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AP World History Review

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Title: AP World History Review


1
AP World History Review
  • 1914-Present
  • Myers

2
  • Which of the following was NOT a weakness
    associated with the Ottoman Empire in the
    eighteenth century?
  • A) Weak rulers
  • B) Competition within factions of the elite
  • C) Conversion of much of the population to
    Christianity
  • D) Deteriorating conditions for artisans as a
    result of competition with the West
  • E) Weak and obsolete military force

3
And the answer is
  • C) Conversion of much of the population to
    Christianity

4
  • Which of the following statements concerning the
    Muslim economy at the beginning of the eighteenth
    century is most accurate?
  • A) The Muslim economy remained dependent on Arab
    merchants who traded predominantly with Africa.
  • B) By holding the Europeans at bay, the Muslims
    were able to capitalize an indigenous industry
    based on the production of cotton textiles.
  • C) The prosperity of the industrial base of the
    Muslim empires led to a close alliance between
    the artisans and the government.
  • D) Merchants within the empire, especially those
    who were Jews or Christians, grew more dependent
    on commercial dealings with European
    counterparts, accelerating the influx of Western
    goods.
  • E) The discovery of new resources caused a
    resurgence of Ottoman economic power.

5
And the answer is
  • D) Merchants within the empire, especially those
    who were Jews or Christians, grew more dependent
    on commercial dealings with European
    counterparts, accelerating the influx of Western
    goods.

6
  • ) Which of the following European powers seized
    territories of the Ottoman Empire in the early
    decades of the eighteenth century?
  • A) Austria-Hungary
  • B) Britain
  • C) France
  • D) Italy
  • E) Russia

7
And the answer is
  • A) Austria-Hungary

8
  • In the later 1700s what power became the main
    threat to the Ottomans survival?
  • A) Britain
  • B) Austria-Hungary
  • C) France
  • D) Russia
  • E) Germany

9
And the answer is
  • D) Russia

10
  • The first region to successfully rebel and
    achieve independence from the Ottoman Empire was
  • A) the Crimea.
  • B) Greece.
  • C) Serbia.
  • D) Palestine.
  • E) Turkey.

11
And the answer is
  • B) Greece.

12
  • By the 1870s, the Ottoman Empire
  • A) had recovered most of their territorial losses
    to European powers.
  • B) had ceased to rule any portion of Asia Minor.
  • C) had been driven from virtually all of the
    Balkans.
  • D) had driven the Russian armies back to the
    steppes.
  • E) was the largest multiethnic empire in Eurasia.

13
And the answer is
  • C) had been driven from virtually all of the
    Balkans.

14
  • What European nation supported the Ottoman Empire
    in order to prevent other European powers from
    gaining access to the Mediterranean?
  • A) Britain
  • B) France
  • C) Russia
  • D) Austria-Hungary
  • E) Belgium

15
And the answer is
  • A) Britain

16
  • What was the result of the reforms of Sultan
    Selim III (1789 1807)?
  • A) Western-style education was introduced
    throughout the empire.
  • B) The Janissary corps was eliminated as a
    political and military force.
  • C) The Sultan was toppled from the throne by a
    Janissary revolt.
  • D) Railways were constructed connecting the
    empire with Europe.
  • E) The empire was taken over by Muhammad Ali.

17
And the answer is
  • C) The Sultan was toppled from the throne by a
    Janissary revolt.

18
  • What Ottoman Sultan successfully eliminated the
    Janissary corps as a military and political
    influence?
  • A) Selim III
  • B) Mahmud II
  • C) Abdul Hamid
  • D) Selim II
  • E) Ali

19
And the answer is
  • B) Mahmud II

20
  • Which of the following statements concerning the
    reforms of Mahmud II is most accurate?
  • A) Mahmud patterned his reform program on Western
    precedents, including the creation of a
    diplomatic corps.
  • B) Despite subtle military and administrative
    reforms, Mahmud was unable to shake off the
    influence of the Janissaries.
  • C) Mahmud, with the consent of the ulama and the
    ayan returned to a traditional Islamic form of
    government.
  • D) Mahmuds program of reform was actually less
    ambitious than that of his predecessor, Selim
    III.
  • E) The reforms were a blend of Islamic and East
    Asian economic influences.

21
And the answer is
  • A) Mahmud patterned his reform program on Western
    precedents, including the creation of a
    diplomatic corps

22
  • Which of the following was NOT part of the
    Tanzimat reforms in the Ottoman Empire?
  • A) Introduction of Western-style education in the
    universities
  • B) Addition of state-run postal and telegraph
    systems
  • C) Creation of a constitution based on European
    prototypes
  • D) Elimination of religious protection for
    minority religious groups
  • E) Extensive legal reforms

23
And the answer is
  • D) Elimination of religious protection for
    minority religious groups

24
  • ) In what year was the revised constitution
    introduced as part of the Tanzimat reforms?
  • A) 1839
  • B) 1848
  • C) 1876
  • D) 1898
  • E) 1904

25
And the answer is
  • C) 1876

26
  • What group within the Ottoman Empire actually
    suffered as a result of the Tanzimat reforms?
  • A) ayan
  • B) ulama
  • C) artisans
  • D) merchants
  • E) sufis

27
And the answer is
  • C) artisans

28
  • Which of the following statements concerning the
    improvement of womens status as a result of the
    Tanzimat reforms is most accurate?
  • A) The inclusion of reforms for women was not
    even considered in Ottoman society during the
    period of the Tanzimat reforms.
  • B) Despite widespread discussion of the practices
    of seclusion, polygamy, and veiling, few
    improvements in womens social status were won in
    the nineteenth century.
  • C) While not all women benefited, elite women
    were freed from the restrictive aspects of Muslim
    society during the period of the Tanzimat
    reforms.
  • D) Muslim restrictions against the social
    equality of women were swept away as part of the
    Tanzimat reforms.
  • E) Women in the Ottoman Empire became as free as
    those in Western Europe.

29
And the answer is
  • B) Despite widespread discussion of the practices
    of seclusion, polygamy, and veiling, few
    improvements in womens social status were won in
    the nineteenth century.

30
  • What Ottoman Sultan attempted to roll back the
    Tanzimat reforms and reinstitute an absolute
    monarchy in 1878?
  • A) Selim III
  • B) Mahmud II
  • C) Yazid II
  • D) Abdul Hamid
  • E) Muhammad Ali

31
And the answer is
  • D) Abdul Hamid

32
  • In which of the following areas did Sultan Abdul
    Hamid continue to press for increased
    Westernization?
  • A) Freedom of the press
  • B) Constitutional reform
  • C) Military reform and the introduction of
    Western technology
  • D) Civil liberties
  • E) Religious reform

33
And the answer is
  • C) Military reform and the introduction of
    Western technology

34
  • Which of the following groups was responsible for
    the overthrow of the Ottoman Sultanate in 1908?
  • A) Black September
  • B) Young Turks
  • C) Young Arabs
  • D) Mamluks
  • E) Black Hand

35
And the answer is
  • B) Young Turks

36
  • Which of the following reforms resulted from the
    coup in the Ottoman Empire of 1908?
  • A) Sultanate was abolished
  • B) Constitution of 1876 was restored
  • C) Janissaries removed as a political and
    military force
  • D) Restrictions against women in Muslim society
    removed .
  • E) Removal of the political influence of the
    officer corps

37
And the answer is
  • B) Constitution of 1876 was restored

38
  • With what European power did the Ottomans contest
    the control of Libya just prior to World War I?
  • A) Britain
  • E) Russia
  • B) Germany
  • C) Austria-Hungary
  • D) Italy

39
And the answer is
  • D) Italy

40
  • Which of the following statements concerning the
    relationships between the Young Turks and the
    Arabs of the Ottoman Empire after the 1908 coup
    is most accurate?
  • A) The Young Turks harbored resentment against
    the Arabs of the empire for failing to support
    the 1908 coup.
  • B) Arab support of the 1908 coup waned when they
    discovered that the Young Turks had no intentions
    of abandoning the concept of empire.
  • C) The 1908 coup resulted in the immediate
    independence of the Arab portions of the Ottoman
    empire.
  • D) The close alliance between the Young Turks and
    the Arab leaders of the Ottoman empire continued
    after the 1908 coup.
  • E) The Young Turks supported the idea of autonomy
    for the Arab portion of the empire.

41
And the answer is
  • B) Arab support of the 1908 coup waned when they
    discovered that the Young Turks had no intentions
    of abandoning the concept of empire.

42
  • What nations invasion of Egypt in 1798 signaled
    the beginning of European penetration of the
    Islamic heartland?
  • A) France
  • B) Britain
  • C) Russia
  • D) Austria-Hungary
  • E) Prussia

43
And the answer is
  • A) France

44
  • What Islamic group ruled Egypt in 1798?
  • A) Fatimids
  • B) Umayyads
  • C) Mamluks
  • D) Almoravids
  • E) Shiites

45
And the answer is
  • C) Mamluks

46
  • By 1801 what ruler had succeeded in establishing
    his dominance over Egypt?
  • A) Murad, commander of the Mamluks
  • B) Napoleon, French emperor
  • C) Muhammad Ali, an Albanian officer in the
    Ottoman army
  • D) Nurhaci, Almoravid military commander
  • E) Sultan Ahmet, Egyptian nationalist

47
And the answer is
  • C) Muhammad Ali, an Albanian officer in the
    Ottoman army

48
  • Which of the following reforms was NOT introduced
    in Egypt after 1801?
  • A) Restoration of the Mamluk armies
  • B) Introduction of Western-style military
    conscription
  • C) Hiring of French military advisors
  • D) Importation of Western arms
  • E) Separation of church and state

49
And the answer is
  • A) Restoration of the Mamluk armies

50
  • What prevented Muhammad Ali from overthrowing the
    Ottoman Empire?
  • A) His failure to develop a modern army
  • B) Lack of a navy
  • C) His defeat by the Ottomans at Omdurman
  • D) Opposition of European powers
  • E) Completion of the Suez Canal

51
And the answer is
  • D) Opposition of European powers

52
  • Which of the following reforms undertaken by
    Muhammad Ali failed?
  • A) Production of raw materials in demand in
    Europe (cotton, hemp, indigo)
  • B) Improvements of Egyptian harbors and
    irrigation works along the Nile
  • C) Build-up of an Egyptian industrial sector
  • D) Modernization of the army
  • E) Education reform

53
And the answer is
  • C) Build-up of an Egyptian industrial sector

54
  • With which of the following groups did Muhammad
    All ally himself?
  • A) Peasantry
  • B) Ulama
  • C) Ayan
  • D) Sufi
  • E) Mamluks

55
And the answer is
  • C) Ayan

56
  • Muhammad Alis successors as rulers of Egypt were
    referred to as
  • A) Sultans.
  • B) Khedives.
  • C) Caliphs.
  • D) Kings.
  • E) Emperors.

57
And the answer is
  • B) Khedives.

58
  • European financiers lent money to the profligate
    successors of Muhammad Ali because they desired
    access to Egypts cheap cotton and, by the 1850s,
    a share in the
  • A) Orient Express.
  • B) Cairo Railway.
  • C) Suez Canal.
  • D) Panama Canal.
  • E) Silk Road.

59
And the answer is
  • C) Suez Canal.

60
  • Which of the following was an Islamic moderate in
    nineteenth century Egypt who urged the adoption
    of Western scientific knowledge and technology?
  • A) al-Afghani
  • B) Ibn Sina
  • C) Ibn Rochd
  • D) al-Mansur
  • E) Ismail Pasha

61
And the answer is
  • A) al-Afghani

62
  • The Khedival government of Egypt was threatened
    in 1882 by a rebellion of Egyptian military
    officers under
  • A) Muhammad Ali.
  • B) Ahmad Orabi
  • C) Muhammad Achmad.
  • D) Khalifa Abdallahi.
  • E) Muhammed Abduh.

63
And the answer is
  • B) Ahmad Orabi

64
  • What was the result of the rebellion by Egyptian
    army officers in 1882?
  • A) The Khedival government was overthrown by an
    indigenous Egyptian government.
  • B) A new constitution was instituted modeled on
    the Ottoman constitution of 1876.
  • C) The rebellion was crushed by the Turkish
    elements within the Egyptian army.
  • D) The Khedive called on the British to crush the
    rebellion resulting in British overlordship of
    Egypt.
  • E) British influence in Egypt was ended.

65
And the answer is
  • D) The Khedive called on the British to crush the
    rebellion resulting in British overlordship of
    Egypt.

66
  • What was the center of Egyptian administration in
    the Sudan?
  • A) Omdurman
  • B) Cairo
  • C) Aboukir
  • D) Khartoum
  • E) Fashoda.

67
And the answer is
  • D) Khartoum

68
  • On what basis did Muhammad Achmad claim
    leadership of the Sudanic resistance to Egyptian
    rule?
  • A) He claimed direct descent from Muhammad.
  • B) He claimed to be a direct descendant of the
    kings of Ghana.
  • C) He was the head of the Sunni ulama in the
    Sudan.
  • D) He claimed to be a direct descendant of Murad,
    the last ruler of the Mamluks.
  • E) He had substantial Western support.

69
And the answer is
  • A) He claimed direct descent from Muhammad.

70
  • The successor to the Mahdi, Khalifa Abdallahi,
  • A) relieved the restrictive social regulations
    imposed by the Mahdi.
  • B) immediately lost the military advantage gained
    by the Mahdi.
  • C) fell in the Mahdist defeat at the battle of
    Omdurman in 1898.
  • D) overthrew the Ottoman Sultan and captured
    Istanbul.
  • E) ended slavery in the Sudan.

71
And the answer is
  • C) fell in the Mahdist defeat at the battle of
    Omdurman in 1898.

72
  • Who was responsible for the unification of the
    Manchu tribesmen prior to the invasion of China
    in the seventeenth century?
  • A) Lin Zexu
  • B) Nurhaci
  • C) Cixi
  • D) Hong Liaquan
  • E) Kang Xi

73
And the answer is
  • B) Nurhaci

74
  • The dynastic name taken by the Manchu dynasty
    was
  • A) Song.
  • B) Tang.
  • C) Qing.
  • D) Chou.
  • E) Sui.

75
And the answer is
  • C) Qing.

76
  • Which of the following statements concerning the
    Manchu government is most accurate?
  • A) They destroyed the scholar-gentry in order to
    consolidate their grip on the government.
  • B) The civil service examination system was
    eliminated as a means of entering the government.
  • C) Though Manchus occupied a disproportionate
    number of the highest political positions, there
    were few limits on Chinese promotions within the
    imperial bureaucracy.
  • D) Chinese officials were eliminated at the local
    administrative levels in order to prevent the
    extreme regionalization that had led to the
    downfall of previous dynasties.
  • E) They welcomed modernization and Western
    influence.

77
And the answer is
  • C) Though Manchus occupied a disproportionate
    number of the highest political positions, there
    were few limits on Chinese promotions within the
    imperial bureaucracy.

78
  • In what area did the Manchus attempt to take
    strong measures of reform?
  • A) Elimination of the scholar-gentry
  • B) Removal of social restrictions on women
  • C) Overturning the Confucian social hierarchy of
    age and sex
  • D) Alleviating rural distress and unrest
  • E) Eliminating the influence of religion

79
And the answer is
  • D) Alleviating rural distress and unrest

80
  • What accounts for the general failure of Manchu
    attempts at reform?
  • A) Resistance on the part of the peasantry
  • B) Enormous population growth and the
    disappearance of open lands
  • C) Buddhist resistance
  • D) Loss of territory to nomads from the Asian
    steppes
  • E) Strong resistance from the scholar-gentry

81
And the answer is
  • B) Enormous population growth and the
    disappearance of open lands

82
  • The new groups of merchants that developed in
    China under the more relaxed commercial system of
    the Manchus were called
  • A) waiqin.
  • B) pescadors.
  • C) compradors.
  • D) Boxers.
  • E) Mandarins

83
And the answer is
  • C) compradors.

84
  • All of the following signs of dynastic decline
    were apparent in the Qing regime by the beginning
    of the nineteenth century EXCEPT
  • A) corruption of the examination system.
  • B) diversion of revenue from state projects to
    private fortunes.
  • C) failure of foreign commerce.
  • D) food shortages, mass migrations, and banditry.
  • E) explosive growth of the bureaucracy.

85
And the answer is
  • C) failure of foreign commerce.

86
  • ) How large was the Chinese population by 1850?
  • A) 100 million
  • B) 200 million
  • C) 410 to 415 million
  • D) 500 million
  • E) 1 billion

87
And the answer is
  • C) 410 to 415 million

88
  • Unhappy about the unfavorable terms of trade in
    China, British merchants hit on a possible
    solution to reverse the flow of bullion in the
    form of
  • A) cotton textiles.
  • B) opium from India.
  • C) teas.
  • D) industrial machinery.
  • E) gold and salt.

89
And the answer is
  • B) opium from India.

90
  • What was the impact of the British opium trade on
    China?
  • A) Its use was restricted to the peasantry of
    northern China, where production of food rapidly
    decreased.
  • B) The government was quickly able to halt the
    importation of opium, so that it did not have the
    disastrous impact on the Chinese population that
    was expected.
  • C) Within years Chinas favorable balance of
    trade was reversed and silver began to flow out
    of the country.
  • D) Due to the addiction of the imperial court,
    the British were welcomed as a valuable trade
    partner of China.
  • E) The opium trade had little economic effect on
    China.

91
And the answer is
  • C) Within years Chinas favorable balance of
    trade was reversed and silver began to flow out
    of the country.

92
  • The Chinese official charged with eliminating the
    opium trade in the 1830s was
  • A) Cixi.
  • B) Lin Zexu.
  • C) Hong Liuquan.
  • D) Kanxi.
  • E) Zeng Guofan.

93
And the answer is
  • B) Lin Zexu.

94
  • What was the outcome of the Opium War?
  • A) Despite technological advantages, the British
    forces were overwhelmed by the Chinese numerical
    superiority and were unable to penetrate Chinas
    isolation.
  • B) The British soon swept the seas of opposition,
    but were prevented from entering China by
    opposition from other European powers who feared
    Britains overthrow of the Manchus.
  • C) The British victory was so overwhelming that
    the Manchu dynasty was overthrown by 1850 and
    replaced by a republic.
  • D) British victory in the Opium War allowed
    European powers to force China to open trade and
    diplomatic exchanges.
  • E) The Opium Was led directly to the
    Sino-Japanese War.

95
And the answer is
  • D) British victory in the Opium War allowed
    European powers to force China to open trade and
    diplomatic exchanges.

96
  • The semi-Christian rebellion that broke out in
    southern China in the 1850s and early 1860s was
    the
  • A) Boxer rebellion.
  • B) Kwangxi rebellion.
  • C) Taiping rebellion.
  • D) Shandong rebellion.
  • E) Manchu rebellion.

97
And the answer is
  • C) Taiping rebellion.

98
  • What was the political and social position of the
    Manchu rulers at the end of the nineteenth
    century?
  • A) The Manchu rulers stubbornly resisted the far
    reaching reforms that were the only hope of
    saving the regime and Chinese civilization.
  • B) The last decades of the dynasty were dominated
    by Cixi, a woman who proposed radical reforms of
    the social order.
  • C) The Chinese scholar-gentry and the provincial
    elite allied with the emperors to introduce
    significant reform of landholding practices and
    regional administration.
  • D) The dynasty wholeheartedly embraced the
    ongoing westernization of the Chinese government
    and economy.
  • E) Their capital, the Forbidden City, was a
    center of Chinese culture.

99
And the answer is
  • A) The Manchu rulers stubbornly resisted the far
    reaching reforms that were the only hope of
    saving the regime and Chinese civilization.

100
  • In what year was the last emperor of China
    deposed in favor of a republican form of
    government?
  • A) 1895
  • B) 1901
  • C) 1908
  • D) 1912
  • E) 1914

101
And the answer is
  • D) 1912

102
  • Of the following regions, which defied the common
    pattern of growing Western domination in the
    nineteenth century?
  • A) Russia and Japan
  • B) The Ottoman Empire
  • C) Latin America
  • D) West Africa
  • E) Eastern Europe

103
And the answer is
  • A) Russia and Japan

104
  • Which of the following statements concerning the
    development of Russia and Japan to 1900 is NOT
    accurate?
  • A) Neither Russia nor Japan rivaled the
    industrial might of the West by 1900.
  • B) Both nations gained sufficient power to wield
    important political and military influence in the
    colonial scramble.
  • C) Russia and Japan did launch significant
    industrialization by 1914.
  • D) Russia and Japan achieved both economic
    autonomy and a share in the Wests core position.
  • E) Japan outstripped Russias industrial gains by
    1900.

105
And the answer is
  • D) Russia and Japan achieved both economic
    autonomy and a share in the Wests core position.

106
  • Which of the following represents a significant
    difference between Russia and Japan?
  • A) Only Japan had a significant aristocracy prior
    to industrialization.
  • B) Only Russia participated in territorial
    expansion by 1914.
  • C) Russia engaged in selective borrowing from
    Western models by 1700.
  • D) Only Japan underwent significant political
    revolution prior to 1914.
  • E) Only Japan experienced Communist uprisings by
    1905.

107
And the answer is
  • C) Russia engaged in selective borrowing from
    Western models by 1700.

108
  • Which of the following reflects a significant
    similarity between Japan and Russia during the
    period of industrialization prior to 1914?
  • A) Both experienced significant political
    revolutions.
  • B) Both Japan and Russia had prior experience of
    imitation, Japan from China, Russia from
    Byzantium and the West.
  • C) Both demonstrated remarkable political
    flexibility resulting in sweeping transformations
    of political structure.
  • D) Both engaged in territorial acquisitions in
    the Ottoman Empire.
  • E) Both had a large industrial labor force.

109
And the answer is
  • B) Both Japan and Russia had prior experience of
    imitation, Japan from China, Russia from
    Byzantium and the West.

110
  • Russias fear about Westernization in the first
    decades of the nineteenth century was rooted in
  • A) concern about British invasion.
  • B) the French Revolution.
  • C) dislike of Western dress.
  • D) worry over loss of Poland.
  • E) German nationalism.

111
And the answer is
  • B) the French Revolution.

112
  • What nations were linked together in the Holy
    Alliance that grouped conservative monarchies
    together in defense of religion and the status
    quo in 1815?
  • A) Britain, France, Spain
  • B) Spain, Russia, Poland
  • C) Russia, Prussia, Austria
  • D) Austria, Japan, Russia
  • E) France, Britain, Italy

113
And the answer is
  • C) Russia, Prussia, Austria

114
  • What was the name of the Russian revolt inspired
    by Western values in 1825?
  • A) Decembrist ring
  • B) November rebellion
  • C) Pushkins revolt
  • D) Pugachev rebellion
  • E) Potemkin mutiny

115
And the answer is
  • A) Decembrist ring

116
  • Which of the following accounts for Russias lack
    of significant revolution in 1830 and 1848?
  • A) Russias lack of a substantial history of
    autocracy
  • B) Absence of a coercive labor system in Russia
    leaving scant cause for rebellion
  • C) Political repression
  • D) like England, Russias history of
    participatory government and its national
    parliament, forestalling revolution
  • E) Major reforms, satisfying most Russians

117
And the answer is
  • C) Political repression

118
  • Which of the following statements concerning
    Russian territorial expansion is most accurate?
  • A) Russias loss of Poland in the revolt of 1830
    stimulated other attempts at territorial
    expansion.
  • B) Russia actively opposed nationalist movements
    in the Balkans in keeping with their conservative
    tradition.
  • C) Western powers actively aided Russias pursuit
    of territories in the Ottoman Empire.
  • D) No massive acquisitions marked the early
    nineteenth century, but Russia continued to be an
    aggressive competitor for territorial expansion.
  • E) Russia expanded rapidly south of Alaska to
    Oregon.

119
And the answer is
  • D) No massive acquisitions marked the early
    nineteenth century, but Russia continued to be an
    aggressive competitor for territorial expansion.

120
  • Which of the following statements best describes
    the Russian economy at the beginning of the
    nineteenth century?
  • A) Russia had achieved economic autonomy in the
    eighteenth century, although most of eastern
    Europe remained largely agricultural.
  • B) The Russian economy was geographically
    oriented to the Ottoman Empirea feature of the
    Mongol domination of Russia until the fifteenth
    century.
  • C) Russias economic dynamism and innovation
    rivaled the West.
  • D) In return for low-cost grain exports, Russia
    and other East European areas imported Western
    luxury goods for the great aristocrats to display
    as badges of respectability.
  • E) Russian heavy industry accounted for all their
    economic growth.

121
And the answer is
  • D) In return for low-cost grain exports, Russia
    and other East European areas imported Western
    luxury goods for the great aristocrats to display
    as badges of respectability.

122
  • What war in the mid-nineteenth century
    demonstrated Russias widening gap with the West?
  • A) Russo-Japanese War
  • B) Napoleons invasion of Russia
  • C) Crimean War
  • D) Sepoy rebellion
  • E) Russo-Turkish War

123
And the answer is
  • C) Crimean War

124
  • What accounted for the Wests victory over Russia
    in the Crimean War?
  • A) The war was fought far from Russia,
    necessitating lengthy lines of communication and
    supply.
  • B) Russia was forced to fight an offensive war
    against entrenched positions.
  • C) The war was fought almost entirely at sea
    where the Russians were unable to bring their
    numerical superiority to bear.
  • D) The Western nations won not because of
    superior tactics or inspired principles, but
    because of industrial advantages.
  • E) Sardinian assistance to the Russians was
    ineffective.

125
And the answer is
  • D) The Western nations won not because of
    superior tactics or inspired principles, but
    because of industrial advantages.

126
  • What tsar began the process of reform in the
    nineteenth century?
  • A) Alexander I
  • B) Alexander II
  • C) Nicholas I
  • D) Peter the Great
  • E) Nicholas II

127
And the answer is
  • B) Alexander II

128
  • Which of the following was NOT a consideration in
    the reform of serfdom?
  • A) It was the purpose of the tsar to sweep away
    the tightly knit peasant communities on which
    serfdom depended.
  • B) The development of a vigorous and mobile labor
    force.
  • C) A desire to meet Western humanitarian
    standards.
  • D) Periodic peasant uprisings focused on lack of
    freedom, undue obligations, and lack of land.
  • E) The preservation of aristocratic power.

129
And the answer is
  • A) It was the purpose of the tsar to sweep away
    the tightly knit peasant communities on which
    serfdom depended.

130
  • In what year were Russian serfs emancipated?
  • A) 1831
  • B) 1854
  • C) 1861
  • D) 1868
  • E) 1914

131
And the answer is
  • C) 1861

132
  • Which of the following statements concerning the
    emancipation of the serfs in Russia is most
    accurate?
  • A) The emancipation of the serfs destroyed the
    Russian aristocracy.
  • B) Emancipation of the serfs loosened the grip of
    the tsarist state.
  • C) In addition to personal freedom, the serfs
    were granted parcels of land subject to
    redemption payments.
  • D) Following emancipation, peasants were free to
    move about Russia as they pleased leading to
    massive movements of agricultural labor.
  • E) Few serfs were really emancipated.

133
And the answer is
  • C) In addition to personal freedom, the serfs
    were granted parcels of land subject to
    redemption payments.

134
  • All of the following were reforms introduced in
    Russia in the 1860s and 1870s EXCEPT
  • A) the creation of the Duma, a national
    parliament.
  • B) the creation of local political councils, the
    zemstvoes.
  • C) the issuance of new law codes that cut back
    traditional punishments.
  • D) reorganization of the military.
  • E) universal voting rights.

135
And the answer is
  • A) the creation of the Duma, a national
    parliament.

136
  • What was the first step toward industrialization
    in Russia?
  • A) construction of factories
  • B) development of the mining sector
  • C) creation of an extensive system of railways
  • D) end of the grain trade with the West
  • E) mechanization of agriculture

137
And the answer is
  • C) creation of an extensive system of railways

138
  • The Russian minister of finance from 1892 to 1903
    responsible for much economic modernization was
  • A) Stolypin.
  • B) Count Witte.
  • C) Klemenz von Metternich.
  • D) Gregor Mendel.
  • E) General Kuropatkin.

139
And the answer is
  • B) Count Witte.

140
  • Which of the following statements concerning the
    capitalization of Russian industry is most
    accurate?
  • A) Capital for Russian investment was almost
    entirely derived from liquidation of agricultural
    estates in Russia.
  • B) By 1900 approximately half of Russian industry
    was foreign-owned by British, German, and French
    industrialists.
  • C) It was the contact with the Japanese that led
    to an influx of capital for Russian
    industrialization.
  • D) Russian industry was capitalized by a
    substantial middle class that had built up wealth
    in the grain trade with the West.
  • E) United Sates investors were the largest owners
    of machinery in Russia by 1900.

141
And the answer is
  • B) By 1900 approximately half of Russian industry
    was foreign-owned by British, German, and French
    industrialists.

142
  • By 1900, how successful was the Russian
    industrialization program?
  • A) Despite massive programs of forced labor and
    extensive government subsidies, the Russian
    program of industrialization failed.
  • B) Russian industrialization progressed slowly
    and by 1900 had reached tenth in the world in
    terms of steel production.
  • C) By 1900, Russia had surged to fourth rank in
    the world in steel production and was second to
    the United States in the newer area of petroleum
    production.
  • D) Without access to plentiful raw materials,
    Russia was dependent on constant territorial
    acquisitions to fuel its lagging industrial
    program.
  • E) Russia was unable to industrialize any of its
    larger businesses.

143
And the answer is
  • C) By 1900, Russia had surged to fourth rank in
    the world in steel production and was second to
    the United States in the newer area of petroleum
    production.

144
  • Which of the following was present during the
    Russian program of industrialization?
  • A) attitudinal change among workers similar to
    the West
  • B) large middle class
  • C) rich natural resources
  • D) small, but efficient, factories
  • E) highly educated work force

145
And the answer is
  • C) rich natural resources

146
  • All of the following were part of the rising tide
    of unrest in Russia during the second half of the
    nineteenth century EXCEPT
  • A) the Orthodox Church.
  • B) ethnic minorities.
  • C) peasants.
  • D) the intelligentsia.
  • E) the industrial workers.

147
And the answer is
  • A) the Orthodox Church.

148
  • What was the general goal of the Russian
    intelligentsia?
  • A) political freedom, social reform, and
    retention of Russian culture
  • B) political freedom, retention of the social
    hierarchy, and increased Westernization
  • C) restriction of civil liberties, honor and
    deference to the emperor, retention of Russian
    culture
  • D) radical Westernization as part of a program of
    increased industrialization
  • E) globally competitive economy.

149
And the answer is
  • A) political freedom, social reform, and
    retention of Russian culture

150
  • Russian radicals who sought the abolition of all
    formal government were called
  • A) Decembrists.
  • B) Latitudinarians.
  • C) abolitionists.
  • D) anarchists.
  • E) socialists.

151
And the answer is
  • D) anarchists.

152
  • What was the chief political method used by the
    anarchists to achieve reform?
  • A) strikes
  • B) terrorism
  • C) political
  • D) voter registration
  • E) non-violent protest

153
And the answer is
  • B) terrorism

154
  • Which of the following statements about Russian
    Marxism is most accurate?
  • A) Marxist insistence on careful revolutionary
    organization and a focus on the working class was
    rapidly assimilated by anarchists and peasant
    groups.
  • B) Marxist doctrines were not imported from the
    West, but originated among the Russian
    intelligentsia.
  • C) Lenin introduced important innovations in
    Marxist theory, including the idea that a
    proletarian revolution could take place without
    going through a middle-class phase.
  • D) Lenin was dedicated to the mass electioneering
    typical of Western socialist parties.
  • E) Marxist doctrines were most applicable to an
    agrarian economy.

155
And the answer is
  • C) Lenin introduced important innovations in
    Marxist theory, including the idea that a
    proletarian revolution could take place without
    going through a middle-class phase.

156
  • Lenins approach was adopted by the groups of
    Russian Marxists known as
  • A) Mensheviks.
  • B) anarchists.
  • C) Decembrists.
  • D) Bolsheviks.
  • E) Zemstvos.

157
And the answer is
  • D) Bolsheviks.

158
  • Which of the following did NOT contribute to
    working-class radicalism in late nineteenth
    century Russia?
  • A) absence of legal political outlets
  • B) severe conditions of early industrialization
  • C) rural unrest and adoption of peasant
    grievances
  • D) absence of unions
  • E) workplace reforms

159
And the answer is
  • D) absence of unions

160
  • Failure in what war led to the Russian revolution
    of 1905?
  • A) Crimean
  • B) Sino-Japanese
  • C) Russo-Japanese
  • D) World War I
  • E) Russo-Turkish War

161
And the answer is
  • C) Russo-Japanese

162
  • What group did the imperial government appeal to
    in the reforms following the revolution of 1905?
  • A) liberals
  • B) workers organizations
  • C) Marxists
  • D) anarchists
  • E) conservatives

163
And the answer is
  • A) liberals

164
  • What minister was responsible for enacting
    reforms for the peasantry following the
    revolution of 1905?
  • A) Count Witte
  • B) Grigori Rasputin
  • C) Alexi Romanov
  • D) Stolypin
  • E) Prince Gortchakov

165
And the answer is
  • D) Stolypin

166
  • The Duma was
  • A) the confrontation between radial workers and
    the tsarist army in 1905.
  • B) a system of collective farms for peasants
    introduced following 1905.
  • C) a national parliament created in the aftermath
    of the 1905 revolution.
  • D) the imperial council that took over government
    after the abdication of the tsar in 1905.
  • E) the Russian national labor union.

167
And the answer is
  • C) a national parliament created in the aftermath
    of the 1905 revolution.

168
  • Peasants who responded to the reforms of 1905 by
    engaging in entrepreneurial activity including
    increasing production and buying up land were
    called
  • A) Duma.
  • B) kulaks.
  • C) anarchists.
  • D) Bakunin.
  • E) soviets.

169
And the answer is
  • B) kulaks.

170
  • Which of the following Russian developments was
    NOT adopted in other East European states?
  • A) national parliaments
  • B) emancipation of serfs
  • C) economic autonomy from the West
  • D) monarchic forms of government
  • E) nationalism

171
And the answer is
  • C) economic autonomy from the West

172
  • Which of the following was NOT a nineteenth
    century Russian novelist?
  • A) Turgenev
  • B) Pavlov
  • C) Tolstoy
  • D) Dostoevsky
  • E) Gogol

173
And the answer is
  • B) Pavlov

174
  • Which of the following statements concerning the
    Tokugawa Shogunate in the nineteenth century is
    most accurate?
  • A) The Shogunate bureaucracy had been opened to
    talented commonersa reform that improved the
    standing of the government with the masses of the
    Japanese people.
  • B) By the nineteenth century, the Tokugawa were
    able to dispense with the feudal organization of
    earlier Japan.
  • C) Increasingly the Shogunate depended on its
    long-standing alliances with Western powers to
    maintain its dominance.
  • D) The Shogunate continued to combine a central
    bureaucracy with semi-feudal alliances with
    regional daimyos and the samurai.
  • E) The Shogunate managed its finances carefully,
    and never carried a deficit.

175
And the answer is
  • D) The Shogunate continued to combine a central
    bureaucracy with semi-feudal alliances with
    regional daimyos and the samurai.

176
  • Which of the following statements concerning
    Tokugawa intellectual and cultural life is most
    accurate?
  • A) Japanese literature reached its zenith during
    the last decades of the Tokugawa Shogunate.
  • B) Confucianism rapidly lost ground to Buddhism
    as the major religious and ethical basis for
    Japanese society.
  • C) Japan continued to be largely imitative of
    conservative Chinese intellectual currents rather
    than developing dynamic ethical and philosophical
    systems.
  • D) Literacy in Japan reached levels higher than
    anywhere else outside the West.
  • E) The Tokugawa placed little emphasis on
    learning.

177
And the answer is
  • D) Literacy in Japan reached levels higher than
    anywhere else outside the West.

178
  • Which of the following groups in Tokugawa Japan
    advocated interest in Western scientific advance?
  • A) Dutch Studies group
  • B) national studies group
  • C) Confucian scholars
  • D) Buddhist scholars
  • E) Shinto priests

179
And the answer is
  • A) Dutch Studies group

180
  • Who was responsible for the forced opening of
    Japan in 1853?
  • A) Captain James Cook
  • B) Commodore Matthew Perry
  • C) Admiral Horatio Nelson
  • D) Captain William Farragut
  • E) Commodore George Perry

181
And the answer is
  • B) Commodore Matthew Perry

182
  • In what year was a new emperor, Mutsuhito but
    commonly called Meiji or Enlightened One,
    proclaimed, signaling the end of a major
    political crisis?
  • A) 1854
  • B) 1868
  • C) 1875
  • D) 1889
  • E) 1914

183
And the answer is
  • B) 1868

184
  • Which of the following was NOT an advantage of
    Japan over China in the competition to assume
    leadership and to establish industrialization in
    Asia?
  • A) Japans leadership was less secular and
    bureaucratic than that of China.
  • B) Japan already knew the benefits of imitation,
    which China had never acknowledged.
  • C) Japan had allowed a more autonomous merchant
    tradition.
  • D) Feudal traditions limited the heavy hand of
    government controls while stimulating a sense of
    competitiveness.
  • E) Japan was a heterogeneous, diverse society

185
And the answer is
  • A) Japans leadership was less secular and
    bureaucratic than that of China.

186
  • Which of the following statements concerning
    Japanese political reforms in the period of the
    Meiji state is NOT accurate?
  • A) Meiji leaders established a new conservative
    nobility, stocked with former nobles and Meiji
    leaders that operated a British-style House of
    Peers.
  • B) Samurai, destroyed by the removal of
    government stipends, were banned from
    participation in the Meiji Diet.
  • C) The constitution issued in 1889 assured major
    prerogatives for the emperor along with limited
    powers for the lower house of the Diet.
  • D) The bureaucracy was reorganized, insulated
    from political pressures, and opened to talent on
    the basis of civil service examinations.
  • E) The Meiji came to power with very little
    violence.

187
And the answer is
  • B) Samurai, destroyed by the removal of
    government stipends, were banned from
    participation in the Meiji Diet.

188
  • What was the primary difference between the
    reformed Japanese government and reformed Russian
    institutions by 1914?
  • A) Japan retained an emperor at the head of
    government.
  • B) Japan created a national parliament.
  • C) Japans government was elected by a broad
    majority of the population.
  • D) Japans government had incorporated business
    leaders into its governing structure.
  • E) Russian institutions were more secular than
    Japans.

189
And the answer is
  • D) Japans government had incorporated business
    leaders into its governing structure.

190
  • One of the major similarities between Japanese
    and Russian industrialization was the fact that
  • A) both lacked natural resources.
  • B) scarce capital and unfamiliarity of new
    technology compelled state direction.
  • C) neither was able to complete construction of a
    railway system.
  • D) neither had any experience of cultural
    exchange with the West.
  • E) a small group of independent entrepreneurs led
    to movement in each case.

191
And the answer is
  • B) scarce capital and unfamiliarity of new
    technology compelled state direction.

192
  • Huge industrial combines put together in Japan by
    the 1890s were called
  • A) haiku.
  • B) terakoya.
  • C) zaibatsus.
  • D) khitan.
  • E) Samurais.

193
And the answer is
  • C) zaibatsus.

194
  • Which of the following statements concerning
    Japanese industrialization prior to World War I
    is correct?
  • A) Japans workforce was among the highest paid
    in the world.
  • B) Abundant natural resources made Japan
    virtually self-sufficient as an industrialized
    nation.
  • C) By 1914, Japan had reached the level of
    industrialization found in the West.
  • D) Japan needed exports to pay for machine and
    resource imports.
  • E) Japan lagged far behind the West industrially.

195
And the answer is
  • D) Japan needed exports to pay for machine and
    resource imports.

196
  • Which of the following Western cultural
    characteristics was NOT adopted by large numbers
    of Japanese?
  • A) hair styles
  • B) standards of hygiene
  • C) Western calendar
  • D) Christianity
  • E) work styles

197
And the answer is
  • D) Christianity

198
  • Which of the following religions gained new
    adherents in industrialized Japan?
  • A) Shinto
  • B) Confucianism
  • C) Buddhism
  • D) Christianity
  • E) Judaism

199
And the answer is
  • A) Shinto

200
  • Which of the following was NOT a sign of
    significant social stress in industrialized
    Japan?
  • A) disputes between generations over
    Westernization
  • B) increasing freedom and political influence of
    women
  • C) growth of nationalism
  • D) growth of urban slums
  • E) racial unrest

201
And the answer is
  • B) increasing freedom and political influence of
    women

202
  • Which of the following was NOT a feature of
    twentieth-century world history?
  • A) the forming of international organizations
  • B) a changing balance of power
  • C) a lessening of conflict
  • D) massive population growth
  • E) little industrial development.

203
And the answer is
  • C) a lessening of conflict

204
  • What disseminators of American popular culture
    established distribution branches around the
    world in the second decade of the twentieth
    century?
  • A) film companies
  • B) libraries
  • C) theatrical groups
  • D) television networks
  • E) radio networks

205
And the answer is
  • A) film companies

206
  • Which of the following statements most accurately
    expresses the attitude of Western observers just
    before 1914?
  • A) The constant warfare involved in the scramble
    for imperial possessions caused many observers to
    anticipate global conflict.
  • B) Disease and famine were the constant reminders
    of a society that had yet to achieve
    self-sufficiency .
  • C) Frustration with limited civil liberties and
    voting rights gave a jaded Europe a sense of
    impending revolution.
  • D) Western leadership was bringing new
    enlightenment to the inferior peoples of the rest
    of the world.
  • E) Western dominance would soon end.

207
And the answer is
  • D) Western leadership was bringing new
    enlightenment to the inferior peoples of the rest
    of the world.

208
  • Which of the following was NOT an institution
    created during the period of internationalization
    during the later nineteenth century?
  • A) International Statistical Congress
  • B) Red Cross
  • C) League of Nations
  • D) Postal Union
  • E) Concert of Europe

209
And the answer is
  • C) League of Nations

210
  • What was one of the weaknesses of the
    international movement prior to World War I?
  • A) it was heavily based on Western dominance and
    control of empires
  • B) it limited nationalism
  • C) it did not exist outside of Europe
  • D) it was opposed by the United States
  • E) most people did not believe in its goals

211
And the answer is
  • A) it was heavily based on Western dominance and
    control of empires

212
  • The permanent court of arbitration created at the
    Hague in 1899 was called the
  • A) League of Nations.
  • B) United Nations.
  • C) Dutch Parliament.
  • D) World Court.
  • E) German Confederation.

213
And the answer is
  • D) World Court.

214
  • What was the region of Europe that produced most
    diplomatic crises prior to World War I?
  • A) Scandinavia
  • B) the Balkans
  • C) Italy
  • D) Spain
  • E) Sudetenland

215
And the answer is
  • B) the Balkans

216
  • What two European powers were directly involved
    in the Balkan diplomacy?
  • A) Germany and Russia
  • B) Russia and Britain
  • C) Russia and Austria-Hungary
  • D) France and Austria-Hungary
  • E) France and Germany

217
And the answer is
  • C) Russia and Austria-Hungary

218
  • Which of the following was NOT an event leading
    to the outbreak of World War I?
  • A) the assassination of the Austrian Archduke by
    a Serbian nationalist
  • B) Austrias declaration of war on Serbia
  • C) the mobilization of the Russian army
  • D) Frances invasion of Belgium
  • E) Frances support of Russia

219
And the answer is
  • D) Frances invasion of Belgium

220
  • The sea warfare during World War I consisted
    largely of
  • A) major surface battles between the fleets of
    Britain and Germany.
  • B) a single major battle in which the German
    fleet destroyed the Russian navy.
  • C) German submarine warfare.
  • D) the British attempt to destroy the Russian
    fleet in the Mediterranean.
  • E) Russian offensives in the Black Sea.

221
And the answer is
  • C) German submarine warfare.

222
  • By 1916, conflict on the western front
  • A) had become a shifting game of rapid maneuver
    with few major battles.
  • B) had resulted in the surrender of France and
    the establishment of the Vichy government.
  • C) had resulted in victory for the British and
    French troops who pushed the exhausted enemy to
    the borders of Germany.
  • D) had settled into a deadly stalemate in which
    hundreds of thousands of lives were expended for
    a few feet of trench.
  • E) caused the Germans to open a second front in
    Italy.

223
And the answer is
  • D) had settled into a deadly stalemate in which
    hundreds of thousands of lives were expended for
    a few feet of trench.

224
  • On the Italian front, the primary combatants were
    Italy and
  • A) Germany.
  • B) Russia.
  • C) Austria-Hungary.
  • D) France.
  • E) Serbia.

225
And the answer is
  • C) Austria-Hungary.

226
  • Between 1914 and 1917, warfare on the eastern
    front
  • A) pitted the forces of Russian and
    Austria-Hungary against the invading Germans.
  • B) included parts of Russia and the Balkans.
  • C) resulted in the Serbian knockout of the
    Austrian forces.
  • D) featured bloody trench warfare in which almost
    no land changed hands.
  • E) was dominated by the Austrians.

227
And the answer is
  • B) included parts of Russia and the Balkans.

228
  • Which of the following was NOT a feature of war
    on the home front between 1914 and 1919?
  • A) Governments organized the major sectors of the
    economy to ration resources and production.
  • B) Executive branches of government increasingly
    took over from parliaments.
  • C) Governments controlled public opinion through
    manipulation of mass media such as newspapers.
  • D) Strict government regulation prevented
    material shortages and famine.
  • E) Most civilians felt the effects of the war.

229
And the answer is
  • D) Strict government regulation prevented
    material shortages and famine.

230
  • Which of the following statements concerning the
    global aspects of World War I is most accurate?
  • A) The British dominionsCanada, Australia, and
    New Zealandremained aloof and virtually
    untouched by the war.
  • B) By 1914, the United States had not entered the
    scramble for colonial possessions.
  • C) American businessmen prior to 1917 profited by
    selling goods to both sides and by taking
    advantage of European distractions to seize new
    world markets.
  • D) The United States aggressively entered the war
    in 1914 to demonstrate its new position as a
    world power.
  • E) The world economic system was mostly
    unaffected.

231
And the answer is
  • C) American businessmen prior to 1917 profited by
    selling goods to both sides and by taking
    advantage of European distractions to seize new
    world markets.

232
  • What nation profited most by warfare in Asia
    between 1914 and 1919?
  • A) Japan
  • B) China
  • C) New Zealand
  • D) the United States
  • E) Vietnam

233
And the answer is
  • A) Japan

234
  • During World War I, the Ottoman Empire
  • A) vainly attempted to retain its neutrality in
    what the Turks perceived was a Christian
    conflict.
  • B) long attached to German military advisors,
    joined Germany in the war effort.
  • C) used the opportunity to reassert Turkish
    dominance over the Arab regions.
  • D) launched assaults indifferently against the
    colonial possessions of Britain, France, and
    Germany.
  • E) was unable to repel British invaders at
    Gallipolli.

235
And the answer is
  • B) long attached to German military advisors,
    joined Germany in the war effort.

236
  • The British promised support for a Jewish
    settlement in the Middle East in the
  • A) Sinai Resolution.
  • B) Exodus Pact.
  • C) Chamberlain Manifesto.
  • D) Balfour Declaration.
  • E) Fourteen Points.

237
And the answer is
  • D) Balfour Declaration.

238
  • By 1917 the war on the eastern front
  • A) had stagnated into a stalemate in which
    neither side had an advantage.
  • B) led to a major revolution in Russia that
    toppled the tsarist government.
  • C) was resolved by a peace treaty between the
    combatants.
  • D) resulted in a massive Russian offensive fueled
    by the numerical superiority of Russian armies.
  • E) was joined by the American Expeditionary
    Force.

239
And the answer is
  • B) led to a major revolution in Russia that
    toppled the tsarist government.

240
  • In what year was the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
    signed?
  • A) 1916
  • B) 1917
  • C) 1918
  • D) 1919
  • E) 1920

241
And the answer is
  • C) 1918

242
  • In what year did the German forces on the western
    front sue for peace?
  • A) 1916
  • B) 1917
  • C) 1918
  • D) 1919
  • E) 1915

243
And the answer is
  • C) 1918

244
  • Before their surrender, the German generals
    running the government
  • A) installed a new civilian government to
    shoulder the blame of defeat.
  • B) murdered the emperor.
  • C) issued a statement accepting blame for the
    policies that had led to World War I.
  • D) overthrew the civilian government and
    established a military dictatorship.
  • E) tried to break through the Allied lines at
    Verdun.

245
And the answer is
  • A) installed a new civilian government to
    shoulder the blame of defeat.

246
  • The series of treaties that ended World Wa
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