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Environment Chapter 1: Interactions of Living Things

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Chapter 1: Interactions of Living Things Section 1: Everything is Connected Section 1: Everything is Connected Ecology- the study of interactions between organisms ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Environment Chapter 1: Interactions of Living Things


1
Environment Chapter 1 Interactions of Living
Things
  • Section 1 Everything is Connected

2
Section 1 Everything is Connected
  • Ecology- the study of interactions between
    organisms and their environments.
  • 2 parts of the environment- Biotic Abiotic
  • Biotic- all the organisms that live together and
    interact with one another.
  • Abiotic- all of the physical factors that affect
    organisms in a particular area
  • Examples- water, soil, light, temperature,
    rainfall

3
Levels of Organization
  • Organism- an individual animal or plant

4
Levels of Organization
  • Population- A group of individuals of the same
    species that live together in the same area at
    the same time.

5
Levels of Organization
  • Community- Consists of all the populations of
    different species that live and interact in an
    area.

6
Levels of Organization
  • Ecosystem- Made up of a community of organisms
    and the abiotic environment.

7
Levels of Organization
  • Biosphere- Part of the Earth where life exists.
    It extends from the deepest part of the ocean to
    very high up in the atmosphere, where tiny
    insects and plant spores drift.

8
Apply Your Knowledge
  • Using this salt-marsh example, distinguish
    between populations, communities, ecosystems, and
    the biosphere.

9
Environment Chapter 1 Interactions of Living
Things
  • Section 2 Living Things Need Energy

10
Section 2 Living Things Need Energy
  • Producers Organisms that use sunlight directly
    to make food.
  • The process that producers use to obtain energy
    is called photosynthesis.
  • Examples- plants, algae, grasses, some bacteria

11
Section 2 Living Things Need Energy
  • Consumers organisms that eat producers or other
    organisms for energy.
  • Herbivore- a consumer that eats plants
  • Ex grasshoppers, gophers, prairie dogs,
    vegetarians
  • Carnivore- a consumer that eats animals
  • Ex coyotes, hawks, badgers, owls
  • Omnivore - consumers that eat a variety of
    organisms, both plants and animals
  • Ex mouse, humans, bears

12
Section 2 Living Things Need Energy
  • Scavengers- consumers that feed on the bodies of
    dead animals
  • Ex turkey vulture, crayfish, worms
  • Decomposers- consumers that get their food by
    breaking down the remains of dead organisms.
  • Ex bacteria and fungi
  • Decomposers are called natures recyclers
    because they allow nutrients to be reused by the
    ecosystem

13
Diagrams that show energy flowing through an
ecosystem
  • Food Chains- a diagram that represents how the
    energy in food molecules flows from one organism
    to the next
  • Food Webs- a complex diagram representing the
    many energy pathways in a real ecosystem
  • Energy pyramid- shows the loss of energy at each
    level of the food chain

14
Food Chains
15
Food Webs
16
Energy Pyramid
17
Habitat and Niche
  • Habitat- the environment where an organism lives
  • Ex rain forest, desert, savanna
  • Niche- (sounds like itch) an organisms way of
    life within an ecosystem
  • Includes an organisms habitat, food, and the
    temperature, light, and moisture it needs

18
Environment Chapter 1 Interactions of Living
Things
  • Section 3 Types of Interactions

19
Limiting Factors
  • When a population becomes too large for the
    amount of a given resource, it will become a
    limiting factor.
  • Amount of food
  • Amount of living space
  • Amount of water

20
Carrying Capacity
  • The largest population that a given environment
    can support over a long period of time.
  • When a population gets larger than the carrying
    capacity, a limiting factor causes the population
    to get smaller.

21
Competition
  • When two or more individuals or populations try
    to use the same limited resource.
  • Compete over...
  • Food
  • Water
  • Shelter
  • Sunlight

22
Predator and Prey
  • Predator- the organism that eats the prey
  • Prey- organism eaten by the predator
  • Prey must adapt to avoid predators
  • Run fast
  • Poisonous
  • Camouflage Warning Coloration
  • Stay in groups (safety in numbers)

23
Symbiosis
  • A close long-term association between two or more
    species.
  • Individuals within a symbiotic relationship may
  • benefit (mutualism)
  • be unaffected (commensalism)
  • be harmed (parasitism)

24
Mutualism
  • Both organisms benefit
  • Ex Bacteria in our intestine.
  • Ex Coral and algae

25
Commensalism
  • One organism benefits
  • Other organism is unaffected.

26
Parasitism
  • One organism benefits parasite
  • Other organism is harmed host
  • Can cause death of the host!

27
Coevolution
  • A long-term change that takes place in two
    species because of their close relationship with
    one another.
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