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THE GREAT WAR 1914-1919

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Title: THE GREAT WAR 1914-1919


1
THE GREAT WAR1914-1919
  • WORLD WAR ONE

2
Collapse of the Ottoman Empire
  • World War One

3
  • In the early 1900s the Ottoman Empires control
    over the Balkans was weakening.
  • Tensions began to grow, and in 1912, Serbia and
    its allies attacked the Ottoman Empire.
  • The great European powers were all interested in
    gaining lands from the crumbling empire.

4
  • By 1914, the Balkans were known as the powder
    keg of Europe.
  • A small spark could lead to an EXPLOSION !

5
The Armenian Massacre
  • World War One

6
  • Nationalistic feelings had caused periodic waves
    of violence against Armenians since the 1890s.
  • New violence was a brutal result of the rivalry
    between Turkey, which ruled the Ottoman Empire,
    and Russia.
  • The Muslim Turks distrusted the Christian
    Armenians believing they supported Russia.

7
  • When Armenians protested oppressive Ottoman
    policies, the Turks unleashed a massacre on the
    Armenians.
  • Additional massacres leading to the deaths of a
    million or more Armenians occurred over the next
    25 years.

8
The POWDER KEGand the SPARK
9
  • On June 28, 1914 a young Serbian man shot and
    killed Archduke Franz Ferdinand, the heir to the
    throne of Austria-Hungary.
  • This was the spark needed to ignite the powder
    keg and starting The Great War, aka World War
    One.

10
  • One month later Austria declared war on Serbia.
    One by one, the other nations of Europe picked
    sides thus beginning the Great War later known as
    World War One.
  • From June 28, 1914 until August 12, 1914 the
    nations of Serbia, Austria-Hungary, Russia,
    Germany, France, and Britain all declared war in
    support or against one another.

11
The Four Causes of WWI
  • 1) Militarism
  • 2) Alliances
  • 3) Imperialism
  • 4) Nationalism

12
Militarism
  • Militarism is the belief that a nation needs a
    large military force.
  • The belief in militarism lead to the build up of
    armies and navies for each of Europes major
    powers decades before WW1 began.

13
Alliances
  • Alliances are made between countries in order to
    achieve a common goal.
  • Simply put, alliances meant that an attack on one
    nation would force all its allies to come to its
    aid.
  • A small conflict could easily become a larger
    war.
  • In 1914 Europe was a tangled web of competing
    alliances between countries.

14
Imperialism
  • Imperialism is the policy by which a stronger
    nation extends their control (militarily,
    politically, economically)on a weaker nation(s).
  • Britain, France, Germany, and Italy all competed
    for colonies in Africa and Asia. Germany had the
    fewest colonies and felt it deserved more.

15
Nationalism
  • Nationalism is a feeling of pride, loyalty, and
    protectiveness, towards ones country.
  • In the early 1900s, like Americans, Europeans
    had deep feelings for their own countries. They
    wanted their country to be the best.
  • In fact some ethnic groups wanted to form their
    own separate nations.

16
M.A.I.N.
  • In order to effectively remember the causes of
    World War I, simply put the four reasons into a
    catchy phrase.
  • Such as
  • Militarism
  • Alliance
  • Imperialism
  • Nationalism
  • Thus, forming the word- MAIN

17
CENTRAL POWERS
  • The Central Powers were made up of
    Austria-Hungary, Germany, the Ottoman Empire
    (modern-day Turkey), and Bulgaria.

18
ALLIED POWERS aka-ALLIES
  • The Allied Powers included Serbia, Russia,
    France, Great Britain, Italy and seven other
    countries.

19
EUROPE 1914BEFORE WORLD WAR ONE
20
WWI
  • A NEW TYPE OF WARFARE,
  • THE STALEMATE BEGINS

21
TRENCH WARFARE
  • Trenches covered about 450 miles of earth between
    the English Channel to the Swiss border.
  • Because of the use of trenches the battle lines
    between the Allied and Central Powers remained
    relatively unchanged for 3 years.

22
450 MILES OF TRENCHES
23
  • The trenches were roughly ten feet deep ditches
    cut into the ground by soldiers on both sides.

24
TRENCH CONSTRUCTION
25
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28
THE SOLDIERS LOAD
  • 1) Towel
  • 2) Rucksack
  • 3) Extra Socks
  • 4) Soap
  • 5) Bread Rations
  • 6) Preserved Food
  • 7) Canvas Hold All
  • In total, soldiers carried 60 to 75 pounds worth
    of gear.

29
Problems in the Trenches
  • Mud-trapped the wounded, clogged rifles and gear,
    slowed men down, and caused trench walls to
    collapse.

30
MUD, MUD, AND MORE MUD
31
German soldier dead at Flanders.
32
  • The wounded often became helplessly stuck in the
    mud that accumulated in the trenches.
  • Due to these conditions several of the soldiers
    that were wounded during battle became entrapped
    in the mud and would eventually die from exposure.

33
German soldier remains at Verdun.
34
  • Rats-grew to be as big as rabbits, they infested
    the trenches, and spread disease.

35
Dead French soldiers in the Argonne.
36
  • Trench Foot-caused by the feet being wet for
    prolonged periods of time.
  • The feet swell and turn blue, possibly leading to
    gangrene.

37
German dead near Moislains.
38
ENDING THE STALEMATE
  • Advancements in War Technology
  • WORLD WAR ONE

39
  • The Tank was a British invention that smashed
    through barbed wire, crossed trenches, and
    shuttled soldiers across battlefields.

40
  • Machine Gun-this weapon could fire up to 600
    rounds per minute.

41
  • Poison Gas-was used by both sides. It was
    designed to burn, choke, blind, and ultimately
    kill soldiers.

42
  • Airplanes-were first used for combat in WW1. They
    engaged in aerial combat with one another,
    exploration of enemys territory, and dropping
    explosives.

43
  • U-Boats-short for undersea boat, were used by
    Germany to block trade. They were equipped with
    guns and torpedoes.
  • They sank over 11 million tons of Allied shipping.

44
MAJOR TURNING POINTS OF THE WAR
  • WORLD WAR ONE

45
ENTRY OF THE UNITED STATES
  • When the war started in 1914, the President of
    the United States, Woodrow Wilson, maintained a
    position of neutrality (not supporting either
    side).
  • However, a series of events would eventually draw
    the United States into the conflict.

46
  • In 1917, however, Germany used unrestricted
    submarine warfare, meaning that it attacked any
    ships on the Atlantic, even if they were carrying
    American passengers.
  • This policy brought the United States into the
    war in April 1917.

47
RUSSIAN WITHDRAWAL
  • In Russia, low morale contributed to a revolution
    in 1917.
  • Early in 1918, Russias new leader signed a
    treaty with Germany that took Russia out of the
    war.

48
The Legacy of the Great War
  • Aftermath of War

49
Germany Stops Fighting!
  • Germany started their long retreat after their
    defeat during the Meuse-Argonne offensive.
  • In November 1918 Germanys navy mutinied, its
    allies dropped out, and the Kaiser stepped down.
  • On November 11th Germany agreed to an armistice
    (an end to fighting), ending the Great War (WWI).

50
Armistice Day Celebrations!
51
THE HIGH COST OF WAR
  • After Germany signed the armistice on the 11th of
    November 1918 new boundaries created new
    countries based on ethnic and cultural
    similarities.

52
EUROPE 1918AFTER WORLD WAR ONE
53
HUMAN ECONOMIC LOSSES
  • More than 8.5 million people died, more than 17
    million were wounded.
  • Famine threatened many regions and disease was
    widespread.
  • Factories, farms, and homes were destroyed.

54
  • Nations amassed huge war debts that had to be
    repaid.
  • The Allies, bitter at the destruction, insisted
    that the Central Powers make reparations,
    payments for war damage they had caused.

55
Treaty of Versailles
  • The Treaty of Versailles was developed by the
    Allies-The Big Four France, Italy, England and
    the United States.
  • The treaty punished Germany for being the main
    aggressor during the war.

56
  • The treaty made Germany pay reparations.
  • Reparation is money that a defeated nation pays
    for the destruction caused by war.
  • German wrote a 33 million check.
  • Germanys government was changed from a Monarchy
    (Kaiser) to a Parliamentary system.
  • All Germanys territories were removed.
  • The German military was forced to disband.

57
SUMMARY
  • Nationalism, militarism, imperialism, and
    alliances led to the Great War, aka World War
    One. In the Balkans, what began as a local
    incident blossomed into a global war.
    Industrialization and new technology made the
    weapons of World War One much more destructive
    than any that had been used before. The war
    caused great human and economic losses.
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