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Flash/Butt Welding

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Title: Flash/Butt Welding


1
Flash/Butt Welding
2
Flash Butt Welding
  • Learning Activities
  • View Slides
  • Read Notes,
  • Listen to lecture
  • Do on-line workbook
  • Lesson Objectives
  • When you finish this lesson you will understand
  • The flash and butt welding process for plain
    carbon steel
  • The weld parameters which must be controlled to
    get good welds
  • Typical flash/butt weld defects

Keywords Flash Weld (AC), Butt Weld (DC),
Flashing Current, Upset Current, Upset Force,
Upset Velocity, Upset Distance, Forging
Temperature, Linear Platen Motion, Parabolic
Platen Motion, Continuous Acceleration Platen
Motion, Flat Spots, Penetrators
3
Introduction to Flash Welding
Reference Welding Process Slides, The Welding
Institute
4
Basic Steps in Flash Welding
Electrodes
(a) (c) (b) (d)
Position and Clamp the Parts
Flash
Upset and Terminate Current
Apply Flashing Voltage and Start Platen Motion
Reference Welding Handbook, Volume 2, p.583,
AWS
5
Equipment Example of Flash Welding
Reference Welding Process Slides, The Welding
Institute
Typical applications (1) Butt welding of
matching sections. (2) Chain links. (3) Railway
lines. (4) Window frames. (5) Aero-engine
rings. (6) Car wheel rims. (7) Metal strip in
rolling mills.
6
Advantages of Flash Welding
  • Flexible cross sectioned shapes
  • Flexible positioning for similar cross section
    parts
  • Impurities can be removed during upset acts
  • Faying surface preparation is not critical except
    for large parts
  • Can weld rings of various cross sections
  • Narrower heat-affected zones than those of upset
    welds

7
Limitations of Flash Welding
  • Produce unbalance on three-phase primary power
    lines
  • The ejected molten metal particles present a fire
    hazard
  • Require special equipment for removal of flash
    metal
  • Difficult alignment for workpieces with small
    cross sections
  • Require almost identical cross section parts

8
Common Types of Flash Welds
Axially Aligned Weld
Dies
Cross Section After Welding
Fixed Platen
Movable Platen
Transformer
Reference Welding Handbook, Volume 2, p.589,
AWS
9
Common Types of Flash Welds (CONT.)
Miter Weld
Movable Platen
Fixed Platen
Cross Section After Welding
Transformer
Reference Welding Handbook, Volume 2, p.589,
AWS
10
Common Types of Flash Welds (CONT.)
Ring Weld
Shunt Current
Movable Platen
Fixed Platen
Cross Section After Welding
Transformer
Reference Welding Handbook, Volume 2, p.589,
AWS
11
Typical Mill Forms and Products of Upset Welding
Reference Welding Handbook, Volume 2, p.600,
AWS
12
  • Systems
  • Electrical
  • Force Application

Savage, Flash Welding, Welding Journal March 1962
13
Applications
Wheel Truck Rims Ball Bearing Raceways Bar
Welding Strip Welding During Continuous
Processing Pipelines
14
(No Transcript)
15
Schematic of Typical Flash Weld Cycle
Savage, Flash Welding, Welding Journal March 1962
16
(No Transcript)
17
0
.05
.15
.10
Initial Flashing
Partial Burn-off Stage 1 - Heat Soaking
Increased Burn-off Stage 2 - Steady State
Excessive Burn-off Stage 3 - Heat out
18
Best Region For Upset
Nippes, Temp Dist During Flash Welding, Welding
Journal, Dec 1951
19
In Steady State, the Heat into the HAZ Equals
the Heat Out
Stage 3 Occurs When More Heat Flows Out than is
Flowing In
20
Upset in the Steady State - Stage 2 Region
Forge Temp
At Upset
Short Time After
Long Time After
21
Nippes, Cooling Rates in Flash Welding, Welding
Journal, July 1959
22
At Moment Of Upset Short Time Thereafter
Temperature vs Time As a Function Of Distance
From Interface At Moment of Upset
23
Nippes, Cooling Rates in Flash Welding, Welding
Journal, July 1959
24
Factors Which Effect Extent of Stable Stage 2
  • Material Electrical Thermal Conductivity
  • Platen Motion During Flashing
  • Initial Clamping Distance
  • Preheat
  • Material Geometry

25
Electrical Thermal Conductivity
HAZ
High Resistance More I2R Heating Low Thermal
Conductivity Less Heat Out
  • More Rapid Heating
  • Longer Stage 2
  • Higher Temperature
  • Wider HAZ

26
Wide HAZ
Narrow HAZ
Oxides Trapped At Interface
Oxides Forced To Flashing
27
Platen Motion
Continuous Acceleration
Linear
Parabolic
Continuous Acceleration lead to Stub Out
28
Nippes, Temp Dist During Flash Welding, Welding
Journal, Dec 1951
29
Linear Flashing - Effect of Increased Velocity
Higher Velocity
30
Parabolic Flashing
Nippes, Temp Dist During Flash Welding, Welding
Journal, Dec 1951
31
Temperature Comparison of Linear and Parabolic
Flashing
Nippes, Temp Dist During Flash Welding, Welding
Journal, Dec 1951
32
Initial Clamping Distance
Closer Initial Clamping
  • Shorter Stage 2
  • More Burnoff to Establish Steady State
  • Steeper Temperature Gradient

33
Effect of Preheat
Beneficial
Larger HAZ
34
Thicker Material
Thicker Material is more of a Heat Sink
35
Questions?
  • Turn to the person sitting next to you and
    discuss (1 min.)
  • OK, we went back to the faster platen motion and
    told the night shift guy to keep his hands off,
    but the weld still seems to be too cold. What
    would you suggest?

36
DC Butt Welding
37
Introduction to Upset Welding
To Welding Transformer
Clamping Die
Clamping Die
Heated Zone
Upsetting Force
Movable Part
Stationary Part
Finished Upset Weld
Reference Welding Handbook, Volume 2, p.598,
AWS
38
Schematic of Typical Butt Weld Cycle
Medar Technical Literature
39
Questions?
  • Turn to the person sitting next to you and
    discuss (1 min.)
  • Because the part are first touching as DC
    current is applied in butt welding, large current
    levels occur immediately. How would welding
    steels containing large manganese sulfide
    inclusions be effected by this?

40
FLASH/BUTT WELD DISCONTINUITIES
  • MECHNICAL
  • Misalignment
  • Poor Scarfing
  • Die Burns
  • HEAT AFFECTED ZONE
  • Turned Up Fibers (Hook Cracks)
  • HAZ Softening
  • CENTERLINE
  • Cold Weld
  • Flat Spots / Penetrators
  • Pinholes
  • Porosity
  • Cracking

41
Misalignment
Notch Stress Riser
42
Poor Scarfing
Notch
Thin Section
43
Die Burns
Arcing
Crack
Martensite
44
Turned Up Fibers - Hook Cracks
45
Hook Cracks
46
Hardness Loss
47
Cold Weld
Cold Weld
48
Flat Spots Penetrators in Flash Welds
49
(No Transcript)
50
(No Transcript)
51
(No Transcript)
52
Factors During Upset Which Reduce Defects
  • Upset Velocity
  • Upset Current
  • Upset Force
  • Upset Distance
  • Material Hot Strength/Chemistry

53
Upset Velocity
Higher Velocity Helps extrude Centerline Oxides
Out 1. Oxides Are Present Because Melting Points
are high 2. Oxides Tend to Solidify or Harden
and Get entrapped at the Interface 3. Rapid
Velocity Helps Get Them Moving
54
Upset Current
  • Advantages
  • Keeps Heat at Center Line During Upset
  • Keeps Oxides Fluid
  • Aids In Forcing Oxides Out
  • Disadvantages
  • Excess Heating Can Produce Excess Upset
  • More HAZ Fiber Turn Up

55
Upset Force
Generally Use Maximum Available (Too Light a
Force May Entrap Oxides)
Upset Distance
Need Enough Upset to Squeeze all Oxides Out (Rule
of Thumb 1/2 to 1.25 times the thickness)
56
Material Hot Strength/Chemistry
  • Materials with higher hot strength require
  • higher force during upset
  • Materials producing refractory oxides or
    nitrides
  • require higher upset distance to squeeze them
    out

57
Feedback Control on Platen Motion During Flashing
Monitor pre-programmed motion
Acceptable Pre-Programmed Range
Flashing Current Also Monitored In Case of
Short Circuit Motion is Reversed
Torstensson, Electro-hydraulic Control of Flash
Welding.. Svetsaren, Feb 1975
58
Feedback Control on Platen Motion During Flashing
Current
Voltage
Measure Voltage and Current
Medar Technical Literature, Medar Flashweld
Control with Programmable Adaptive Cam
59
Monitored During Flashing
Upset Current Until Proportional Amount of Power
Attained
Dickinson Adapting HSLA Steel to Welded Wheel
Rims, Welding Design Fab, May 1979
60
Homework
Flash Welding
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