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COMN 3112 Final Review Notes Lecture 12

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COMN 3112 Final Review Notes Lecture 12 * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * Please Check the course Home Page Flasher and the Assignments Page for: 1. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: COMN 3112 Final Review Notes Lecture 12


1
COMN 3112 Final Review Notes Lecture 12
2
Please Check the course Home Page Flasher and
the Assignments Page for 1. The date, time
and location and 2. Structure of the final
exam, and 3. Link to download case studies
3
TWO ICONS TO NOTICE
  • MEANS THIS IS A SHORT ANSWER
  • MEANS THAT THIS CONCEPT IS SPECIFICALLY
    REFERRED TO IN AN ESSAY

R
4
IP COMMUNICATION MODEL SYSTEM OF TRANSACTIONS
WITHIN A CONTEXT
5
THE CONTEXT
  • THE ENVIRONMENT IN WHICH THE COMMUNICATION OCCURS
  • INFLUENCES THE CONTENT AND FORM OF COMMUNICATION
  • THE ORGANIZATION YOU ARE IN IS THE CONTEXT
  • HIERARCHY OF AUTHORITY
  • SOCIAL STATUS DIFFERENCES
  • OCCUPATIONAL DIFFERENCES
  • LEGITIMATE POWER C.O.N.T.R.O.L. TALK MOST
    COMMONLY USED TALK
  • AND PARTICULARLY WHEN THE 3DS OCCUR
  • REMEMBER THE 7TH AXIOM - WHEN FACED WITH THE 3DS
    - DIFFERENCES, DISAGREEMENTS OR DISORDER - HUMAN
    BEINGS NEED TO BE OR FEEL RIGHT.

6
COGNITION COMMUNICATION OF MEANING IN
ORGANIZATIONAL SETTINGS
R
  • COGNITION - THE WAY WE THINK, WORDS WE CHOOSE TO
    THINK WITH WE DO THIS AUTOMATICALLY
  • THE INFERENCE LADDER
  • FACTUAL STATEMENTS ABOUT INFORMATION THAT CAN BE
    VERIFIED OR DISPROVED
  • INFERENCES STATEMENTS ABOUT THE UNKNOWN MADE ON
    THE BASIS OF WHAT IS KNOWN
  • JUDGMENTS STATEMENTS OF APPROVAL OF DISAPPROVAL
  • LEADS TO ERRORS IN THINKING
  • ALLNESS
  • INTENSIONAL ORIENTATION
  • STATIC EVALUATION
  • INDISCRIMINATION
  • POLARIZATION
  • AND THE UNCALCULATED RISK WHEN WE TALK
  • WE SPEAK WITHOUT KNOWING WHERE WE ARE ON THE
    INFERENCE LADDER
  • WE SPEAK IN NEGATIVE, ABSTRACT ALLNESS
    STATEMENTS.

7
COGNITION AND EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE
R
  • IF WE ARE NOT
  • AWARE OR ACCEPTING OF OUR FEELINGS OR WE LACK
    SKILLS IN EXPRESSING THEM, WE COMMUNICATE THEM
    INDIRECTLY, THROUGH
  • LABELS, COMMANDS, NAME CALLING, ACCUSATION
  • ON THE OTHERE HAND, IF WE ARE EMOTIONALLY
    INTELLIGENT
  • EMOTIONAL SELF-AWARENESS
  • EMPATHY AWARENESS OF OTHERS EMOTIONS
  • EMOTIONAL SELF-REGULATION
  • INNER TALK ABOUT OUR OWN EMOTIONS
  • AND MOST IMPORTANTLY, LEARNING STEPS TO
    SELF-SOOTHING
  • WE CAN USE SELF-MANAGED TALK
  • STAY DOWN YOUR INFERENCE LADDER
  • SPEAK CALMLY USING GOOD INFORMATION

8
WE CAN ENACT THE HUMANISTIC MODEL OF
INTERPERSONAL EFFECTIVENESS
R
  • Five General, Ideal Qualities
  • 1. Openness
  • 2. Empathy
  • 3. Supportiveness
  • 3a. Descriptive Vs. Judgment
  • 3b. Provisionalism Vs. Certainty
  • 4. Positiveness
  • 5. Equality

9
STYLE ELEMENTS OF STYLE OF C.O.N.T.R.O.L.
TALK ELEMENTS OF
D.I.A.L.O.G.U.E.
TALK
R
  • C. Critical Judgment
  • I Talk From Critical Judgment of You or Complain
    about your action
  • O. Offer Them New Information
  • You-Messages Tell Them Their Story
  • Ask Questions To Probe For Agreement And/Or
    Understanding Of My Story
  • Listen For Leverage - For Agreement With Me Or
    Weakness In Their Story
  • N. Negotiate A Change In Them
  • No/Low Acknowledgement Of Their Story
  • No/Low Support For Them
  • T. Try Again (Repeat Yourself) Or
  • Terminate Talk Or
  • Take It Personally and(Move To Heavy
    C.O.N.T.R.O.L
  • R. Righteous Anger/Indignation
  • Strong Emotions Drive Speech
  • O. Overt Aggressive or Passive/Aggressive Talk
  • You-Messages Attack Person Not Problem
  • Disguised Emotional Talk
  • Creates Defensiveness
  • Most Often Used As Put Downs Or Attacks,
    Ridiculing Humor
  • Description - communicate valid info
  • I-messages - own your story
  • Asking questions - 4W2H
  • Listening actively -show empathy
  • Open acknowledgement - 4 kinds
  • Genuine support - affirm, feedback
  • Understand First suspend judgment
  • Emotional Self-Management -hot to cool

10
NEO-HUMANIST APPROACH
R
  • MASLOW'S HIERARCHY OF NEEDS

SELF-ACTUALIZING
EGO
SOCIAL
SECURITY
PHYSIOLOGICAL
11
McGregors THEORY X ---- THEORY Y (Text, p.
172) ASSUMPTIONS
  • Dislike work, avoid it
  • Dont want responsibility
  • Prefer to be directed
  • Unconcerned about organizational needs
  • Resist change
  • Not intelligent or creative
  • Managers must control, reward and punish
    employees
  • Work - natural and enjoyable
  • Seek responsibility, prefer self-direction
  • Willing to work for organizational goals
  • Potential to develop change
  • Intelligence and creativity of workers untapped
  • Work can allow workers to achieve

12
LIKERTS FOUR SYSTEMS OF MANAGEMENT (Text
p. 174-5)
R
  • FOUR SYSTEMS OF MANAGEMENT
  • 1. EXPLOITIVE-AUTHORITATIVE
  • 2. BENEVOLENT-AUTHORITATIVE
  • 3. CONSULTATIVE
  • 4. PARTICIPATIVE
  • TRUST BETWEEN EMPLOYEES AND MGT.
  • WIDELY DELEGATED DECISION-MAKING

13
CONTINUUM OF LEADERSHIP BEHAVIOUR (Text p. 221)
DEMOCRATIC LEADERSHIP
AUTHORITARIAN LEADERSHIP
Use of authority by leader
Area of freedom for members
Leaders gives group free reign with limits
Leader makes decision and announces
Leader presents tentative
14
TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERS (Changing the Culture of
the Organization) (Additional Readings March 20)
R
  • ENCOURAGE FOLLOWERS
  • TO EXPAND THEIR NEEDS AND WANTS
  • TO SEE LARGER VALUE IN THEIR WORK
  • TO SEE IT AS MORE MEANINGFUL THAN JUST
    SELF-INTEREST
  • TO SHARE A LARGER VISION OF ORGANIZATION
  • ORGANIZATION IS ABOUT MORE THAN JUST MAKING MONEY
  • GIVE PEOPLE A BETTER LIFE MAKE PEOPLE HAPPY
  • TO DEVELOP COMMITMENT TO LARGER GOALS
  • TO RAISE THEIR CONSCIOUSNESS OF THE WORK AND THE
    ORGANIZATION
  • TO THINK LIKE MANAGERS, ACTUALLY
  • TO SEE THEMSELVES AS EMPOWERED
  • ABLE TO TAKE MORE INITIATIVE, DO THE JOB AS THEY
    SEE FIT
  • VITAL TO ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE

15
High Performing Teams (Text, pp. 127-130)
R
  • Six distinguishing characteristics
  • Team shapes purpose in response to a demand or an
    opportunity placed in its path, usually by higher
    management.
  • Team translates common purpose into specific,
    measurable performance goals.
  • Team is of manageable size
  • Team develops the right mix of expertise.
  • Team develops a common commitment to working
    relationships.
  • Who is best suited for a particular task
  • How individual roles come together
  • Team holds itself collectively accountable

16
ORG. CULTURE SCHEINS DEFINITION (Text pp.
25-27)
R
  • IT IS THE SUM TOTAL OF THE ORGS WAYS OF
    THINKING, FEELING AND ACTING
  • TAKEN-FOR-GRANTED ASSUMPTIONS ABOUT ITSELF AND
    THE ENVIRONMENT
  • BELIEFS, VALUES, NORMS AND STYLE OF ROLE
    ENACTMENT
  • AFFECTS HIRING, RECOGNITION AND REWARD SYSTEMS
  • INCLUDES PHYSICAL MANIFESTATIONS,CLOTHING,
    POLICIES, TECHNIQUES, OFFICE SET-UP
  • EXAMPLES OF THIS FROM KENNEDY AND DEALS ANALYSIS
    OF 4 TYPES CORP. CULTURES
  • TOUGH GUY MACHO
  • Individualistic, take big risk, quick feedback,
    stress high, competitive
  • WORK HARD PLAY HARD
  • Hi volume of low-risk activities, teamwork,
    meetings, high volume
  • BET YOUR COMPANY
  • Employees make high risk decisions feedback
    slow, individual immaturity and risk taking not
    tolerated
  • THE PROCESS CULTURE
  • Focus is on how things are done, rule following,
    bureaucratic, slow feedback on results, titles,
    formalities are important

17
R
OBSTACLES TO ETHICAL ACTION IN
INDIVIDUALS (Additional Readings Mar. 13)
  • FEAR OF UPSETTING HARMONY
  • Its just the way things are done around here
  • THREAT TO SELF IMAGE OF POWER AND EFFECTIVENESS
  • These soft skills get in the way of the real
    work
  • MORAL REASONING IS COMPLEX
  • Most executive are into action - just get it
    done.

18
R
OBSTACLES TO ETHICAL ACTION IN
ORGANIZATIONS (Additional Readings Mar. 13)
  • NEGLECT OF ABUSES
  • Just ignore the bad stuff when it happens
  • LESS AUTHORITY FOR MORAL STANDARDS
  • Just get the numbers, meet your goal
  • ORGANIZATION STRUCTURE
  • I was only following orders.

19
KOHLBERGS STAGES OF MORAL GROWTH (Text pp.
150-152)
R
  • Level One - Stages One and Two
  • Child can respond to rules and social
    expectations in terms of good - bad
  • Rules enforced for outside
  • Followed in terms of pain and pleasure resulting
    from actions
  • Self-interest is childs concern
  • Punishment and Obedience
  • Little awareness of others needs and desires
  • Naively Egoistic and Instrumental
  • Recognizes others needs defers to get what
    he/she wants
  • Right is a fair exchange satisfying individual

20
KOHLBERGS STAGES OF MORAL GROWTH
R
  • Level Two - Stages Three and Four
  • Responsiveness to ones family, peers, nation is
    right thing, being a good employee
  • Regardless of consequences loyalty is highest
    value
  • Go along to get along
  • Interpersonal Concordance
  • Good boy-Good Girl principle
  • Good behavior is doing whats expected - feeling
    loyalty, affection, trust
  • Law and Order Orientation
  • Doing ones duty, obey authority maintain social
    order
  • Fulfilling contracts obligations and following
    rules defined as good for society
  • Recognizes differences between individual and
    society - society first (or company first)

21
KOHLBERGS STAGES OF MORAL GROWTH
R
  • Stage 5 Social Contract
  • Realizes others hold a variety of conflicting
    views
  • Use fair ways to reach agreement - consensus,
    contract, due process - not sheer power
  • Social views and values are relative
  • Agreement is vital but certain higher values
    must always be upheld
  • Stage 6 Universal Ethical Principles
  • Right action means following self-chosen
    principles comprehensive, universal, consistent
  • Not codes of specific behaviors (like 10
    Commandments) but universal moral principles -
    justice, equality of human rights, respect for
    human dignity
  • Uses these principles to evaluate all other
    rules

22
ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE
  • PLANNED CHANGE
  • Involves total system
  • MANAGED FROM THE TOP
  • DESIGNED TO INCREASE ORGANIZATIONAL EFFECTIVENESS
  • Human Process Improvement Better Communication
    and Decision-making
  • Production Process Improvement Higher quality,
    lower costs
  • LONG-TERM EFFORT
  • Action-oriented
  • Involves experienced-based learning
  • WORKS PRIMARILY WITH GROUPS (TEAMS) BUT SUPPORTS
    INDIVIDUALS

23
LEWINS THREE PHASES OF CHANGE INDIVIDUAL
LEVEL (Text, pp. 136-144)
R
  • UNFREEZING AROUSE MOTIVATION TO CHANGE
  • Lack of confirmation or disconfirmation
  • Reduction of threat/removal of barrier to change
  • CHANGING DEVELOPING NEW ATTITUDES, BEHAVIORS
    BASED ON NEW INFORMATION
  • Identification info from single source
  • Scanning info from multiple sources
  • REFREEZING STABILIZE/INTEGRATE CHANGES
  • Integrate new responses into personality
  • Integrate new responses into relationships
  • Related Reading 1

24
REASONS FOR INDIVIDUAL RESISTANCE TO CHANGE
R
  • NO FELT NEED FOR CHANGE
  • NOT AWARE OF BIGGER PICTURE
  • FEAR OF THE UNKNOWN
  • LOSS OF COMPETENCE
  • RUMORS AND FANTASIES FILL THE UNKNOWN
  • FEAR OF CHANGED RELATIONSHIPS
  • LOSS OF CONNECTION
  • THREATS TO STATUS AND INFLUENCE
  • LOSS OF CONTROL
  • ORGANIZATION STRUCTURE
  • MORE CLASSIC BUREAUCRACY
  • LACK OF RESOURCES
  • NO TIME, MONEY, APPROVALS

25
SIX SPECIFIC STRATEGIES DEALING WITH RESISTANCE
TO CHANGE
R
  • EDUCATION AND COMMUNICATION
  • WHEN THERE IS LACK OF INFO FOR CHANGEES
  • PARTICIPATION AND INVOLVEMENT
  • CHANGERS DONT HAVE ALL INFO AND CHANGEES CAN
    RESIST
  • FACILITATION AND SUPPORT
  • CHANGEES ARE UNABLE TO ADJUST
  • NEGOTIATION AND AGREEMENT
  • WHERE ONE GROUP WILL LOSE AND HAS POWER TO RESIST
  • MANIPULATION AND CO-OPTATION
  • WHERE OTHER TACTICS FAIL OR COST TOO MUCH
  • EXPLICIT AND IMPLICIT COERCION
  • SPEED IS ESSENTIAL AND CHANGERS HAVE POWER
  • Related Reading 1

26
GREINERS 6 PHASES IN ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE
R
  • PRESSURE AND AROUSAL
  • EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT
  • REORIENTATION AND INTERVENTION AT STRATEGIC APEX
    (SENIOR MANAGEMENT LEVEL)
  • SUSPEND USUAL DEFINITIONS OF PROBLEMS
  • DIAGNOSIS AND RECOGNITION
  • INFO GATHERING, OPEN COMUNICATION THROUGHOUT
    HIERARCHY, COMMON SENSE OF PROBLEMS IS DEVELOPED
  • INVENTION AND COMMITMENT
  • WIDE SEARCH FOR CREATIVE SOLUTIONS
  • EXPERIMENTATION AND SEARCH
  • TENTATIVE CHANGES, WATCHING THE BOSS, RESULTS
    FROM PILOTS
  • REINFORCEMENT AND ACCEPTANCE
  • REWARD/RECOGITION - COLLABORATION CONTINUES
  • Related Reading 1

27
GREINERS 6 PHASES IN ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE AND
LEWINS CHANGE MODEL
R
28
SOURCES OF CONFLICT
  • Conflict occurs when one person or group thinks
    the actions of another will prevent them from
    getting what they want.
  • Win-lose situations often built in
  • Differing subunit goals and perceptions
  • Political nature of organizations (status and
    authority issues)
  • Cultural diversity within organization

29
EFFECTS OF CONFLICT BETWEEN GROUPS
  • Each groups perception of the other becomes
    negative
  • Perceptual distortions occur
  • Hostility increases and communication decreases

30
MANAGING CONFLICT AT THE ORGANIZATIONAL
LEVEL (Text, pp. 131-135)
R
  • INCREASING INTERGROUP CONTACTS
  • BRING PARTIES TOGETHER WHEN MEETINGS ARE FOR
    SHARED PROBLEM-SOLVING, JOINT SOLUTION
    DEVELOPMENT
  • DEVELOPING A SUPERORDINATE GOAL
  • SOMETHING THATS BIGGER THAN BOTH - DESIRED BY
    BOTH - REQUIRES JOINT EFFORT TO ACHIEVE -
    SOMETIMES A COMMON ENEMY OUTSIDE OF BOTH
  • RESTRUCTURING
  • IF CAUSE OF CONFLICT IS STRUCTURAL - ORG.
    RE-DESIGN - SEPARATING THEM OR COMBINING CAN WORK

31
Increasing Intergroup Contact Conflict
Resolution Meetings
R
  • Principled Negotiation
  • Third Party Intervenor Facilitator, Negotiator
  • Models D.I.A.L.OG.U.E. to reduce conflict
  • Separates people from the problem
  • Monitors for signs of destructive conflict
    (C.O.N.T.R.O.L. talk)
  • Intervenes to remind everyone of their
    super-ordinate goal
  • Helps identify common goals and interests
  • To get people off their defensive positions
  • Gets people to invent options for mutual gain
  • Bigger Pie - so all parties can win something
  • Insists on objective criteria
  • Who will do what, when and how will this be
    measured

32
PLEASE GO TO THE ASSIGNMENTS PAGE FOR THE LINK TO
THE CASE STUDIES
  • On the way there please fill out my very short
    questionnaire
  • Download cases
  • Look at them and then look at this lecture again.
  • And if you can go to ratemyprofessor.Com

33
AND GOOD LUCK!
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