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INTRODUCTION TO ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEACHING

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INTRODUCTION TO ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEACHING BY ROHADI, M.Pd rohadimpd_at_yahoo.com www.Rohadi-banten.com ENGLISH LEARNING Language has a central role in intellectual ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: INTRODUCTION TO ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEACHING


1
INTRODUCTION TO ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEACHING
  • BY
  • ROHADI, M.Pd
  • rohadimpd_at_yahoo.com
  • www.Rohadi-banten.com

2
ENGLISH LEARNING
  • Language has a central role in intellectual,
    social and emotional development of learners and
    it supports the success of learning other
    subjects.
  • Language learning is expected to be able to
    help learners to know and understand themselves,
    their cultures and other cultures.
  • Language learning also helps learners to be able
    to express their ideas and feelings, to take part
    in society and even to use analytical and
    imaginative abilities that they possess (
    Departemen Pendidikan Nasional, 2004 )

3
  • Language learning in the Competence Based
    Curriculum (CBC) was implemented ( Departemen
    Pendidikan Nasional, 2004) to emphasize
    communicative competence of the learners.
  • Communicating here means understanding and
    expressing information, thoughts and feelings.
  • Learners are supposed to have communicative
    competence, that is to have discourse competence,
    the ability to understand and to produce spoken
    and written texts which are realized in four
    language skills listening, speaking, reading,
    and writing.

4
  • Canale and Swain ( 1980 )defined communicative
    competence in terms of four components
  • (1) grammatical competence words and rules
  • (2) sociolinguistic competence appropriateness,
  • (3) discourse competence cohesion and coherence
  • (4) strategic competence appropriate use of
    communication strategies

5
  • Celce Murcia , Dornyei and Thurrel (1995 )
    communicative competence consists of
  • actional competence, including listening,
    speaking, reading and writing
  • discourse competence
  • linguistic competence
  • socio cultural competence
  • and strategic competence.

6
Actional Competence
  • Includes 4 langauge skills
  • Listening
  • Reading
  • Speaking
  • writing

7
Listening
  • Microskills
  • Discriminate among the distinctive sounds of
    English.
  • Retain chunks of language of different lengths in
    short term memory.
  • Recognise English stress patterns, words in
    stressed and unstressed positions, rhythmic
    structures, intonation contourse, and their roles
    in signaling information.
  • Recognise reduced forms of words.
  • Distinguish word boundaries, recognise a core of
    words, and interpret word order patterns and
    their significance.
  • Process speech at different rate of delivery.
  • Process speech containing pauses, errors,
    corrections, and other performance variables.
  • Recognise grammatical word classes (nouns, verb
    etc.) systems (e.g. tense, agreement,
    pluralisation), patterns, rules, and elliptiacl
    forms.
  • Detect sentence constituents and distinguish
    between major and minor constituents.
  • Recognise that a particular meaning may be
    expressed in different grammatical forms.
  • Recognise cohesive devices in spoken discourse.

8
Listening
  • Macroskills
  • Recognise the communicative functions of
    utterance according to situations, participants,
    goals.
  • Infer situations, participants, goals using
    real-word knowledge.
  • From events, ideas, and so on, describes, predict
    outcomes, infer links and connections between
    events, deduce causes and effects, and detect
    such relations as main idea, supporting idea, new
    information, given information, generalisation,
    and exemplification.
  • Distinguish between literal and implied meanings.
  • Use facial, kenesic, body language, and other
    nonverbal clues to decipher meanings.
  • Develop and use a battery of listening
    strategies, such as detecting key words, guessing
    the meaning of words from context, appealing for
    help, and signalling comprehension or lack
    thereof

9
Speaking
  • Microskills
  • Produce differences among English phonemes and
    allophonic variants.
  • Produce chunks of language of different lengths.
  • Produce English stress patterns, words in
    stressed and unstressed positions, rhythmic
    structure, and intonation contours.
  • Produce reduced forms of words and phrases.
  • Use an adequate number of lexical units (words)
    to accomplish pragmatic purposes.
  • Produce fluent speech at different rates of
    delivery.
  • Monitor ones own oral production and use various
    strategic devices pauses, fillers, self
    corrections, backtracking to enhance the
    clarity of the message.
  • Use grammatical word classes (nouns, verbs etc.)
    systems (tense, agreement, pluralisation), word
    order, patterns, rules, and elliptical forms.
  • Produce speech in natural constituents in
    appropriate phrases, pause groups, breath groups,
    and sentence constituents.
  • Express a particular meaning in different
    grammatical forms.
  • Use cohesive devices in spoken discourse

10
Speaking
  • Macroskills
  • Appropriately accomplish communicative functions
    according to situations, participants, and goals.
  • Use appropriate styles, registers, implicature,
    redundancies, pragmatic conventions, conversation
    rules, floor keeping and yielding, interrupting,
    and other sociolinguistic features in
    face-to-face conversations.
  • Convey links and connections between events and
    communicate such relations as focal and
    peripheral ideas, events and feeling, new
    information and given information, generalisation
    and exemplification.
  • Convey facial features, kinesics, body language,
    and other nonverbal cues along with verbal
    language.
  • Develop and use a battery of speaking strategies,
    such as emphasising key words, rephrasing,
    providing a context for interpreting the meaning
    of words, appealing for help, and accurately
    assessing how well your interlocutor is
    understanding you.

11
Reading
  • Microskills
  • Discriminate among distinctive graphemes and
    orthographic patterns of English.
  • Retain chuncks of language of different lengths
    in short term memory.
  • Process writing at an efficient rate of speed to
    suit the purpose.
  • Recognise a core of words, and interpret word
    order patterns and their significance.
  • Recognise grammatical word classes (nouns, verb
    etc.) systems (e.g. tense, agreement,
    pluralisation), patterns, rules, and elliptiacl
    forms.
  • Recognise that a particular meaning may be
    expressed in different grammatical forms.
  • Recognise cohesive devices in written discourse
    and their role in signaling the relationship
    between and among clauses
  • Recognise grammatical word classes (nouns, verb
    etc.) systems (e.g. tense, agreement,
    pluralisation), patterns, rules, and elliptiacl
    forms

12
Reading
  • Macroskills
  • Recognise the rhetorical forms of written
    discourse and their significance for
    interpretation.
  • Recognise the communicative functions of written
    texts, according to form and purpose.
  • Infer context that is not explicit by using
    background knowledge.
  • From described events, ideas, etc. Infer links
    and connections between events, deduce causes and
    effects, and detect such relations as main idea,
    supporting idea, new information, given
    information, generalisation, and exemplification.
  • Distinguish between literal and implied meanings.
  • Detect culturally specific references and
    interpret them in a context of the appropriate
    cultural schemata.
  • Develop and use a battery of reading strategies
    such as scanning and skimming, detecting
    discourse markers, guessing the meaning of words
    from context, and activating schemata for the
    inperpretation of texts.

13
Writing
  • The same classification scheme is reformulated
    here to include the most common genres that a
    second language writer might produce, within and
    beyond the requirements of a curriculum. ... you
    should be aware of the surprising multiciplity of
    options of written genres that second language
    learners need to acquire. (Brown 2004219)

14
Writing
  • Microskills
  • Produce graphemes and ortographic patterns of
    English.
  • Produce writing at an efficient rate of speed to
    suit the purpose.
  • Produce an acceptable core of words and use
    appropriate word order patterns.
  • Use acceptable grammatical systems (e.g. tense,
    agreement, pluralisastion), patterns and rules.
  • Express a particular meaning in different
    grammatical forms.
  • Use cohesive devices in written discourse

15
Writing
  • Macroskills
  • Use the rhetorical forms and conventions of
    written discourse.
  • Appropriately accomplish the communicative
    functions of written texts according to form and
    purpose.
  • Convey links and connections between events, and
    communicate such relations as main idea,
    supporting idea, new information, given
    information, generalisation, and exemplification.
  • Distinguish between literal and implied meanings
    when writing.
  • Correctly convey culturally specific references
    in the context of the written text.
  • Develop and use a battery of writing strategies,
    such as accurately assessing the audiences
    interpretation, using pre-writing devices,
    writing with fluency in the first draft, using
    paraphrases and synonyms, soliciting peer and
    instructor feedback, and using feedback for
    revising and editing

16
DISCOURSE COMPETENCE
  • concerns with the selection, sequencing, and
    arrangement of words, structures, sentences and
    utterance to achieve a unified spoken or written
    text.
  • UNDERTSAND AND PRODUCE MANY KINDS OF ENGLISH
    TEXTS ( GENRE )
  • POINTS TO PONDER
  • SOCIAL FUNCTION
  • STRUCTURES OF THE TEXT
  • SIGNIFICANT LANGUAGE FEATURES

17
TEXTS TO LEARN
  1. Procedure
  2. Recount
  3. Narrative
  4. News item
  5. Anecdote
  6. Description
  7. Report
  8. Hortatory exposition
  9. Analytical exposition
  10. Explanation
  11. Review
  12. discussion

18
MATERIAL TO TEACH
  • PERCAKAPAN TRANSAKSIONAL DAN INTERPERSONAL
  • SHORT FUNCTIONAL TEXT
  • TEXT MONOLOG / DISCOURCE

19
LINGUISTIC COMPETENCE
  • IT IS ABOUT GRAMMAR RULES
  • THERE ARE THREE KINDS OF GRAMMAR FORMAL
    GRAMMAR,
  • TRADITIONAL GRAMMAR
  • AND SYSTEMIC FUNCTIONAL GRAMMAR
  • FORMAL AND TRADITIONAL GRAMMAR IS SET OF RULES
    , HOW TO MAKE CORRECT SENTENCES

20


LANJUTAN
  • SYSTEMIC FUNCTIONAL GRAMMAR
  • GRAMMAR IS SEEN FROM ITS FUNCTION .
  • SOME IMPORTANT TERMS
  • PARTICIPANTS PELAKU
  • CIRCUMSTANCE ADVERB
  • PROCESS KATA KERJA
  • MATERIAL PROCESS
  • MENTAL PROCESS
  • VERBAL PROCESS
  • BEHAVIORAL PROCESS ( see the hyperlink)

21
4 LEVELS OF LITERACY
  • PERFORMATIVE
  • FUNCTIONAL
  • INFORMATIVE
  • EPHISTEMIC

22
NEW TREND
  • WHICH ONE TO TEACH?
  • LANGUAGE FORM
  • LANGUAGE USE

23
Sociocultural Competence
  • The knwoledge of the relation of the language
    use in its non linguistic context
  • There are four components of socio-cultural
    competence social contextual factors, stylistic
    appropriateness factors, cultural factors, and
    non-verbal communicative factors (Celce-Marcia,
    Dorneyi Thurred, 1995).
  • Some of these components are often neglected in
    ESL education, leading to confusion or
    comprehension difficulties in the future.

24
Strategic Competence
  • - the ability to solve communication problems
    despite an inadequate command of the linguistic
    and sociocultural code
  • the ability to cope with unexpected problems,
    when no ready-made solutions are available.
  • If we meet a problem, that is, if our command of
    the linguistic and sociocultural code is not
    adequate, we have two basic choices.
  • On one hand, we can avoid the problem by adopting
    a reduction strategy in other words, we keep our
    message within our communicative resources, we
    avoid the risk, we adjust our ends to our means
    in this way we change our goal.
  • On the other hand, we can decide to keep our goal
    but develop an alternative plan, we adopt an
    achievement strategy, we take the risk and expand
    our communicative resources, we adjust our means
    to our ends.

25
HOW TO EVALUATE?
  • USE AUTHENTIC ASSESSMENT
  • WHICH CAN REALLY MEASURE THE STUDENTS COMPETENCE
  • CORNCERN NOT ONLY TO THE PRODUCT BUT ALSO TO THE
    PROCESS
  • USE PAPER AND PENCIL TEST
  • PERFORMANCE
  • PORTFOLIO
  • PROJECT

26
USE CTLCONTEXTUAL TEACHING AND LEARNING
  • SEVEN ELEMENT OF CTL
  • INQUIRY
  • QUESTIONING
  • CONSTRUCTIVISM
  • AUTHENTIC ASSESSMENT
  • LEARNING COMMUNITY
  • MODELLING
  • REFLECTION

27
APPLY LIFE SKILLS
Self Awareness
General Life Skill
Personal Skill
Thinking Skill
LIFE SKILL
Social Skill
Academic Skill
Specific Life Skill
Vocational Skill
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