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Human Development

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Human Development A study of continuity and change in people Three domains of development Physical Development--changes in the body itself and how a person uses the body. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Human Development


1
Human Development
  • A study of continuity and change in people

2
Three domains of development
  • Physical Development--changes in the body itself
    and how a person uses the body.
  • Cognitive Development--changes in styles of
    thinking, language ability and use, and memory.
  • Psychosocial development--change in feelings or
    emotions as well as relations with other people.

3
Bronfenbrenner's Four Ecological Settings for
Development Change
MACROSYSTEM
Attitudes and ideologies of the culture
EXOSYSTEM
Extended family
MESOSYSTEM
Friends of
Neighbors
MICROSYSTEM
family
Family
School
Health
Peers
CHILD
services
Church
Neighborhood
group
play area
Daycare
Mass
Legal
center
media
services
Social welfare
services
4
Bronfenbrenners Ecological Systems (1 of 2)
  • The microsystem refers to situations in which the
    child has face-to-face contact with influential
    others. Family, peers.
  • The mesosystem refers to the connections and
    relationships that exist between two or more
    microsystems. Like how a child handles his
    relationships at home in comparison to those at
    school.

5
Bronfenbrenners Ecological Systems (2 of 2)
  • The exosystem consists of settings in which the
    child does not participate but still experiences
    decisions and events that affect him or her
    indirectly.
  • The macrosystem is the overarching institutions,
    practices, and patterns of belief that
    characterize society as a whole and take the
    smaller micro-, meso-, and exosystems into
    account.

6
Why study development? (1 of 5)
  • Studying development can give you realistic
    expectations for children and adolescents.

7
Why study development? (2 of 5)
  • Knowledge of development can help you respond
    appropriately to childrens actual behavior.

8
Why study development? (3 of 5)
  • Knowledge of development can help you recognize
    when departures from the typical or average are
    truly significant.

9
Why study development? (4 of 5)
  • Studying development can help you understand
    yourself.

10
Why study development? (5 of 5)
  • Studying development can make you a better
    advocate for the needs and rights of children

11
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12
Early efforts to view children as little people.
  • Charles Darwin and the baby biography.
  • Arnold Gesell (of Gesell Intelligence test fame)
    and norms generated from observing children doing
    developmental tasks at specific ages
  • Jean Piaget and stage theory

13
Basic Issues in Developmental Study
  • Old repeated behaviors Vs. totally new ones
  • Genetics Vs. environment
  • Is the behavior specific to a culture or all over
    the world?
  • Are some changes more desirable than others?
  • Continuity and discontinuity
  • Nature and nurture
  • Universal Vs. context-specific development
  • Deficit and difference

14
CONTINUITY AND DISCONTINUITY
How much does development simply continue earlier
acquisitions, and how much does it lead to
qualitatively new behaviors and skills?
15
NATURE AND NURTURE
  • NATURE Inborn qualities of a person qualities
    acquired through genetic inheritance or heredity
  • NURTURE Qualities of a person acquired as a
    result of experiences and environmental influences

16
Philosophers on Nature vs. Nurture
Genetics, Heredity, Biology KANT Early
preformation theory. We are born with potential
that just unfolds. We have a priori
understanding. Molds exist in e mind,
integrating experiences ROUSSEAU Children born
with sense of right and wrong, just allow them to
develop. GALTON Coined expression nature vs.
nurture. Believed Hereditary Genius eminence
runs in families. Proponent of the Eugenics
movement to improve human race. PIAGET
Universal cognitive maturational stages FREUD
psychosexual stages CHOMSKY prewired L.A.D.
(language acquisition device) Behavioral
geneticists
Environment, Experience, Learning LOCKE (1690)
tabula rasa J. S. Mill A Child prodigy
who attributed his genius to training. PAVLOV
(1904) Classical conditioning J. B. WATSON
Little Albert behaviorist study B. F.
SKINNER operant conditioning
17
UNIVERSAL AND CONTEXT-SPECIFIC DEVELOPMENT
How much can developmental psychology identify
developmental changes that happen throughout the
world, and how much should it take specific human
and cultural contexts into account?
18
DEFICIT AND DIFFERENCE
Are certain developmental changes and milestones
inherently more desirable than others?
19
How do we study development?
  • 1. Methods
  • 2. Types of studies
  • 3. Ethical constraints

20
Usual scientific methods
  • Formulating research questions.
  • Stating questions as hypotheses.
  • Testing the hypotheses or hypothesis. The null
    hypothesis or hypothesis of no difference is what
    is actually tested.
  • Interpreting and publicizing the results

21
How do we get samples for studies in development?
  • Convenience samples.
  • True random samples (logistically difficult)
  • Random cluster samples
  • Stratified random
  • Systematic random samples (typical telephone
    interview)

22
Longitudinal studies
  • Truest of developmental studies
  • Looks at one group of individuals, measuring them
    at selected intervals using pre-determined
    instruments
  • No treatments are administered, at least not
    intentionally
  • Differences found are attributed to growth

23
Ex post facto studies
  • Measurements are taken as nearly as possible
    after a treatment, intentional or otherwise, is
    believed to have occurred.
  • An especially useful methodology where the
    treatment was not one that could ethically have
    been intentional
  • Problem of arriving after the fact
  • Problem of no randomization

24
Descriptive studies
  • Describe a population, through a sample, at one
    point
  • Can be very generalizeable
  • Harris and Gallup polls are well known
  • Cross-sectional studies are descriptive

25
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26
Correlation studies
  • Show relationships between variables
  • Can correlate many variables within a single
    study
  • No treatments given, no cause effect
    relationships inferred

27
POSITIVE CORRELATION
NEGATIVE CORRELATION
ZERO CORRELATION
More
More
More
Illnesses
Crimes
aggression
Acts of
Less
Less
Less
Less
More
Low
High
New
Full
Exposure to violent TV
Optimism scores
Phases of the moon
28
Experimental studies
  • Administer a treatment or treatments according to
    a pre-arranged plan
  • To varying degrees, action, quasi- and true
    experimental studies randomize
  • Cause and effect can be inferred
  • But may be so structured that they are a bit
    short on reality

29
Dependent and Independent Variables
Y fx(x1, x2, x3, xn)
Y is the dependent variable (such as test scores,
number of errors, speed, muscle contractions,
aggressive acts, etc.) Xs are independent
variables (such as age, sex, drug, intelligence,
etc., and the experimental treatment)
30
Qualitative and naturalistic research
  • Trades some degree of objectivity in order to get
    to real truth issues
  • Methodology not always fully planned before study
    begins
  • Data are rich and real

31
Synopsis of scientific methods
  • Most developmental research tries to look at the
    long range.
  • Research in development comes from a wide variety
    of fields.
  • Relatively little is directly cause effect

32
Ethical considerations in research
  • Confidentiality
  • Full disclosure of purposes
  • Respect for individuals freedom to participate

33
In closing . . .
  • Development is a field that studies the
    continuities and change over time.
  • Development is not the field that gives many
    answers about immediate or instant changes.
  • Studying development helps us understand each
    other as people who are making adjustments to
    life.
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