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Romanian Education System


In Romania, education and training are based on the following main principles: Education is a national priority; School must promote a democratic, open and humanistic ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Romanian Education System

Romanian Education System
Basic of the Education System
  • In Romania, education and training are based on
    the following main principles
  • Education is a national priority
  • School must promote a democratic, open and
    humanistic education
  • The education system should offer equal
    opportunities for all citizens
  • Education provided by state institutions is free
    of charge
  • Members of ethnic minorities can learn in their
    mother tongue.

Pre-primary Education
  • Pre-primary education covers the 3 to 7-year-old
    age group. This special type of education is
    provided in special institutions kindergartens
    mostly public.
  • Romanian pre-primary education includes
    institutions where teaching is carried out in
    Romanian language and institutions where teaching
    is in the languages of the national minorities.
    Kindergartens attendance is optional, except for
    the last year, which is compulsory.
  • At the present time, no assessment (of pupils) is
    undertaken in pre-primary education, although
    their mental and physical development is

Compulsory Education
  • This eight-year period includes primary education
    (1-4 years) and lower secondary education at a
    gymnasium (5-8 years). Compulsory education
    covers the 7 to 15-year-old age group. According
    to the law, the students are obliged to attend
    school only until they are 16 years old or when
    they have completed the lower secondary school.
  • Primary education
  • Primary education provides general education for
    the first four years of school. Children can
    obtain primary education both in Romanian and in
    the language of one of the national minorities.
    Primary education focuses on the mental and
    physical development of children.

  • Primary education covers the 7 to 11- year-old
    age group. Children are invited to attend school
    when they are seven years old. At the request of
    their parents or legal guardians, children can
    attend school in their sixth year, if they have
    reached an appropriate stage of physical and
    mental development.
  • There are no entrance requirements for primary
    education. Primary school attendance is
  • Primary education is completely free of charge.
  • There is neither final examination, nor
    certification at the end of primary school

  • Lower secondary education (Gymnasium)
  • Lower secondary education provides general
    education. Lower secondary education generally
    covers the 11 to 15- year-old age group. The
    learning process is carried out in classes which
    have an average of 25 pupils (a minimum of 10 and
    maximum of 30). Classes are organized according
    to age-group.
  • Pupils who have completed primary education are
    automatically moved up to compulsory secondary
    education. There are no other entrance
    requirements and school attendance is compulsory.
  • The lower secondary studies are completely free
    of charge.

  • During grades 7 and 8, pupils must take some
    National Exams, organized on the basis of the
    methodology developed by the Ministry of
    Education and Research. The examination includes
    the following subjects
  • - Romanian language and literature written
  • - Mathematics written exam.
  • Pupils have to pass this examination to receive a
    leaving certificate. This certificate allows them
    to attend the upper secondary school, depending
    on the results obtained.

  • The general objectives of high schools are as
  • to develop an autonomous and creative
  • to acquire basic elements of general education
  • to allow pupils to continue their studies in
    higher education
  • to develop civic behavior according to a
    democratic society
  • to develop skills for the integration of
    graduates in socio-economic activities.

Types of high schools
  • There are five types of high schools in Romania
    allowing access to university, based on the type
    of education offered and their academic
    performance. All of these allow for a high school
    diploma, access to the Baccalaureate exam and
    therefore access to University studies.
  • High school enrolment is conditioned on passing
    the National Test and participating in the
    National Computerized Repartition.
  • High school studies are four years in length, two
    compulsory (9th and 10th year), two
    non-compulsory (11th and 12th year). There are no
    exams between the 10th and the 11 years.

  • Each type of high-school is free to offer one or
    more academic programs (profile). National
    College - the most prestigious high schools in
  • Military College - there are 3 high schools
    administered by the Romanian Army.
  • Economic College or Technical College
  • Normal high school
  • Scholastic Group - a group of two schools - a
    high school (usually offering academic programs
    in the field of technical or services education)
    and a Craft and Trade School.

Theoretical program
  • Sciences (mathematics and computer programming or
    natural sciences), Computer Programming
  • Humanistic profile (social studies or languages)
  • Technical programs that give a qualification in a
    technical field for electricians, industrial
    machine operators, mechanics etc.
  • Services and Economics programs that give a
    qualification in the fields of services for
    waiters, chefs, tourism operators, etc.

The Baccalaureate Exam
  • High school students graduating from a College,
    High School or Scholastic Group must take the
    National Baccalaureate Exam.
  • This final examination comprises 3 exams that
  • - the language abilities in Romanian language and
  • - the language abilities in a foreign language
  • - the digital abilities (IT).
  • These exams must be taken during the last
    scholastic year.

  • After the high school graduation, students take 3
    written examinations, usually spanning on the
    course of one and a half week in late June and
    August. It is a highly centralized, national
    exam. These are
  • Romanian Language and Literature
  • Compulsory subject depending on the academic
    program followed in high school.
  • Subject at the choice of the candidate from the
    domains considered as the main part of the
    Academic Program followed in high school.

Higher education
  • The admission process is left to the
    Universities, and from 2007, there is no
    integrated admission scheme. Most universities
    enroll the students according to their
    baccalaureate grades and the grades in high
    school. The percentage differs from one
    university to the other and each university
    decides by itself whether to have an admission
    exam or not.

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