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The Industrial Revolution and Britain

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The Industrial Revolution and Britain What is the Industrial Revolution? Began circa 1750-1914 Western Europe (esp. Britain) caught up with and surpassed China and ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Industrial Revolution and Britain


1
The Industrial Revolution and Britain
2
What is the Industrial Revolution?
  • Began circa 1750-1914
  • Western Europe (esp. Britain) caught up with and
    surpassed China and the rest of the world in
    economic power and productivity
  • Machines began to significantly displace human
    and animal power in methods of producing and
    distributing goods

3
Reasons for it..
  • Commercial Revolution (1500-1700) brought upon by
    Age of Exploration
  • Effect of Scientific Revolution
  • Increase in population of Europe from 140 million
    in 1750 to 266 million in late 1800s
  • Political and social revolutions of the 1800s,
    which began the rise to power of the middle class

4
  • Enclosure Acts Laws passed in England in the
    late 1700s to early 1800s that converted public
    lands held in common into parcels of land to be
    sold to private owners.
  • a supply of cheap labor

5
  • 2. A good supply of coal and iron
  • 3. The availability of large supplies of capital
    from profitable commercial investment in the
    preceding centuries
  • 4. A class of inventive people who possessed
    technological skill and whose independence and
    non-conformity allowed them to take risks

6
  • 5. Access to raw materials because England was a
    colonial power
  • 6. Had a government, which was sympathetic to
    industrial development and well-established
    financial institutions

7
Growth of Industrial Society
  • Helped to eliminate Western Europes traditional
    stratification model
  • Middle class were major contributors and primary
    beneficiaries (indifferent to the suffering of
    those of the lower class)
  • 1. Upper bourgeoisie bankers, merchants,
    industrialists who wanted free enterprise and
    high tariffs
  • 2. Lower bourgeoisie Small industrialists,
    merchants, prof. men who wanted stability and
    security from government

8
Important Inventions in Textiles
  • John Kay 1733 the flying shuttle
  • James Hargreaves 1764 the spinning jenny
  • Richard Arkwright water frame, 1769
  • Samuel Crompton the mule 1779
  • Edmund Cartwright power loom, 1785

Spinning jenny
The mule
9
Power and Metallurgy
  • Thomas Newcomen steam engine,1712
  • James Watt condensing steam engine, 1765
  • Eli Whitney cotton gin, 1793
  • Robert Fulton, steamboat, 1807
  • George Stephenson, steam locomotive, 1829

The Rocket steam locomotive
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