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Chp. 1 Introduction to Forensic Science

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Chp. 1 Introduction to Forensic Science In school, every period ends with a bell. Every sentence ends with a period. Every crime ends with a sentence. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chp. 1 Introduction to Forensic Science


1
Chp. 1Introduction to Forensic Science
  • In school, every period ends with a bell. Every
    sentence ends with a period. Every crime ends
    with a sentence.
  • Stephen Wright, comedian

2
Answer on notebook paper
  • 5 things you know about forensics
  • 4 things youve heard about forensics
  • 3 things youve NEVER heard of (look through
    book)
  • 2 Questions about forensics
  • 1 thing you MUST know about forensics

3
Please Do Now
What does forensic science mean to you? What
would you like to learn about in forensic
science? (you can look at your book for this
question only) Please write at least 5 lines in
your composition book.
4
Count the Fs
  • Finished files are the result of years of
    scientific study combined with the experience of
    many years.

5
There are 6!
  • Finished files are the result of years of
    scientific study combined with the experience of
    many years.

6
Forensics
  • Forensic science has come to mean the application
    of the natural and physical sciences to the
    resolution of conflicts within a legal setting.
  • The study and application of science to matters
    of law
  • Includes the business of providing timely,
    accurate, and thorough information to all levels
    of decision makers in our criminal justice
    system.
  • Comes from the Latin forensus, meaning of the
    forum
  • In Ancient Rome, the forum was where governmental
    debates were held, but it was also where trials
    were held (it was the courthouse)

7
I. Definition of Forensic Science
The application of science to the criminal and
civil laws that are enforced by police agencies
in a criminal justice system.
8
Scope of Forensic Science
The 10 sections of The American Academy of
Forensic Science (the largest forensic science
organization in the world) are
  • 7. Physical Anthropology
  • 8. Psychiatry and Behavioral Science
  • 9. Questioned Documents
  • 10. Toxiology
  1. Criminalistics
  2. Engineering science
  3. General
  4. Jurisprudence
  5. Odontology
  6. Pathology/ Biology

9
Scope of Forensic Science
The list of professions of The American Academy
of Forensic Science is not exclusive. It does
not encompass skills such as
  • Fingerprint examination
  • Firearm and tool mark examination
  • Computer and digital analysis
  • Photography

10
II. History and Development of Forensic Science
  • Mathieu Orfila
  • father of forensic toxicology (the study of
    the adverse effects of chemicals or physical
    agents on living organisms)
  • (1814)

11
Please Do Now
Read the article Toxicology on Trial and answer
the following in your composition book Was
Marie Lafarge found innocent or guilty? Why?
12
II. History and Development of Forensic Science
Alphonse Bertillon (Father of Criminal
Investigation) Devised the first scientific
system of personal identification through
anthropometry in 1879
Photo showing the measurement of the cubit (from
the tip of the middle finger to the elbow) from
the 1893 Worlds Columbian Exposition in Chicago.
13
Figure 13   Bertillons system of bodily
measurements (anthropometry) as used for the
identification of an individual. Courtesy Sirchie
Finger Print Laboratories, Inc., Youngsville,
N.C., www.sirchie.com
14
Bertillon Activity
  • Use measuring tapes to measure
  • The length of torso from the top of your head to
    the bottom of your seat in a chair
  • The length of your arm from elbow to tip of
    middle finger
  • The hand from wrist to tip of middle finger
  • Record the data on a piece of notebook paper in a
    data table and find averages for males and
    females in the class

15
Bertillon Activity cont.
  1. Was there a difference between the male and
    female average measurements? Why or why not?
  2. Do any two people in the class have exactly the
    same three measurements? If yes - who. Explain
    why or why not?
  3. Would you want to have to take 9 different
    measurements for 10 000 people? Why or why not.

16
II. History and Development of Forensic Science
Sir Arthur Conan Doyle wrote Sherlock
Holmes uncanny ability to describe scientific
methods of detection years before they were
actually discovered and implemented 1887 - A
Study in Scarlet
17
II. History and Development of Forensic Science
Francis Galton Conducted the first definitive
study of fingerprints and their
classification (1892)
Galton displayed his own fingerprints as part of
his title page
18
II. History and Development of Forensic Science
Hans Gross Credited with coining the term
criminalistics Wrote first treatise describing
the application of scientific principles to the
field of criminal investigation (1893)
19
II. History and Development of Forensic Science
Dr. Karl Landsteiner Identifies human blood
groups- A, B, AB and O (1901)
20
II. History and Development of Forensic Science
Albert S. Osborn Developed the fundamental
principles of document examination (1910)
Author of Questioned Documents
21
II. History and Development of Forensic Science
Edmond Locard Father of criminalistics Built the
worlds first forensic lab in France (1910)
22
Locards Exchange Principle
When two objects come into contact with each
other, a cross-transfer of materials occurs.
Every Contact Leaves a Trace
23
II. History and Development of Forensic Science
Leone Lattes Developed a procedure to determine
blood type from dried bloodstains (1915)
24
II. History and Development of Forensic Science
Calvin Goddard Used a comparison microscope to
determine if a particular gun fired a
bullet (1929)
Goddard with comparison microscope
Worked on the St. Valentines Day massacre
25
II. History and Development of Forensic Science
Walter McCrone Used microscopy and other
analytical methodologies to examine
evidence (1916-2002)
Worked on Shroud of Turin (controversy with
results)
26
II. History and Development of Forensic Science
Sir Alec Jeffreys Developed the first DNA
profiling test in 1984
27
HOMEWORK
Read CRIME LABORATORIES pages 14 to
23 Answer Review Questions 11 to 22
28
III. The Crime Lab
Katie Woodward, a forensic scientist at the
Washington State Patrol Crime Lab, examines a
coat for blood spatter. When found, she removes
it for DNA analysis. (March 22, 2003)
29
Crime Lab History
  • First police crime lab in the world was
    established in _______ in 1910 by
    __________________
  • First police crime lab in the U.S. opened in 1923
    by _____________________________
  • The first FBI crime lab opened in _________
  • (now the worlds largest forensic lab -
    performing more than ___________ examinations per
    year

France
Edmond Locard
Los Angeles Police Department
1932
one million
30
Please Do Now
"Only two things are infinite, the universe and
human stupidity, and I'm not sure about the
former" -- Albert Einstein
31
Development of Crime Labs
  • Characterized by a rapid growth accompanied by a
    lack of national and regional planning and
    coordination.
  • Current system of crime labs in U.S. is best
    described as decentralized
  • Approximately 350 public crime laboratories
    operate at various levels of governmentfederal,
    state, county, and municipal.

32
Growth of Crime Labs since 1960
  1. Supreme Court decisions in the 1960s responsible
    for police placing greater emphasis on
    scientifically evaluated evidence. (suspect must
    be advised on their rights - less confessions as
    a result)
  2. Staggering increase in crime rates.
  3. All illicit-drug seizures must be sent to a
    forensic lab for confirmatory chemical analysis
    before going to court.
  4. The advent of DNA profiling. (expected to add
    10,000 forensic scientists in coming years due
    to DNA profiles)

33
Major Crime Labs in the U.S.
  • FBI (Federal Bureau of Investigation)
  • DEA (Drug Enforcement Administration)
  • ATF (Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives)
  • U.S. Postal Service
  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service

34
International Crime Labs (more than 100
countries have at least 1 forensic science lab)
  • Great Britain has a national system (in contrast
    to U.S. independent local labs) of regional labs
    under direction of the governments Home Office.
  • Canada has 3 government-funded institutes
  • 6 Royal Canadian Mounted Police regional labs
  • The Centre of Forensic Sciences in Toronto
  • The Institute of Legal Medicine and Police
    Science in Montreal

35
Crime LabBasic Services
  • Physical Science Unit
  • Chemistry
  • Physics
  • Geology
  • Biology Unit
  • Firearms Unit
  • Document Examination Unit
  • Photography Unit

36
Crime LabBasic Services(Physical Science Unit)
  • Applies principles of chemistry, physics and
    geology to identify and compare physical evidence
    such as
  • Drugs
  • Glass
  • Paint
  • Explosives
  • Soil

37
Crime LabBasic Services(Biology Unit)
  • Applies knowledge of biological sciences to
    investigate samples such as
  • Blood
  • Body fluids
  • Hair
  • Fibers
  • Botanical samples
  • (ex. wood, plants)

38
Crime LabBasic Services(Firearms Unit)
  • Examines
  • Firearms
  • Discharged bullets
  • Cartridge cases
  • Shotgun shells
  • Ammunition of all types
  • Garments and other objects for
  • firearms discharge residues
  • Approximate distance from target
  • to weapon

39
Crime LabBasic Services(Document Examination
Unit)
  • Studies handwriting and typewriting on questioned
    documents to determine authenticity and/or source
  • Analyze paper and ink
  • Examine indented writings,obliterations, erasures
    and burned or charred documents

40
Crime LabBasic Services(Photography Unit)
  • Use of highly specialized photographic techniques
    to make invisible information visible to the
    naked eye, such as
  • Infrared
  • Ultraviolet
  • X-ray photography
  • Photographs crime scenes and physical evidence
  • Prepares photographic exhibits for court

41
Crime LabBasic Services(Photography Unit)
42
Optional Services Provided by Full-Service Crime
Lab
  • Toxicology Unit examines body fluids and organs
    for
  • the presence of drugs and poisons.
  • Latent Fingerprint Unit processes and examines
  • evidence for latent fingerprints.
  • Polygraph Unit conducts polygraph or lie detector
  • tests.
  • Voiceprint Analysis Unit attempts to tie a
    recorded
  • voice to a particular suspect.
  • Evidence-Collection Unit dispatches specially
    trained
  • personnel to the crime scene to collect
  • and preserve physical evidence.

43
Figure 110  An envelope containing anthrax
spores along with an anonymous letter was sent to
the office of Senator Tom Daschle shortly after
the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001. A
variety of forensic skills were used to examine
the envelope and letter. Also, bar codes placed
on the front and back of the envelope by
mail-sorting machines contain address information
and information about where the envelope was
first processed. Courtesy Getty Images,
Inc.Liaison
44
Special Forensic Science Services
  • Forensic Pathology
  • Forensic Anthropology
  • Forensic Entomology
  • Forensic Psychiatry
  • Forensic Odontology
  • Forensic Engineering
  • Forensic Computer and Digital Analysis

45
Special Forensic Science Services(Forensic
Pathology)
  • Concerned with determining the cause of death
  • Examines wounds and injuries

A forensic pathologist examines a kidney during
an autopsy.
Click for autopsy video
This is the place where the dead shall teach the
living.
46
Please Do Now
  • Explain the statement This is the place where
    the dead shall teach the living. in reference to
    forensic pathology.
  • Please write at least 5 lines in your
    composition book.

47
Special Forensic Science Services(Forensic
Anthropology)
  • Assist in identification of deceased individuals
    whose remains are decomposed, burned, mutilated
    or otherwise unrecognizable

48
Special Forensic Science Services(Forensic
Anthropology)
An anthropologist exhumes an unidentified set of
remains from a Sarajevo cemetery. Forensic
anthropology teams match these and thousands of
other remains from conflicts around the world
with DNA samples from family members of missing
relatives. Photo by T.J. Grubisha 2002, U.S.
State Department.
49
Special Forensic Science Services(Forensic
Entomology)
  • Uses insects to help law enforcement determine
    the cause, location and time of death (TOD) of a
    human being
  • Insect life cycles act as precise clocks which
    begin within minutes of death
  • Used to determine the TOD when other methods are
    useless
  • Insects can also show if a body has been moved
    after death

50
Special Forensic Science Services(Forensic
Psychiatry)
  • Examines relationship between human behavior and
    legal proceedings is examined
  • Determine if person is competent to stand trial
  • Examines behavior patterns of criminals as an aid
    to developing a suspects behavioral profile

51
Special Forensic Science Services(Forensic
Odontology)
  • Helps identifies victims based on dental evidence
  • Bite mark analysis - compare marks left of a
    victim and the tooth structure of a suspect

52
Bite Marks
Pattern injury displaying ovoid pattern and
central bruising
Pattern injury displaying linear interrupted
abrasions
53
Special Forensic Science Services(Forensic
Engineering)
  • Concerned with
  • failure analysis
  • accident reconstruction
  • causes and origins of fires or explosion

54
Corrosion Engineering Failure Analysis
55
Special Forensic Science Services(Forensic
Computer Science Digital Analysis)
  • Identifying, collecting, preserving, and
    examining information derived from computers and
    other digital devices, such as cell phones
  • Recovering deleted or overwritten data from a
    computers hard drive
  • Tracking hacking activities within a compromised
    system

56
CLASSWORK / HOMEWORK
Read the article Making an Impression, Bite-mark
study could bolster use as evidence and answer
the questions on a separate piece of paper.
57
What are the 3 major avenues available to police
investigators in solving a crime?
  1. Confessions
  2. Eyewitness accounts by victims and/or witnesses
  3. Evaluation of physical evidence recovered from
    the crime scene

Which of the above is free of inherent error or
bias?
Only PHYSICAL EVIDENCE WHY?
58
Only PHYSICAL EVIDENCE is free of inherent error
or bias WHY?
Because physical evidence MUST undergo scientific
inquiry Scientific integrity is due to strict
guidelines that ensure careful and systematic
collection, organization, and analysis of
information (this is known as ____________________
__)
The Scientific Method
59
The Scientific Method
  • Formulate a question worthy of investigation.
  • Formulate a reasonable hypothesis to answer the
    question.
  • Test the hypothesis through experimentation.
  • Testing process must be thorough and recognized
    by other scientists as valid.
  • When the hypothesis is validated by
    experimentation, it become suitable as scientific
    evidence, appropriate for criminal investigation
    and for admission in court.

60
Skills of a Forensic Scientist
  • Applying the principles and techniques of the
    physical and natural sciences to the analysis of
    the many types of evidence that may be recovered
    during a criminal investigation
  • Participate in training law enforcement personnel
    in the proper recognition, collection, and
    preservation of physical evidence
  • May provide expert court testimony

61
Expert Witness
  • Must establish his or her credibility through
    credentials, background and experience
  • One whom the court determines possesses knowledge
    relevant to the trial that is not expected of the
    average person

Watch a Forensic Expert Witness (1)Testify
62
Expert Witness
  • Evaluates evidence based on specialized training
    and experience that the court lacks the expertise
    to do
  • Then expresses an opinion as to the significance
    of the findings

Watch a Forensic Expert Witness Testify (2)
63
Facets of Guilt
  • Try to prove
  • Meansperson had the ability to do the crime
  • Motiveperson had a reason to do the crime
  • (not necessary to prove in a court of
    law)
  • Opportunityperson can be placed at the
  • crime

64
Federal Rules of Evidence
  • In order for evidence to be admissible, it must
    be
  • Probativeactually prove something
  • Materialaddress an issue that is relevant to the
    particular crime

65
Admissibility of Evidence
  • 1923 Frye v. United States
  • Scientific evidence is allowed into the courtroom
    if it is generally accepted by the relevant
    scientific community. The Frye standard does not
    offer any guidance on reliability. The evidence
    is presented in the trial and the jury decides if
    it can be used.
  • NOTE Frye standard used in Pennsylvania
    (6/11/04)
  • 1993 Daubert v. Dow
  • Admissibility is determined by
  • Whether the theory or technique can be tested
  • Whether the science has been offered for peer
    review
  • Whether the rate of error is acceptable
  • Whether the method at issue enjoys widespread
    acceptance.
  • Whether the opinion is relevant to the issue
  • The judge decides if the evidence can be entered
    into the trial.

66
Frye v. United States, 1923
  • James Frye convicted of second degree murder
  • On appeal, defense counsel said that the court
    erred when it refused the introduction of a
    systolic blood pressure deception test and expert
    testimony on the test as evidence
  • The court stated that, to be accepted in a court
    of law, the scientific evidence must be generally
    accepted in the scientific community
  • Systolic pressure deception test was NOT
    generally accepted by scientific community so not
    admissible

67
Rule 702 of Federal Rules of Evidence
  • Sets a different standard (from the Frye
    standard) for admissibility of expert testimony

68
Rule 702 of Federal Rules of Evidence
  • A witness is qualified as an expert by
    knowledge, skill, experience, training or
    education and may offer expert testimony on a
    scientific or technical matter if
  • The testimony is based upon sufficient facts or
    data
  • The testimony is the product of reliable
    principles and methods
  • The witness has applied the principles and
    methods reliably to the facts of the case

69
Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals, Inc., 1993
  • Two minor children their parents sued Dow,
    claiming the childrens serious birth defects
    were due to a prescription drug marketed by Dow
  • Court ruled evidence didnt meet the standard of
    general acceptance for admission of expert
    testimony

70
Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals, Inc., 1993
  • On appeal, U.S. Supreme Court ruled that the Frye
    standard is not the only rule for admissibility
    of scientific evidence.
  • Admissibility of expert testimony should be
    controlled by Rule 702 of the Federal Rules of
    Evidence
  • It need not be generally accepted in the the
    scientific community, rather it should be
    admitted if it rests on a reliable scientific
    foundation and is relevant to the issue at hand
  • Daubert rule only applies to federal courts, but
    states are expected to use the decision as a
    guideline in setting standards

71
Admissibility of Evidence
  • 1923 Frye v. United States
  • Scientific evidence is allowed into the courtroom
    if it is generally accepted by the relevant
    scientific community. The Frye standard does not
    offer any guidance on reliability. The evidence
    is presented in the trial and the jury decides if
    it can be used.
  • 1993 Daubert v. Dow
  • Admissibility is determined by
  • Whether the theory or technique can be tested
  • Whether the science has been offered for peer
    review
  • Whether the rate of error is acceptable
  • Whether the method at issue enjoys widespread
    acceptance.
  • Whether the opinion is relevant to the issue
  • The judge decides if the evidence can be entered
    into the trial.

72
Kumho Tire Co., Ltd. v. Carmichael, 1999
  • Court unanimously ruled that the gatekeeping
    role of the trial judge applied not only to
    scientific testimony, but to ALL EXPERT TESTIMONY

73
Coppolino Case Study(whiteboard the following)
  1. What was Coppolino charged with?
  2. What was the result of the trials?
  3. If you were the forensic expert on this case
    would you have done anything differently?
    Explain.
  4. What was special about this case?

74
Coppolino v. State, 1968
  • Coppolino standard
  • the court allows a novel test or piece of new,
    sometimes controversial, science on a particular
    problem at hand if an adequate foundation can be
    laid even if the profession as a whole isn't
    familiar with it.

75
Detection of Curare in the Jascalevich Murder
Trial
  • What was the reason this case was given at this
    point in the text?
  • What was Jascalevich charged with?
  • What was the result of the trial?
  • If you were the forensic expert on this case how
    would you have handled the investigation
    differently?

76
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