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Global Review

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Title: Global Review


1
Global Review
  • Key ideas, themes, events, people

2
Geography - Terms
  • Archipelago
  • Japan, a chain of islands
  • Irregular Coastline
  • Rigid, harbors, Great Britain
  • Regular Coastline
  • Steppe - Africa
  • Desert
  • Gobi, Sahara
  • Strait
  • A narrow water passage

3
World Map
4
Traditional Economy
  • Hunting and gathering
  • Subsistence agriculture
  • Barter system

5
Pre-History the time before people invented
writing
  • Paleolithic Era
  • Nomads
  • Move from place to place
  • Hunters and gatherers
  • Spiritual Beliefs

6
Neolithic Revolution
  • New ways of farming
  • Stay in one place, no more nomads
  • No more hunting and gathering
  • Established villages
  • More reliable food supplies

7
Regents Question
  • Letting some farmland remain unplanted as a means
    of increasing food production is most closely
    associated with
  • (1) modern irrigation methods
  • (2) the three-field system
  • (3) the enclosure movement
  • (4) slash-and-burn agriculture

8
Rise of Civilization
  • Cities
  • Central Governments
  • Traditional economy
  • Social Classes
  • System of Writing
  • Organized Religion
  • Specialized jobs

9
Types of Sources
  • Primary Sources
  • First-hand account
  • Diaries
  • Journals
  • Autobiography
  • Secondary Sources
  • Encyclopedia
  • Book
  • A friend of a friend told me

10
River Valley Civilization
  • Four Nile, Tigris Euphrates, Yellow (Huang
    He), Indus
  • Why Settle Here?
  • Fertile soil
  • Irrigation
  • Flooding
  • Transportation

11
River Valleys
  • India
  • Cities Harappa and Mohenjo-daro
  • Indus River
  • Farmers
  • Monsoons
  • Good for watering crops
  • Bad when they flooded
  • Fertile Crescent
  • Mesopotamia
  • Tigris and Euphrates
  • Great soil
  • Sumerians, Assyrians
  • Cuneiform cone writing

12
Ancient China
  • Yellow River (loess made it yellow, also called
    River of Sorrows)
  • Dynasties, Mandate of Heaven
  • Silk Road trade route to Middle East
  • Ethnocentric/Middle Kingdom
  • Geographically China was surrounded by barriers
    (Himalayas, coastline, desert)
  • Thought they were the center of the world

13
Egypt
  • Nile River
  • Pyramids
  • Pharaohs
  • Mummies
  • Hieroglyphics
  • Polytheistic many gods
  • Social Classes

14
Greece
  • City States
  • Formed due to geography
  • Athens (democracy, Pericles) and Sparta
    (military, physical fitness)
  • Polytheistic
  • Olympics, Homer, direct democracy, Pericles
  • Alexander the Great and the Hellenistic
    Civilization

15
Rome
  • Law of 12 Tables legal
  • Roads and trade networks
  • Architecture (pillars, stone, grandious)
  • Julius Caesar
  • Plebians vs Patricians

16
Codes of Law/Rules of Behavior
  • Law of 12 Tables
  • Justinian Code
  • Hammurabis Code
  • 10 Commandments
  • Introduce legal system
  • Provide rules of conduct

17
Monotheistic Religion
  • Islam Koran, 5 pillars, Mecca, Muhammad is the
    prophet, Allah is the God
  • Christianity 10 commandments, God, the Bible
  • Judaism the Torah
  • All believe in one God and teach an ethical
    code of conduct

18
Other Belief Systems
  • Shintoism Japan
  • Daoism/Taoism - China
  • Animism Africa
  • Relate to nature, harmony with nature

19
Hinduism
  • India, South Asia
  • Ahimsa non-violence
  • Dharma, karma, reincarnation
  • Caste System born into your class untouchables
    at bottom, brahmins are at the top
  • Gandhi was a Hindu, practiced non-violence

20
Confucianism
  • Confucius
  • The Analects
  • Filial piety respect for your elders
  • Five Relationships
  • Father to son, Husband to wife, Ruler to subject,
    friend to friend, older brother to younger
    brother
  • Provide order in your life

21
Buddhism
  • Siddartha Guatama Buddha The Enlightened One
  • Four Noble Truths (life is full of suffering,
    caused by desire, eliminate desire, follow the
    eightfold path)
  • People should follow the
  • Eightfold path to overcome desires

22
Ibn Battuta and Marco Polo
  • Both recorded their travels throughout the world
  • Historical records are used as primary sources
  • Sometimes they throw in Mansa Musa (from Mali in
    Africa) and Zheng He from China as a traveler

23
Golden Ages
  • Tang Dynasty from China
  • Guptas (Maurya) from India
  • Mali empire from Africa
  • Islamic math and science

24
Byzantine Empire
  • Had the greatest influence on early Russian
    history
  • Cyrillic alphabet
  • Preservation of Greek and Roman culture
  • Justinian code of laws

25
Mongols
  • Genghis Khan
  • Barbaric, tough
  • Superior military skills
  • Dont Mess With the Mongols
  • Areas conquered India (Mughul), China (Yuan
    Dynasty)

26
Medievel Europe/Middle Ages
  • Roman empire collapses
  • Charlemagne Franks, light in the dark ages
  • Strict social structure (Kings, Lords, Knights,
    Peasants)
  • Feudalism
  • Chivalry
  • Manorialism an economic system structured
    around a lords manor
  • Roman Catholic Church becomes the stabilizing
    force in Europe

27
Crusades
  • Holy Wars between Muslims and Christians
  • Popes become more powerful
  • Feudal kings become more powerful
  • Increased trade between the Middle East and
    Europe, European economy expands
  • Sought to recover holy land Palestine
  • Does this still go on today????

28
Regents Question
  • . . . For many in the contemporary Arab world,
    the Crusades are viewed as having begun nearly a
    millennium of conflict with what would become the
    West. The Crusades are seen as representing the
    constant threat of Western encroachment
    trespassing. But many scholars say that is a
    more recent and inaccurate view of the Crusades.
    . . . Mike Shuster, reporter, NPR
  • The Medieval Crusades were taken and then
    turned into something that they never really were
    in the first place. They were turned into a kind
    of a proto-imperialism, an attempt to bring the
    fruits of European civilization to the Middle
    East, when, in fact, during the Middle Ages the
    great sophisticated and wealthy power was the
    Muslim world. Europe was the Third World. . . .
    Thomas Madden, St. Louis University, History of
    relations between the West and Middle East, NPR,
    All Things Considered, August 17, 2004
  • These statements indicate that the history of the
    Crusades
  • (1) has been neglected by experts
  • (2) was of little importance
  • (3) is the subject of debate and interpretation
  • (4) illustrates the importance of tolerance and
    understanding

29
Commercial Revolution
  • Introduction of banking
  • Letters of credit
  • Insurance
  • Joint stock companies
  • Guilds
  • Trading towns develop along waterway

30
Regents Question
  • Which revolution led to the concept of banking,
    the creation of guilds, and the development of
    capitalism in Europe?
  • (1) Commercial (3) Scientific
  • (2) Agricultural (4) Industrial

31
Renaissance
  • Began in Florence, Italy wealth and support was
    here
  • New ways of thinking, intellectual, creativity
  • A rebirth or revival
  • Questioning the old ways
  • Michelangelo, Leonardo daVinci, Shakespeare
  • Individualism, humanism
  • Machiavelli The Prince the end justifies the
    means

32
Protestant Reformation
  • Protesting indulgences, and acts of the Catholic
    Church
  • Luther and 95 Thesis
  • Calvin and predestination
  • Henry VIII signed the
  • Act of Supremacy and
  • created the Church of England

33
Scientific Revolution
  • Heliocentric Model (sun is center)
  • Descartes
  • Question the old ways
  • Gutenberg printing press, printed the Bible,
    ideas spread and literacy increased
  • Galileo trial with the church

34
Rise of Monarchs/Nation-States
  • England and France
  • Kings increase their power
  • Common law
  • Magna Carta put limits on Kings power
  • Parliament
  • Divine Right

35
African Kingdoms
  • Savanna grassy plain
  • Desert Sahara
  • Traditional Society
  • Ghana gold and salt trade
  • Mali Mansa Musa, converted to Muslim
  • Songhai

36
Age of Exploration
  • Portugal and Spain look for new routes for
    exploration
  • Reconquista Christians recapture Spain from the
    Muslims
  • Columbus
  • Conquistadors Spanish conquerors

37
Regents Question
  • The encomienda system in colonial Latin
  • America led to the
  • (1) use of forced labor
  • (2) establishment of trade unions
  • (3) increase in landownership by Native Americans
  • (4) weakening of the power of peninsulares

38
Triangular Trade
  • Middle Passage
  • Slave Trade
  • Europe to Africa to America
  • Columbian Exchange exchange of people, plants,
    and crops
  • Mercantilism economic system where you export
    more than you import

39
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40
Absolutism-Russian Rulers
  • Peter the Great westernize Russia, studied in
    Europe, create a window to the west (St.
    Petersburg)
  • Catherine the Great continue to westernize
    Russia, search for a warm water port for trade

41
Absolutism - England
  • Stuart Monarchs James I
  • Puritan Revolution
  • Glorious Revolution

42
Enlightenment Era
  • Focus of rights of men
  • Equality
  • Natural Law
  • Hobbes, Montesquie, Locke, Rousseau, Voltaire
  • New philosophies

43
French Revolution
  • Causes
  • Kings controlled peoples basic rights
  • Three Estates Social inequalities
  • Economic injustices
  • Enlightenment
  • English and American Revolution

44
French Revolution - Stages
  • National Assembly
  • Storming the Bastille
  • Reign of Terror (Robespierre)
  • Napoleon
  • Napoleonic Code
  • Coup detat

45
French Revolution
  • Effects
  • Ideas of liberty, equality and fraternity
  • Ideas of Nationalism
  • Will influence further revolution

46
Congress of Vienna
  • Maintain a balance of power in Europe
  • Go back to the way things were
  • To prevent France from going to war again

47
Other Nationalist Movements
  • Greece
  • Poland
  • Belgium
  • Latin America
  • Unification of Germany and Italy

48
Unification of Germany and Italy
  • Germany
  • Otto von Bismarck
  • Loyalty to Prussian contact
  • Blood and Iron
  • Italy
  • Cavour
  • Mazzini
  • Garibaldi

49
Industrial Revolution
  • Causes
  • Britain had an abundance of natural resources
  • Growth in population
  • Money for investment
  • Improved technology
  • Agrarian revolution

50
Regents Question
  • Increased agricultural production in England in
    the late 1700s contributed directly to
  • (1) the development of a worldwide communications
    network
  • (2) the introduction of manorialism
  • (3) a decrease in the power of the monarch
  • (4) an increase in life expectancy

51
Effects of the Industrial Revolution
  • Adam Smith The Wealth of Nations
  • Laissez-faire no more government interference
  • Rise of big business
  • Improved working and living conditions
  • New political and economic philosophies
  • Liberals, conservatives, social darwinism,
    socialism
  • Karl Marx workers of the world unite

52
Japan and Meiji Restoration
  • Westernization
  • Borrow ideas from the west
  • Zaibatsu powerful banking families (Fuji)
  • Commodore Matthew Perry

53
Regents Question
  • The annexation of Korea and Japans invasion of
    Manchuria were attempts by Japan to
  • (1) spread Shinto beliefs
  • (2) protect human rights
  • (3) acquire natural resources
  • (4) establish theocratic governments

54
New Imperialism (1850-1914)
  • Imperialism the domination or takeover of a
    smaller, weaker nation by a larget, more powerful
    nation
  • Causes
  • Nationalism
  • Social Darwinism
  • Economic Motives
  • Missionaries
  • White Mans Burden duty to educate the less
    developed

55
Imperialism
  • India
  • British East India Company
  • British Control
  • Sepoy Mutiny
  • New roads, irrigation, better education
  • Will influence independence movement of Gandhi
  • Africa
  • Scramble for Africa
  • European powers break Africa into their own
    sections
  • Berlin Conference
  • Boer War

56
(No Transcript)
57
Imperialism - China
  • Opium War
  • Taiping Rebellion
  • Boxer Rebellion
  • colonies, protectorate, sphere of influence

58
World War I
  • M militarism
  • A alliances
  • I imperialism
  • N nationalism
  • Assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand

59
WWI
  • Central Powers
  • Germany
  • Austria-Hungary
  • Ottoman Empire
  • Allied Powers
  • Britain
  • France
  • US
  • Trench warfare
  • Mustard gas
  • Tanks, machine guns
  • Total War
  • propaganda

60
Regents Question
  • Nicholas II
  • Telegram to Wilhelm II
  • July 29, 1914, 100 A.M.
  • Am glad you are back. In this most serious
    moment, I appeal to you to help me. An ignoble
    despised war has been declared upon a weak
    country Serbia. The indignation resentment in
    Russia, shared fully by me, is enormous. I
    foresee that very soon I shall be overwhelmed by
    the pressure upon me, and be forced to take
    extreme measures which will lead to war. To try
    and avoid such a calamity disaster as a
    European war, I beg you in the name of our old
    friendship to do what you can tostop your allies
    from going too far.
  • Nicky

61
Regents Question
  • Which conclusion is best supported by this
  • telegram?
  • (1) Russia started to mobilize for war against
    Serbia.
  • (2) Nicholas II condemned the efforts of Wilhelm
    II.
  • (3) Russia supported the use of extreme
  • measures.
  • (4) Nicholas II hoped diplomacy would prevent
  • war.

62
Regents Question
  • Which war is most closely associated with the
    telegram Nicholas II sent to Wilhelm II?
  • (1) the Franco-Prussian War
  • (2) the Russo-Japanese War
  • (3) World War I
  • (4) World War II

63
Revolution in Russia
  • Romanov family live life of luxury
  • Peasants starve, unrest
  • Revolution of 1905, Bloody Sunday
  • Peaceful march turns deadly
  • Revolution 1917
  • Bolsheviks overthrow and execute family
  • Lenin rises to power

64
Russian Rulers/Dictators
  • Lenin
  • Create a classless society
  • New Economic Policy
  • Allows a little private industry
  • Standard of living rises
  • Red Army
  • Communist Party
  • USSR
  • Stalin
  • Totalitarian rule
  • Command economy
  • Five year plan
  • Increase industry
  • Not successful
  • Collectives failed, peasants burn farms
  • Everything was turned over to the government
  • Purges/Show Trials

65
Treaty of Versailles
  • Germany is punished for WWI
  • Hand over territory (Alsace-Lorraine)
  • Reduce the size of the army
  • War guilt
  • Austria-Hungary split
  • Formed the League of Nations

66
Regents Question This will make your forget the
peace terms.
67
Regents Question
  • This cartoonist is referring to the way Germany
    was affected in 1919 by
  • (1) the Congress of Vienna
  • (2) its defeat of Napoleon
  • (3) the Treaty of Versailles
  • (4) its defeat in World War II

68
Regents Question
  • This 1919 cartoon suggests that Germany may come
    under the influence of
  • (1) moderates (3) radicals
  • (2) conservatives (4) isolationists

69
Fascism
  • Mussolini Italy
  • Rule by dictator, blind loyalty to leader, strict
    discipline, strong military, violence,
    nationalism
  • Hitler Germany
  • Rise to power during weak government, appealed to
    the people, poor economy
  • Holocaust

70
Regents Question
  • One similarity between Adolf Hitler and Benito
    Mussolini is that both
  • (1) led fascist states
  • (2) supported communism
  • (3) rejected militarism
  • (4) remained in power after World War II

71
World War II
  • MAIN causes
  • Appeasement British give in a little to avoid
    war
  • Turning Points
  • Entry of US
  • Invasion of Italy
  • Invasion of Normandy

72
WWII
  • Yalta Conference
  • Hiroshima and Nagasaki
  • Technology improved submarines, sonar, improved
    aircraft, machine guns, deadly bombs
  • United Nations created in 1945

73
Cold War
  • Growing tensions between the Communists (USSR)
    and non-Communists (USA)
  • After WWII each superpower had different ideas
    for the world
  • Arms race
  • Iron Curtain
  • Truman Doctrine
  • Marshall Plan
  • NATO vs Warsaw Pact
  • Hot Spots
  • Vietnam
  • Korean War
  • Iran and Iraq
  • Cuban Missile Crisis

74
Middle East
  • Arab Israeli Conflict
  • Fight for a homeland
  • Muslims vs Christians
  • Iranian Hostage Crisis
  • Persian Gulf War(s)
  • Who were the players? What are these wars all
    about?

75
Collapse of Soviet Union
  • Economic problems
  • Mikhail Gorbachev
  • Perestroika
  • Glasnost
  • More western ideas
  • Fall of Berlin Wall
  • Lech Walesa (Solidarity) Poland

76
Regents Question
  • What has the end of communism in the Soviet
  • Union caused many countries in Eastern Europe
  • to do?
  • (1) shift to a command economy
  • (2) maintain a communist form of government
  • (3) pursue free-market economic policies
  • (4) join the Warsaw Pact

77
India
  • Imperialism controlled by British
  • Gandhi independence movement
  • Civil disobedience
  • Nonviolence
  • Cottage industries
  • Salt March
  • 1947 Partitioned into India (Hindu) and
    Pakistan (Muslim)

78
India Today
  • Biggest problem today is overpopulation
  • Kashmir

79
Modern Africa
  • Pan-Africanism unity of Africans
  • Kenya Jomo Kenyatta
  • 1948 Apartheid separation of races,
    segregation
  • Mandela president in 1994
  • Desmond Tutu

80
Modern China
  • 1911 Sun Yat-sen
  • Mao Zedong Communist leader
  • Long March
  • Great Leap Forward
  • Cultural Revolution
  • Deng Xiaoping
  • Four Modernizations
  • Encourages trade with the West

81
More China
  • Tiananmen Square Massacre
  • Student protest
  • Demand more rights and freedoms
  • 1000s killed and wounded by Chinese government
  • Hong Kong
  • 1842 British control
  • Modern and
  • 1997 Hong Kong returned to the Chinese
  • Will keep the same social and economic system

82
Human Rights Issues
  • Balkans ethnic cleansing of ethnic Albanians by
    Serbs (Slobodan Milosevic)
  • Rwanda
  • Cambodia Pol Pot and the Khmer Rouge
  • Tiananmen Square
  • Holocaust Nazis, Germany during WWII
  • Prison and concentration camps, anti-Semitic

83
Global Themes
  • Change
  • Turning Points
  • Belief Systems
  • Geography and the Environment
  • Economic Systems
  • Political Systems
  • Nationalism
  • Imperialism
  • Human Rights
  • Movement of People and Goods

84
Change/Revolution
  • Neolithic Revolution
  • Industrial Revolution
  • Chinese Communist Revolution
  • Crusades
  • Renaissance
  • Enlightenment
  • Protestant Reformation
  • Independence Movements (India, Africa)

85
Turning Points
  • Fall of Constantinople
  • Age of Exploration
  • French Revolution
  • Collapse of Soviet Union
  • Russian Revolution
  • Invention of Printing Press

86
Belief Systems
  • Hinduism
  • Buddhism
  • Judaism
  • Christianity
  • Islam
  • Confucianism

87
Geography and the Environment
  • River Valley Civilizations
  • Chinese Influence on Japan
  • Development of city-states in Greece
  • Latin America
  • Early African Kingdoms

88
Economic Systems
  • Traditional economy
  • Manorialism/Feudalism
  • Mercantilism
  • Laissez-faire (Adam Smith)
  • Commercial Revolution

89
Political Systems
  • Monarchy
  • Totalitarianism
  • Feudalism
  • Democracy
  • Communism
  • Fascism

90
Golden Ages
  • Guptas in India
  • Romans
  • Islamic
  • Ghana and Mali in Africa
  • Renaissance in Europe

91
Nationalism
  • German and Italian unification
  • India
  • Zionism
  • Africa
  • Latin America
  • Balkans

92
Imperialism
  • British in India
  • Europeans in Africa
  • Japan in Korea and parts of China
  • Mongols

93
Date and Time
  • Wednesday, August 12th
  • 1215 pm
  • Cafeteria
  • Bring pens and pencils
  • NO CELL PHONES
  • If you have testing mods, you will be in a
    different room.

94
  • STUDY, STUDY, STUDY!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
  • Make sure you answer ALL questions!
  • Answer all essays. Organization is key!
  • Get a good nights sleep!
  • STUDY, STUDY, STUDY!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
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