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Development of Political Parties

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Title: Development of Political Parties


1
Unit VIICivic Responsibility
  • Development of Political Parties
  • 16-1

2
(No Transcript)
3
Essential Question Summarize the role of
political parties in American politics.
16.1
coalition government one formed by several
parties who combine forces to obtain a majority
ideologies set of basic beliefs about life,
culture, government, and society
4
Essential Question Summarize the role of
political parties in American politics.
16.1
political party a group of individuals with broad
common interests who organize to nominate
candidates for office, win elections, conduct
government, and determine public policy
proportional representation system in which
several officials are elected to represent the
same area in proportion to the votes each party's
candidate receives
5
Essential Question Summarize the role of
political parties in American politics.
16.1
single-member district electoral district in
which only one candidate is elected to each office
theocracy government dominated by religion
6
Essential Question Summarize the role of
political parties in American politics.
16.1
third party any political party other than one of
the two major parties
7
Essential Question Summarize the role of
political parties in American politics.
16.1
Authoritarian governments, mostly in Communist
countries or countries dominated by religion,
no coalitions or compromises, politically stable
nonauthoritarian governments, mostly in
non-Communist governments, often have
coalition governments, politically unstable
parties represent specific ideologies, sometimes
have minor parties
8
Essential Question Summarize the role of
political parties in American politics.
16.1
1796 two major parties emerge, Federalists and
Democratic-Republicans Federalists win
presidency in 1796 1800 Thomas Jefferson, a
Democratic- Republican, becomes president in 1800
1804 Thomas Jefferson is reelected in 1804
1828 Democratic-Republicans split Andrew
Jackson of the Democrats becomes president in
1828 1850 Democrats split into northern and
southern factions over the question of slavery
Republican Party formed 1860 1930 Republican
presidents dominate Democratic presidents serve
for only 4 terms
9
Essential Question Summarize the role of
political parties in American politics.
16.1
1932 Franklin D. Roosevelt, a Democrat, becomes
president Democrats dominate the presidency and
Congress for the next 50 years 1968 Richard
Nixon becomes president Republicans control the
White House for 6 of the next 9 presidential
terms 1992 Bill Clinton, a Democrat, becomes
president, but Republicans dominate Congress at
midterm elections 1995 for the first time since
Truman, a Democratic president has to work
10
Essential Question Summarize the role of
political parties in American politics.
16.1
Role Of Third Parties Role Of Third Parties Role Of Third Parties
  • Types
  • Single issue parties- focus exclusively on one
    major social, economic or moral issue.
  • Ideological parties focus on overall societal
    changes.
  • splinter party splits away from one of the
    major parties (typically fade away with defeat of
    candidate.
  • Impact
  • Third parties often promote ideas that are at
    first unpopular, major parties later adopt their
    issues thus absorbing the third party
  • Obstacles
  • often hard for candidates to get on the ballot
  • single member districts usually elect a major
    party candidate
  • campaigns require large sums of money so
    financing is difficult for candidates

11
Quick Review Answers
  • 1. B
  • 2. D
  • 3. A
  • 4. E
  • 5. C
  • 6. B
  • 7. D
  • 8. A
  • 9. B
  • 10. C

12
Unit VIICivic Responsibility
  • Political Party Organization
  • 16-2

13
(No Transcript)
14
Essential Question Describe the organization
and function of political parties in America.
16.2
  • independent
  • a voter who does not support any particular party

national committee representatives from the 50
state party organizations who run a political
party
15
Essential Question Describe the organization
and function of political parties in America.
16.2
  • national convention
  • gathering of local and state party members chosen
    to nominate presidential and vice-presidential
    candidates

patronage practice of granting favors to reward
party loyalty
16
Essential Question Describe the organization
and function of political parties in America.
16.2
  • precinct
  • voting district

precinct captain volunteer who organizes party
workers to distribute information about the party
and its candidates and to get the voters to the
polls
17
Essential Question Describe the organization
and function of political parties in America.
16.2
  • state central committee
  • usually composed largely of representatives from
    the party's county organizations

ward large district comprised of several
adjoining precincts
18
Essential Question Describe the organization
and function of political parties in America.
16.2
Membership and Organization Membership and Organization
Party Membership
Local Party Organization
State party Organization
National Party Organization
membership not required to vote may declare
party preference when voting both major parties
are open to anyone may support monetarily,
volunteer, becoming candidate
precinct local unit, each precinct has a
captain, several adjoining precincts make up a
ward, precincts within a county make up a county
committee with a chairperson
state central committee composed of reps from
county committees, led by party state chairperson
(usually recommended by governor or other state
party elected leader) main function is to help
state candidates.
2 main parts national convention (meet every 4
years (presidential)) and national committee
(assist local, state and national candidates)
national party chairperson manages day to day
operations
19
Essential Question Describe the organization
and function of political parties in America.
16.2
Political Party Functions Political Party Functions
Recruiting Candidates
Educating The Public
Operating The Government
seek men and women who seem to have a good chance
of being elected this is the major function of
the party
publishes position on important issues like
inflation, economy, taxes, pollution etc.
maintain websites raise money for candidates
Legislatures are organized based on party
membership party leaders work to support
parties position in legislation
20
Essential Question Describe the organization
and function of political parties in America.
16.2
Political Party Functions Political Party Functions
Dispensing Patronage
Loyal Opposition
Reduction Of Conflict
reward party loyalty with favors like jobs,
contract, appointments patronage has become
limited by laws
party out of power becomes the watchdog of
government by observing the party in power and
criticizing it or offering opposite resolutions
parties encourage groups to compromise and work
together promote adoption of moderate policies
transfer of power is peaceful government
21
Quick Review Answers
  • 1. B
  • 2. D
  • 3. E
  • 4. C
  • 5. A
  • 6. C
  • 7. D
  • 8. B
  • 9. A
  • 10. C

22
Unit VIICivic Responsibility
  • Nominating Candidates
  • 16-3

80
23
(No Transcript)
24
Essential question Discuss the advantages and
disadvantages of the four methods of nominating
candidates.
16.3
boss powerful party leader
caucus private meeting of party leaders to choose
candidates for office
25
Essential question Discuss the advantages and
disadvantages of the four methods of nominating
candidates.
16.3
closed primary election in which only members of
a political party can vote
direct primary election in which party members
select people to run in the general election
26
Essential question Discuss the advantages and
disadvantages of the four methods of nominating
candidates.
16.3
nominating convention official public meeting of
a party to choose candidates for office
open primary election in which all voters may
participate
27
Essential question Discuss the advantages and
disadvantages of the four methods of nominating
candidates.
16.3
planks section of a political party platform
platform statement of a political party's
principles, beliefs, and position on vital issues
28
Essential question Discuss the advantages and
disadvantages of the four methods of nominating
candidates.
16.3
plurality largest number of votes in an election
29
Essential question Discuss the advantages and
disadvantages of the four methods of nominating
candidates.
16.3
runoff primary second primary election between
the two candidates who received the most votes in
the first primary
30
Essential question Discuss the advantages and
disadvantages of the four methods of nominating
candidates.
16.3
ticket candidates for president and vice
president
31
Essential question Discuss the advantages and
disadvantages of the four methods of nominating
candidates.
16.3
a person announces their candidacy and files a
document with a specified number of voters
signatures
Originally was the only way candidates were
chosen, now begins at the local level
most commonly used today conducted according to
state law and are held at public polling places
local party organizations send representatives to
country-wide meeting that selects candidates
32
Essential question Discuss the advantages and
disadvantages of the four methods of nominating
candidates.
16.3
  • delegate selection process possible
  • winner take all or delegates based on number of
    votes received
  • delegates may be required to support popular vote

Became more democratic caucuses gt nominating
convention gt presidential primaries
  • too long period of time
  • image more important than issues
  • one-sided victories

33
Essential question Discuss the advantages and
disadvantages of the four methods of nominating
candidates.
16.3
governs the way the convention is run
delegates gather, candidates campaign, reports
and speeches
approves delegations
date/time/place set, number of votes/state
acceptance speeches by candidates
writes statement of principals, beliefs and
positions
speeches, demonstrations, roll call
selects permanent chairperson and other officials
34
Quick Review Answers
  • 1. B
  • 2. D
  • 3. E
  • 4. C
  • 5. A
  • 6. A
  • 7. C
  • 8. D
  • 9. B
  • 10. B

35
Unit VIICivic Responsibility
  • Election Campaigns
  • 17-1

36
(No Transcript)
37
Essential Question Examine the role election
campaign financing and political parties play in
electing candidates for public office.
17.1
campaign manager person responsible for the
overall strategy and planning of a campaign
image mental picture
38
Essential Question Examine the role election
campaign financing and political parties play in
electing candidates for public office.
17.1
political action committee (PAC) an organization
formed to collect money and provide financial
support for political candidates
soft money money raised by a political party for
general purposes, not designated for a candidate
39
Essential Question Examine the role election
campaign financing and political parties play in
electing candidates for public office.
17.1
270 of the 538 electoral votes to win each
states total number equal number of
representatives and senators, usually electoral
votes follow popular vote
aggressive attack , stress what issues, how much
and where spend money
increased use of websites to convey candidates
positions, background, schedule, speeches and
videos electronic newsletters
campaign mgr. responsible for overall strategy,
strong organization
mass media powerful, image is important,
televised debates
40
Essential Question Examine the role election
campaign financing and political parties play in
electing candidates for public office.
17.1
Regulating Campaign Financing Federal Election
Campaign Act (FECA) requires public disclosure of
spending and funding prohibits direct
contributions from certain organizations and
limits individual contributions
Presidential candidates may accept funds from the
Presidential Election Campaign Fund for primary
and general election but must limit total spending
bulk of funding comes from private sources such
as individuals, party organizations and PACs
election web site operators must identify
themselves online, must register with the FEC,
follow established reporting procedures
41
Quick Review Answers
  • 1. C
  • 2. A
  • 3. E
  • 4. B
  • 5. D
  • 6. D
  • 7. B
  • 8. A
  • 9. C
  • 10. B

42
Unit VIICivic Responsibility
  • Expanding Voting Rights
  • 17-2

43
(No Transcript)
44
Essential Question Summarize the historical
expansion of voting rights.
17.2
grandfather clause exemption in a law for a
certain group based on previous conditions
suffrage the right to vote
45
Essential Question Summarize the historical
expansion of voting rights.
17.2
poll tax money paid in order to vote
46
Essential Question Summarize the historical
expansion of voting rights.
17.2
white males non property owners
white male property owners
African Americans
women
all white males
most African Americans
women
all white women
all white males
most African Americans
47
Essential Question Summarize the historical
expansion of voting rights.
17.2
African American Suffrage
Fifteenth Amendment
Grandfather Clause
(1870) provided that no state can deprive any
citizen of the right to vote on account of race,
color or previous condition of servitude
provided that only voters whose grandfathers had
voted before 1867 were eligible to vote without
paying a poll tax or passing literacy test
48
Essential Question Summarize the historical
expansion of voting rights.
17.2
African American Suffrage
Literacy test
Poll Tax
had to pass a reading and writing test before
voting
had to be paid in advance of election and was
retroactive caused financial burden
49
Essential Question Summarize the historical
expansion of voting rights.
1. The government could register voters in any
district in which fewer than 50 percent of
African American adults were on the voting
lists. 2. The government could register voters in
districts in which it appeared that local
officials were discriminating against African
Americans. 3. The new laws forbade the unfair
division of election districts in order to
diminish the influence of African American voters
or of other minority groups.
50
Essential Question Summarize the historical
expansion of voting rights.
4. The laws provided for the appointment of poll
watchers to ensure that the votes of all
qualified voters were properly counted. 5.
Literacy tests were abolished. 6. The laws
required that ballots be printed in Spanish for
Spanish-speaking communities other minority
language groups were given the same right.
51
Quick Review Answers
  • 1. D
  • 2. A
  • 3. E
  • 4. B
  • 5. C
  • 6. B
  • 7. C
  • 8. A
  • 9. C
  • 10. C

52
Unit VIICivic Responsibility
  • Influences on Voters
  • 17-3

53
(No Transcript)
54
Essential Question Evaluate the factors that
influence voters and nonvoters.
17.3
straight party ticket one where a voter has
selected candidates of his or her party only
55
Essential Question Evaluate the factors that
influence voters and nonvoters.
17.3
cross-pressured voter one who is caught between
conflicting elements in his or her own life
propaganda the use of ideas, information, or
rumors to influence opinion
56
Essential Question Evaluate the factors that
influence voters and nonvoters.
17.3
C. Taxes D. Education E. Affirmative action F.
Abortion G. Gun rights H. Environment
A. Age B. Education C. Religion D. Racial/ethnic
background E. Whether he or she is cross-pressured
A. Whether he or she is a strong party voter B.
Whether he or she is a weak party voter C.
Whether he or she is an independent
  • How the candidate is perceived favoring peace or
    war strong or weak on economic issues
  • B. How well the candidate uses propaganda
    techniquesplain folks, and wagon, patriotic
    symbols, celebrity endorsements, and other
    tactics

A. Social Security B. Health care
57
Essential Question Evaluate the factors that
influence voters and nonvoters.
17.3
Have a higher-than-average level of education
Are middle-aged Have a higher-than-average
income
Are not formal citizens Have not met residency
requirements Are not registered to vote
58
Quick Review Answers
  • 1. D
  • 2. C
  • 3. E
  • 4. B
  • 5. A
  • 6. D
  • 7. B
  • 8. A
  • 9. A
  • 10. C

59
Unit VIICivic Responsibility
  • How the Media Impacts Government
  • 19-1

60
(No Transcript)
61
Essential Question Discuss the role of mass
media in United States politics.
19.1
front-runner early leader in an election
leak release of secret information by anonymous
government officials to the media
62
Essential Question Discuss the role of mass
media in United States politics.
19.1
mass media means of communication, such as
television, newspapers, movies, books, and the
Internet, that influence large audiences
media event visually interesting event designed
to reinforce a politician's position on some issue
63
Essential Question Discuss the role of mass
media in United States politics.
19.1
news briefing meeting during which a government
official makes an announcement or explains a
policy, decision, or action
news release ready-made story government
officials prepare for members of the press
64
Essential Question Discuss the role of mass
media in United States politics.
19.1
spot advertising the brief, frequent, positive
descriptions of a candidate or a candidate's
major themes broadcast on television or radio
65
Essential Question Discuss the role of mass
media in United States politics.
19.1
The President and the Media The President and the Media
News Release and Briefings Press Conference
Other Means of Sharing Information Media Events
carefully planned events presidents usually
prepped by conferring with aides, may prep
reporters with allowable topics
release used as background information briefings
give reporters opportunity to ask officials about
news releases
used by modern politicians to reinforce position
ie. standing in front of new state of art
manufacturing plant to support pollution control
backgrounders top officials give reporters
important pieces of information which they can
use in story but not reveal source
66
Essential Question Discuss the role of mass
media in United States politics.
19.1
Media and Presidential Campaigns
Identifying Candidates The Presidential Nominating Process Campaign Advertising Financing TV Advertising Political Parties
telegenic, political unknowns can gain
exposure, encourages celebrities to enter
politics focuses on winners and losers
more than issues, media identifies a front
runner use spot advertising, may also use
negative images of the opposing candidate
not cheap, extensive fundraising involved, one
30 second commercial may cost thousands of
TV weakens the role of political parties, TV
lets candidates appeal directly to voters,
provides most political news
67
Essential Question Discuss the role of mass
media in United States politics.
19.1
Congress and the Media
Confirmation Hearings Oversight Activities Personal Business C-SPAN Congressional Recording Studio
controversial hearings attract wide media
coverage, media may uncover damaging
info lawmakers may uncover a major scandal
during oversight, some become some of the biggest
media stories media looks for scandal
in the personal lives of congress closed
circuit television coverage of the floor
proceedings of congress lawmakers
prepare radio and tv messages for voters in their
districts
68
Essential Question Discuss the role of mass
media in United States politics.
19.1
The Court and the Media The Court and the Media
Remoteness of Judges Technical Issues
Setting the Public Agenda Setting the Public Agenda
Awareness of Issues Attitudes and Values
since appointed, dont need publicity must
remain unbiased ? avoid publicity
handles complex issues, many which only interest
a small number of people,
networks prioritize their news coverage according
to what stories they believe will draw the
largest number of viewers
media plays large role in political socialization
may be positive or negative
69
Quick Review Answers
  • 1. C
  • 2. A
  • 3. D
  • 4. E
  • 5. B
  • 6. B
  • 7. A
  • 8. D
  • 9. C
  • 10. B

70
Unit VIICivic Responsibility
  • Regulating Broadcast and Print Media
  • 19-2

71
(No Transcript)
72
Essential Question Evaluate the role the
government plays in regulating the mass media.
19.2
  • fairness doctrine
  • requiring broadcasters to provide opportunities
    for the expression of opposing views on issues of
    public importance

libel false written or published statements
intended to damage a person's reputation
73
Essential Question Evaluate the role the
government plays in regulating the mass media.
  • prior restraint
  • government censorship of information before it is
    published or broadcast

shield law law that gives reporters some means of
protection against being forced to disclose
confidential information or sources in state
courts
74
Essential Question Evaluate the role the
government plays in regulating the mass media.
Protecting the Media Protecting the Media
Free Press Guaranteed Libel
The Right to Gather Information The Right to Gather Information
The Right of Access Protection of Sources
almost impossible for a public official to win a
libel suit, no law against criticizing a public
official
editors and reporters have freedom to decide what
goes in or stays out of their publications
press feels they should unlimited access to
government information, courts have ruled against
unlimited access
reporters often need to protect their informants,
shield laws offer reporters protection
75
Essential Question Evaluate the role the
government plays in regulating the mass media.
Regulating Broadcast Media
FCC Content Ownership Telecommunications Act of 1996
government agency with authority to regulate
interstate and international communications by
radio, tv, phone, telegraph, cable and
satellite FCC cannot censor broadcast,
can influence content by fining stations that
violate rules and threatening not to renew
licenses FCC created rules to prevent the
concentration of media ownership into the hands
of a few with the advent of advanced technology,
broadcast owners want less restrictions ended
or relaxed many FCC regulations on media
ownership, FCC required to review media ownership
rules every 2 years
76
Essential Question Evaluate the role the
government plays in regulating the mass media.
Media and National Security

conflict between the need for government to keeps
secrets to protect national security and
citizens need for information exist in a free
society creates delicate balance.
77
Quick Review Answers
  • 1. B
  • 2. D
  • 3. E
  • 4. A
  • 5. C
  • 6. D
  • 7. C
  • 8. A
  • 9. B
  • 10. D

78
Unit VIICivic Responsibility
  • The Internet and Democracy
  • 19-3

79
(No Transcript)
80
Essential Question Analyze the impact of the
internet on government in the United States.
action alert message from an interest group to
its members, calling upon them to respond
immediately by telephone, fax, or e-mail to a
specific lawmaker, group of lawmakers, or other
official
electronic mailing list automated e-mail
notification that provides subscribers with
current information on a topic
81
Essential Question Analyze the impact of the
internet on government in the United States.
electronic petition message that asks the
recipient to "sign" his or her name
electronically to a request that will be sent to
an official
partisan adhering to or supporting a particular
party, faction, cause, or person
82
Essential Question Analyze the impact of the
internet on government in the United States.
Key Features of the Internet Key Features of the Internet Key Features of the Internet
Widespread Interactivity Global Scope
Web traffic has grown by 100 percent a year more
than 75 of Americans use the web at home
traditional media is unidirectional (one-way)
internet allows people to network with each other
wide range of content, opinions, diversity few
rules, hard to govern activities
83
Essential Question Analyze the impact of the
internet on government in the United States.
Gathering Information Gathering Information
Political Web Sites Tracking Legislation
Electronic Mailing Lists E-Government
all major newspapers and magazines have websites
sites sponsored by government agencies, interest
groups, political parties, many are biased
THOMAS (thomas.loc.gov) allows public to search
congressional bills updated by the library of
congress
governments at all levels are providing services
and information over the internet federal
government website firstgov.gov
can subscribe to automated email notifications
keep informed on issues with updates
84
Essential Question Analyze the impact of the
internet on government in the United States.
Impact on Citizen Participation
Communicating with Officials Action Alerts and Petitions Grassroots Websites Volunteering Electronic Voting
email most widely used tool for interacting
with government officials messages sent to
groups members by phone, fax or email messages
asking for electronic signature individual
citizens setting up their own websites in support
of candidates donating time and effort to an
election campaign or political cause
cybervolunteering states are conducting
studies Department of Defense conducted pilot
program for residents overseas
85
Essential Question Analyze the impact of the
internet on government in the United States.
Challenges for Public Policy Challenges for Public Policy
Offensive Content Taxing E-Commerce
1st amendment guarantees freedom of expression on
the internet causing difficulties in protecting
children against offensive material
sales taxes are assessed on a state level making
it difficult for e-retailers to assess taxes
some states require sales tax on e-commerce where
other do not
86
Quick Review Answers
  • 1. D
  • 2. C
  • 3. A
  • 4. E
  • 5. B
  • 6. C
  • 7. A
  • 8. C
  • 9. B
  • 10. D
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