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Freedom and Partition in India

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Freedom and Partition in India Chapter 9 Gandhi Jailed (#16) Jailed for his announcement of the Quit India Movement and the Do or Die mantra (#16) At age 73 ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Freedom and Partition in India


1
Freedom and Partition in India
  • Chapter 9

2
Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi
Gandhi saw his life as the search for ultimate
truths and self- transformation (2)
3
Gandhi (3)Born Oct. 2, 1869Porbandar,Gujara
t Died Jan. 30, 1948Assassinated
4
Gandhi and His Wife
Kasturba Gandhi married Gandhi at age 13 years
old (1883) (4)
5
Mohandas Gandhi
  • Born into a middle class family
  • Leader of Indias freedom movement (INC)
  • Left for Britain at age 17 to study law (5)
  • Lawyer trained in Britain, practiced in South
    Africa
  • Helped unite the various groups within India to
    fight for a common cause

6
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7
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8
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9
First Action for Indian Civil Rights
  • In South Africa, fighting for Indian rights (6
    7)
  • Train ride and effects thrown off the train for
    refusing to move to 3rd class where non-whites
    were expected to sit
  • Effects humiliation lead to his desire for
    change and how to get justice
  • Civil Disobedience The active refusal to obey
    unjust laws or the demands of an oppressive
    government (7)
  • Non-cooperation with evil is as much a duty as is
    cooperation with good.
  • Satyagraha truth force convert the wrongdoer
    (7) and reconciliation
  • Non-violence ex. Rosa Parks, MLK Jr.

10
Lawyer in South Africa
11
Appealing to all Indians Returned to India 1915
at age 45 (8)Clip 5621 5900 Gandhi Movie
12
Gandhis Principles
  • His beliefs were a blend of Hindu and Christian
    beliefs
  • Non-violent resistance to end injustice
  • Satyagraha truth force convert the wrongdoer
  • Inspiration
  • Hindu nonviolence, respect for all life
  • Christianity love ones enemies
  • Mahatma Great Soul

13
Himalayan Blunder
  • Although this nation-wide strike hit the British
    hard, and led to thousands of Indians being
    jailed, in 1922 it erupted into violence.
  • A mob of Satyagrahis lit fire to a police
    station, killing two dozen police officers
    trapped inside.
  • Gandhi called off the entire Satyagraha
  • mistakenly believed that his followers truly
    understood non-violence
  • Gandhi Movie Clip 117 22 -124

14
Gandhis Principles
  • He wanted the world to see the injustice in India
    without using violence
  • Gandhi wanted the British to see the err in their
    wrong doings
  • The same principles were used with apartheid in
    South Africa
  • Satyagraha truth force convert the wrongdoer

15
GANDHI RAPS
Yo Yo Yo
  • 1
  • Gandhis Principles

16
Amritsar Massacre 1919
  • Causes 10
  • Oppressive new laws limited freedoms
  • Rowlatt Acts
  • trials without juries
  • permitted internment of suspects without trial
  • Ban on mass meetings
  • Limited freedom of press
  • protest against the arrest of two leaders of the
    Indian National Congress in 1919

17
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18
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19
  • The Indians were packed together so that one
    bullet would drive through three or four bodies
    the people ran madly this way and the other.
    When fire was directed upon the centre, they ran
    to the sides. The fire was then directed to the
    sides. Many threw themselves onto the ground, and
    fire was then directed on the ground. This
    continued for eight or ten minutes, and it
    stopped only when the ammunition had reached the
    point of exhaustion Winston Churchill

20
Amritsar Massacre
  • British Brig. Gen. who led the massacre was
    removed from duty but some honored him at home
    for crushing the Indians

Rattan Devi stated, ''I saw three men writhing in
great pain and a boy of about 12. I could not
leave the place. The boy asked me for water but
there was no water in that place. At 2 am, a Jat
who was lying entangled on the wall asked me to
raise his leg. I went up to him and took hold of
his clothes drenched in blood and raised him up.
Heaps of bodies lay there, a number of them
innocent children. I shall never forget the
sight. I spent the night crying and watching..."
clip from 124 131 show clip
21
Amritsar Massacre
  • 'The Martyr's' well at Jallianwala Bagh
  • Other than those got shot, many died by jumping
    into the solitary well on the compound to escape
    the shooting

22
Amritsar Massacre
23
Results of Amritsar Massacre (10)
  • Effects
  • 379 Indians dead - 1,100 Indians injured
  • Ridiculous Rules forced against the Indians
  • All Indians must crawl on their hands and knees
    on a city street
  • Indiscriminate whippings
  • British General Dyer, removed from duty but some
    honored him at home
  • Teach Indians a lesson
  • Turning Point for Indias struggle for complete
    independence
  • Nationalist movement took off
  • All Indians united against British
  • Gandhi became one of the masses

24
GANDHI RAPS
Yo Yo Yo
  • 2
  • Amritsar Massacre

25
Indian Self-Reliance (11)
  • Gandhi won the support of all groups by stressing
    Indias heritage and Self-reliance Gandhi Clip
    138 141
  • Examples
  • Gave up Western ways
  • Spun his own cotton, wore simple white clothing
  • Western clothes symbolized cultural dependence
  • Vegetarianism
  • Wanted to reform caste system (untouchables)
  • Included Muslims

(12) To be seen as the leader of all Indians
connected with the masses Bapu Father
26
Non Violent Protests
  • Gandhi supported nonviolent acts of civil
    disobedience
  • Boycotted British made goods
  • Supported workers strikes
  • Did not want lose the moral high ground and
    threatened by acts of violence(13)
  • The Salt March
  • Quit India Movement

27
The Salt March 1930 (14)
  • Indians were not allowed to make their own salt
  • They had to purchase heavily taxed British salt
  • Gandhi led Indians on a march over 200 miles to
    the Arabian Sea
  • Starts with 80 people ends with hundreds of
    thousands
  • On his march to the sea, Gandhi says They are
    not in control we are. Explain.
  • They made their own once they reached the ocean
  • Gandhi movie clip 20420 22058

28
The Salt March 1930 (14)
  • Effects (14)
  • Gandhi and 50,000 protester were arrested
  • British violence against protesters
  • Britain responded with violence to the satyagraha
    protests
  • Worldwide interest and debate especially in Great
    Britain whether to hold on to India

29
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30
Amritsar Massacre
Amritsar Massacre
31
GANDHI RAPS
Yo Yo Yo
  • 3
  • Salt March

32
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33
August 1942
Gandhi demands independence for India (15)
34
Gandhi Jailed (16)
  • Jailed for his announcement of the Quit India
    Movement and the Do or Die mantra (16)
  • At age 73
  • Issues b/c of leadership arrests

35
Do or Die Speech
  • Starts the Quit India Movement August 8, 1942
  • I am not going to be satisfied with anything
    short of complete freedom. May be, he will
    propose the abolition of salt tax, the drink
    evil, etc. But I will say, Nothing less than
    freedom.Here is a mantra, a short one, that I
    give you. You may imprint it on your hearts and
    let every breath of yours give expression to it.
    The mantra is Do or Die. We shall either free
    India or die in the attempt we shall not live to
    see the perpetuation of our slavery. Every true
    Congressman or woman will join the struggle with
    an inflexible determination not to remain alive
    to see the country in bondage and slavery.

36
WWII Quit India (17)
  • Gandhi leads non-support efforts in India during
    World War II
  • Massive civil disobedience campaign and riots
  • India would support Britain if they were granted
    immediate independence, Britain refused
  • Mass arrests on Indians
  • The Quit India campaign was effectively crushed
    with thousands of arrests suppression of civil
    rights

37
WWII Quit India (17)
  • Importance of the Quit India Movement
  • British government astonished by observing the
    powerful nationalistic feelings of the Indians
    added with anti-British feeling
  • convinced the British Government that their days
    were numbered in India and they had to free the
    country anti-British feeling too much
  • The Quit India Movement quickened the process of
    freedom. (17)
  • India gains independence August 15, 1947 (18)

38
GANDHI RAPS
Yo Yo Yo
  • 4
  • Quit India Movement

39
Gandhi Hindu/Muslim Conflict
  • Brought by the prospect of independence (18)
  • Deep differences led to conflict - historical
    conflict
  • some cooperation at first
  • division between INC and Muslim League
  • Gandhi hoped the two could live peacefully
    together, with independence
  • Muslims fears
  • the Hindu Nationalists would not grant them
    rights
  • Muslim feared being a minority in a Hindu nation
    own nation
  • the Muslim League, led by Muhammad Ali Jinnah,
    demands for a separate Muslim nation (18)

40
Two Nations disappointed Gandhi
  • August 15, 1947 Indian Independence (17)
    Britain no longer had resources to rule
  • Indian Independence Act (1947)
  • Pakistan August 14, 1947
  • India August 15, 1947
  • (21) Non-violent Revolution
  • Lord Mountbatten was the last Viceroy of India.
  • Mountbatten was appointed Viceroy of India in
    1947 and he oversaw the creation of the
    independent states of India and Pakistan.
  • Gandhi Clip 23457- 23654 and 23924

41
GANDHI RAPS
Yo Yo Yo
  • 5
  • Independence of India

42
(East Pakistan)
43
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44
Jawaharlal Nehru
  • Ally of Gandhi.
  • 1st Prime Minister of India, 1947-1964.

45
Pakistan
  • Led by Muhammad Ali Jinnah
  • governor-general of a newly formed Pakistan.
  • Conflicts in Pakistan divides (1972)
  • W. Pakistan Pakistan
  • E. Pakistan Bangladesh

46
Two Nations disappointed Gandhi
  • The subcontinent was divided (partitioned) into
  • Muslim Pakistan - to protect Muslin minority
    Muhammad Ali Jinnah
  • Hindu India
  • Gandhi refused to celebrate Indian independence
    b/c of the violence, Heartbroken (18)

47
GANDHI RAPS
Yo Yo Yo
  • 6
  • Formation of Pakistan

48
Hindu-Muslim Conflict
  • At partition, Mutual violence during mass
    migration (18)
  • 500,000 died in the fighting between the two
    nations
  • Gandhi guilt b/c he failed to convert people to
    non-violence
  • Gandhis Hunger strike to end the violence (19)
  • successful

49
Gandhi Clip 242-24432
50
GANDHI RAPS
Yo Yo Yo
  • 7
  • Hindu/Muslim Conflict

51
India after Gandhi
  • Gandhi assassinated about 1 year after Indias
    independence (1948)
  • shot by a Hindu extremist Nathuram Godse (20)
    on 30 January 1948

I took courage in both my hands and I did fire
the shots at Gandhiji on 30th January 1948, on
the prayer-grounds of Birla House. I do say that
my shots were fired at the person whose policy
and action had brought rack and ruin and
destruction to millions of Hindus. There was no
legal machinery by which such an offender could
be brought to book and for this reason I fired
those fatal shots.
52
Rama Indian Word God(20)
  • Some questions on last words

Raj Ghat - A National Memorial
53
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54
The body of Mahatma Gandhi lying in state at
Birla House, New Delhi, before the funeral
cortege leaves for the burning ghats on the banks
of the river Yamuna on 2 February 1948.
Keystone/Getty Images
55
Funeral procession of Gandhi at New Delhi on 6
February 1948
56
The Governor Generals Bodyguard heading the
procession on the 5.5 mile route through New
Delhi to the funeral pyre during the funeral of
Mahatma Gandhi on 4 February 1948. Keystone/Getty
Images
57
The ashes of Mahatma Gandhi are collected at his
funeral, held in Delhi and attended by several
thousand people on 9 February 1948
58
  • George C. Marshall, US Secretary of State
  • "Mahatma Gandhi had become the spokesman for the
    conscience of all mankind. He was a man who made
    humility and simple truth more powerful than
    empires.
  • Albert Einstein
  • "Generations to come will scarce believe that
    such a man as this ever in flesh and blood walked
    upon this earth."

59
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60
GANDHI RAPS
Yo Yo Yo
  • 8
  • Assassination of Gandhi

Gandhi Clip Assassination 247 or VHS
Assignations That Changed the World
61
India After Gandhi
62
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