG Hello, Update, Goodbye
  • Pam Hallvik, Nancy Ferguson, Sally Helton
  • Tigard-Tualatin Schools

40
H.U.G. (Hello, Update, Goodbye)
Name ____________________________ Date
________________ Please indicate whether the
student has met the goal during the time period
indicated Meets 2 pts So, so 1
point Doesnt meet 0 pts HUG Daily
Goal _____/_____ HUG Daily Score
_____/_____ Teacher Comments Please state
briefly any specific behaviors or achievements
that demonstrate the students progress.
Goals AM to Recess AM Recess AM Recess to Lunch Lunch Recess PM
Be Safe J K L J K L J K L J K L J K L
Be Kind J K L J K L J K L J K L J K L
Be Responsible J K L J K L J K L J K L J K L
Total Points          
Teacher Initials          
Parents Signature _______________________________
____ Parents Comments ___________________________
______________________________ ___________________
__________________________________________________
_____
41
H.U.G. Program
  • WHAT AND WHY?
  • The H.U.G. Program is a means to respond
    positively to students who need extra support
    with their behavior. On a daily basis, staff can
    teach them appropriate behaviors and provide them
    with opportunities to practice as they move from
    activity to activity. Additionally, the H.U.G.
    Program provides for reinforcement and positive
    attention from adults. The H.U.G. Program also
    provides for daily communication between a
    student and his/her teacher and between the
    school and parents. Additionally, data is
    collected to determine whether the program is
    successful or whether changes need to be made.
  • The H.U.G. Program was designed to facilitate
    positive interactions between at-risk students
    and significant adults, teach good behavior
    skills, and provide a means for home-school
    communication. The H.U.G. check-in creates a
    safe space for these students they come to trust
    and respect the adults who are consistently there
    for them. The program does not include negative
    consequences or punishment, just encouragement
    and positive attention. Parents are asked to
    provide reinforcement at home when the H.U.G.
    goal is met and consistently offer feedback and
    encouragement to their sons or daughters.
  • HOW?
  • The H.U.G. Program consists of a plan and process
    that allow students to
  • Check-in with a significant adult before school
  • Carry a tracking form
  • Ask their teacher to rate their behavior
  • Check-out at the end of each day
  • Take the form home to parents
  • Return the H.U.G. form the next morning

42
Hello - Morning
  • All H.U.G. students will check in at counselors
    office between 800 830 each morning. At that
    time they will receive following
  • Positive, sincere greeting
  • Check to see if they are prepared for day (lunch
    ticket, materials, etc.)
  • Check to learn how they are feeling (any morning
    conflicts?)
  • Collection of returned H.U.G. form signed by
    parents
  • Verbal reinforcement for returning signed form
    possibly accompanied by sticker or small reward
  • New H.U.G. form

43
Update - During Day
  • Student give H.U.G. form to his or her teacher
    on arrival to class
  • Teacher will rate students behavior at times
    indicated on form offer brief, positive comment
    to student about rating.
  • Adults in other setting, such as PE, Music,
    recess, etc., will complete ratings for time
    period they have students.

44
Goodbye - End of Day
  • Students will return with their H.U.G. forms to
    counselors room at 225 each day
  • Students will again receive positive, sincere
    greeting
  • Counselor or H.U.G. assistant will check to see
    whether student met his/her goal.
  • If so, student will receive small reward.
  • If not, student will receive encouragement to try
    again tomorrow along with problem-solving
    discussion of what they might do differently.
  • Students will put their H.U.G. forms into their
    backpacks to take home to share with their
    parents.
  • Parents are asked to also give positive feedback
    to their children. Parents then sign form put
    it in students backpack for return to school.

45
H.U.G. Participant Responsibilities
H.U.G. Coordinator Sign H.U.G. Contract Agreement. Facilitate the check-in and check-out process. Provide H.U.G. participants with positive, constructive feedback and small tangible rewards. Instruct involved staff members on the use of the HUG form. Collect, summarize, and report H.U.G. data each week. Teachers Sign H.U.G. Contract Agreement. Accept H.U.G. Report Form daily from students. Evaluate student behaviors and complete the form. Offer constructive and positive feedback to students.
Parents of H.U.G. Participants Sign H.U.G. Contract Agreement. Review H.U.G. Progress Report with child daily. Provide positive and constructive feedback. Communicate with the school when there are concerns or celebrations regarding the students behavior. H.U.G. Student Participants Follow all H.U.G. Program Guidelines. Sign H.U.G. Contract Agreement. GIVE IT YOUR BEST!!!!
46
H.U.G Program Contract Agreement
  • I have read the H.U.G. Team Members
    Responsibilities Form. I understand that my
    signature indicates that I am willing to
    participate in the H.U.G. Program and fulfill all
    my responsibilities.
  • Student signature ___________________ Date
    ______
  • Parent(s) signature(s) _________________ Date
    ______
  • Teacher signature ____________________ Date
    ______
  • Administrator signature ________________ Date
    ______
  • H.U.G. Coordinator signature _____________Date
    ______
  • Copies will be given to all H.U.G. participants.
    Thank you for your participation and support!!!

47
Tertiary Prevention Specialized
Individualized Systems for Students with
High-Risk Behavior
CONTINUUM OF SCHOOL-WIDE INSTRUCTIONAL
POSITIVE BEHAVIOR SUPPORT
FEW
5
Secondary Prevention Specialized Group Systems
for Students with At-Risk Behavior
15
SOME
Primary Prevention School-/Classroom- Wide
Systems for All Students, Staff, Settings
ALL
80 of Students
48
Behavior Support Elements
Response class Routine analysis Hypothesis
statement
Alternative behaviors Competing behavior
analysis Contextual fit Strengths,
preferences, lifestyle outcomes Evidence-based
interventions
Problem Behavior
Functional Assessment
Implementation support Data plan
  • Team-based
  • Behavior competence

Intervention Support Plan
Continuous improvement Sustainability plan
Fidelity of Implementation
Impact on Behavior Lifestyle
49
Function-based Logic
50
Only 2 Basic Functions
Pos Reinf
Neg Reinf
Existing aversive condition identified
51
Ingram, Lewis-Palmer, Sugai, 2005
52
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53
Function-based support is all about
  • Re-design improvement of learning teaching
    environments
  • Attention to environment function
  • Not re-design of individuals
  • Change in behavior of plan implementers

54
Non-examples of Function-Based approach
  • Function outcome, result, purpose,
    consequence
  • Lantana, you skipped 2 school days, so were
    going to suspend you for 2 more.
  • Phloem, Im taking your book away because you
    obviously arent ready to learn.
  • You want my attention?! Ill show you
    attention,lets take a walk down to the office
    have a little chat with the Principal.

55
What is FBA?
  • A systematic process for developing statements
    about factors that
  • contribute to occurrence maintenance of problem
    behavior,
  • more importantly, basis for developing proactive
    comprehensive behavior support plans.

56
Necessary FBA elements
  • Clear measurable definition of problem behavior
    classes/sets
  • Complete testable hypothesis or summary statement
    (antecedents-behaviors-consequences)
  • 3. Data (direct observation) to confirm testable
    hypothesis.
  • Contextually appropriate behavior intervention
    plan based on testable hypothesis

57
Testable Hypothesis Basic Unit
Setting Events
Triggering Antecedents
Maintaining Consequences
Problem Behavior
  • Best guess about behavior conditions under
    which it is observed
  • Represents basic working unit of FBA
  • Directly guides development of BIP

58
Testable Hypothesis Basic Unit
Setting Events
Triggering Antecedents
Maintaining Consequences
Problem Behavior
Infrequent events that affect value of maint.
conseq.
Following events that maintain behaviors of
concern
Preceding events that trigger or occasion
Set of related behaviors of concern
59
WRITE TESTABLE HYPOTHESIS As Veloce is walking,
other kids look at him say whats up? He
looks back and says Who ya lookin at?! Ya
want some of this?! Ya talkin to me?! Kids
shake their heads all him weirdo.
Setting event
Antecedent
Response
Consequence
??
Look at him. Whats up!
Who ya lookin at? Ya want Some? Ya talkin
to me?
Kids shake heads call him weirdo
60
When Sequoia misses her 1230 medication
teachers present multiple task demands, she makes
negative self-statements writes profane
language on her assignments. Teaching staff
typically send her to the office with a
discipline referral for being disrespectful.
Avoid difficult tasks
What function?
Setting event
Antecedent
Response
Consequence
Sequoia makes negative self- statements writes
profane language
Teacher sends Sequoia to office for
being disrespectful
Misses 1230 medication
Teachers make multiple task demands
61
Caesar has dyed his hair three colors is teased
several times by his friends before class. When
he enters the class, his teacher stares at his
hair. Caesar immediately says what are you
staring at? His teacher immediately sends him to
in-school detention.
Escape adult peer attention
What function?
Setting event
Antecedent
Response
Consequence
Caesar is teased several times about his hair by
his friends before class
His teacher stares at his hair in class
Caesar asks his teacher what shes staring at
His teacher sends him to in-school detention
62
Cleo is new to the 6th grade, English is her
second language. When another student approaches
says something to her in English, Cleo turns
away. The other student walks away. This happens
several times during the day.
Escape peer attention
What function?
Setting event
Antecedent
Response
Consequence
Other student walks away
New student
Student approaches speaks in English
Cleo turns away
63
When his teacher asks him what the capitol city
of a country is, Napoleon gives the correct
answers. His teacher praises his correct answer,
tells him he may work by himself or a friend on
the rest of the assignment.
Access peer adult attention
What function?
Setting event
Antecedent
Response
Consequence
Teacher asks what capitol city of country is
Napoleon give correct answer
Teacher gives verbal praise time to work with
a friend
None
64
As Veloce is walking, other kids look at him
say whats up? He looks back and says Who ya
lookin at?! Ya want some of this?! Ya
talkin to me?! Kids shake their heads all him
weirdo.
Access OR escape peer attention?
What function?
Consequence
How do you know? Assess?
Setting event
Antecedent
Response
How do you know?
Who ya lookin at? Ya want Some? Ya talkin
to me?
Kids shake heads call him weirdo
??
Look at him. Whats up!
65
TE is best guess.What if testable hypothesis
is incomplete or inaccurate?
  • Review what you know
  • Collect more information
  • Change hypothesis statement
  • Test/confirm new hypothesis statement

66
TE1 for Hillary"When Hillary sits next to Bill,
Hillary whispers in his ear. Bill laughs."
  • Test manipulation?
  • Put Al in Bills seat.
  • Effect
  • Hillary whispers in Als ear.
  • Develop new TE!

67
TE2When Hillary sits next to boys, she
whispers in their ears. The boys laugh.
  • Test manipulation?
  • Put Monica in Bills seat.
  • Effect
  • Hillary does not whisper.

68
MORE INFORMAL EASIER SIMPLE INDIRECT MORE DIREC
T COMPLICATED DIFFICULT FORMAL
FBA LEVELS Informal Archival Review Problem Solving Meeting
FBA LEVELS 2. Indirect Checklist FA Interview Routine Analysis
FBA LEVELS 3. Direct Observation A-B-C Structured, Planned Observation
FBA LEVELS 4. Planned Manipulation Experimental or Functional Analysis
69
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70
Functional Assessment Checklist for Teachers
FACTS
  • STEP 1 Student/ Grade _____Clarence/5th
    grade_____ Date ____January 11___________
  • Interviewer ___________Sugai________ Respondent
    (s) ____Thomas_____
  • STEP 2 Student Profile Please identify at least
    three strengths or contributions the student
    brings to school.
  • C. has leadership potential. Peers listened to
    him, and he can be very convincing and sincere.
    Hes academically competent and seems to be
    moving smoothly and successfully through the
    school curriculum.
  • STEP 3 Problem Behavior(s) Identify problem
    behaviors
  • ___Tardy_X Fight/physical Aggression ___
    Disruptive___ Theft___ UnresponsiveX
    Inappropriate Language_X__ Insubordination___
    Vandalism___ Withdrawn_X__ Verbal
    Harassment____Work not done___ Other __________
    ____X _ Verbally Inappropriate___ Self-injury
  • Describe problem behaviorC. may have one of the
    shortest fuses Ive seen. One little tease by a
    peer, and he quickly and predictably escalates
    through a behavioral sequence that begins with
    passive in subordination (non response), moves to
    a mild protest, shifts to harassment and name
    calling, increases to property damage and even to
    physical aggression. Its interesting that he
    seems to enjoy the reactions he gets from peers
    that he aggresses toward, and from peers who look
    up to him for his aggressiveness.

71
Routine Analysis
Schedule (Times) Activity Likelihood of Problem Behavior Specific Problem Behavior
800 Waiting to enter building Low High 1 2 3 4 5 6 See escalation described above
815 Advisory Planning 1 2 3 4 5 6 Mostly teasing and touching property of others. Doesnt escalate much further
915 Language Arts 1 2 3 4 5 6 Occasional name calling/teasing
1015 Recess 1 2 3 4 5 6 See escalation described above
1130 Math 1 2 3 4 5 6 Occasional teasing
1200 Lunch 1 2 3 4 5 6 See escalation described above
1235 Earth Science 1 2 3 4 5 6 Minor verbal harassment
115 Art or Phy Ed 1 2 3 4 5 6 See escalation described above
200 Reading 1 2 3 4 5 6 Rarely a problem
250 Waiting for bus 1 2 3 4 5 6 See escalation described above
72
Fundamental Rule!
  • You should not propose to reduce a problem
    behavior without also identifying alternative,
    desired behaviors person should perform instead
    of problem behavior (ONeill et al., 1997, p.
    71).

73
Desired Alternative
Typical Consequence
Summary Statement
Setting Events
Triggering Antecedents
Maintaining Consequences
Problem Behavior
Acceptable Alternative
74
Setting Event Manipulations
Antecedent Manipulations
Consequence Manipulations
Behavior Manipulations
75
Desired Alternative
Typical Consequence
Summary Statement
Points, grades, questions, more work.
Do work w/o complaints.
Setting Events
Triggering Antecedents
Maintaining Consequences
Problem Behavior
Noncompliance, profanity, physical aggression,
Lack of peer contact in 30 minutes.
Do difficult math assignment.
Avoid task, remove from class.
Function
Acceptable Alternative
Why is function important?
Ask for break, ask for help.
Because consequences compete!!
76
Function-based Logic
77
Setting Event Manipulations
Antecedent Manipulations
Consequence Manipulations
Behavior Manipulations
Immediately reinforce entering class. Provide
reinforcer w/in 1 min. of starting task (3 min.,
5 min., 10 minutes) Give break help Sit with
preferred peer when done
Teach options to problem behavior 1. Ask for
break 2. Ask for help 3. Turn in assignment as
is. Teach missing math skills
Arrange for peer interaction before math
class Provide positive adult contact Sit with
preferred peer
Introduce review type problem before difficult
tasks Remind of alternative behaviors Do first
problem together
78
Desired Alternative
Typical Consequence
Summary Statement
Ignore problem solve later
Delayed teacher attention.
Setting Events
Triggering Antecedents
Maintaining Consequences
Problem Behavior
Profanity Verbal protests
Rides city bus
Teacher corrects peers
Teacher attention
Function
Acceptable Alternative
Why is function important?
Discuss in private
Because consequences compete!!
79
Setting Event Manipulations
Antecedent Manipulations
Consequence Manipulations
Behavior Manipulations
When J. engages in problem behavior immediately
disengage from him, engage peers. When J.
engages in replacement behaviors provide adult
attention (discussion)
Teach J. how, when, where to express verbal
protest, how to walk away from problem
situations in transitions.
On days city bus ridden, check in with counselor
to review days schedule walk with counselor to
classroom
Give gt3 positive acknow-ledgements per min. to
peers during transitions. Give private quiet
corrections to peers. Remind J. of acceptable
desired replacement behaviors
80
Do quiz without complaints.
Discussion about answers homework.
On Mondays and/or when up all of the night
before.
Daily nongraded quiz on previous nights homework
Verbal protests, slump in chair, walks out
of room.
Avoids doing quiz homework discussion.
Turn in with name sit quietly w/o interrupting.
81
Do quiz without complaints.
Discussion about answers homework.
On Mondays and/or when up all of the night
before.
Daily nongraded quiz on previous nights homework
Verbal protests, slump in chair, walks out
of room.
Avoids doing quiz homework discussion.
Turn in with name sit quietly w/o interrupting.
Give time to review homework. Give quiet
time before starting.
Give easy warm-up task before doing quiz.
Precorrect behavior options consequences.
With first sign of problem behaviors, remove
task, or request completion of task next
period. Remove task based on step in task
analysis (STO). Provide effective verbal praise
other reinforcers.
Teach options to problem behavior 1. Turn in
blank 2. Turn in w/ name 3. Turn in w/ name
first item done. 4. Turn in w/ name 50 of
items done.
82
Add effective remove ineffective reinforcers
Neutralize/ eliminate setting events
Add relevant remove irrelevant triggers
Teach alternative that is more efficient
83
Behavior Support Elements
Response class Routine analysis Hypothesis
statement
Alternative behaviors Competing behavior
analysis Contextual fit Strengths,
preferences, lifestyle outcomes Evidence-based
interventions
Problem Behavior
Functional Assessment
Implementation support Data plan
  • Team-based
  • Behavior competence

Intervention Support Plan
Continuous improvement Sustainability plan
Fidelity of Implementation
Impact on Behavior Lifestyle
84
Kutash, K., Duchnowski, A. J., Lynn, N. (2006).
School-based mental health An empirical guide
for decision makers. Tampa, FL University of
South Florida. Louis De la Parte Florida Mental
Health Institute, Department of Child Family
Studies, Research Training Center for
Childrens Mental Health. http//rtckids.fmhi.usf.
eduCrone, D. A., Horner, R. H. (2003).
Building positive behavior support systems in
schools Functional behavioral assessment. New
York Guildford Press.Crone, D. A., Horner, R.
H., Hawken, L. S. (2004). Responding to problem
behavior in schools The behavior education
program. New York Guilford Press.
85
Secondary/Tertiary Tier Supports(8 min)
Attention Please
1 Minute
  • If primary tier is in place, what of your
    students could benefit from sec/tert tier
    supports?
  • How do you currently screen for students needing
    sec/tert tier behavior supports?
  • Who in your school has behavioral expertise to
    develop implement sec/tert level behavior
    supports?
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