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Salon Fundamentals Cosmetology

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Title: Salon Fundamentals Cosmetology


1
Chapter 4
Electricity
2
Chapter 4 Tour Electricity
3
Principles of Electricity
Vocabulary of Electricity
Principles of Electricity
Electric Current
1
Safety Measures
Chapter 4.1 Electricity Principles of Electricity
4
Where were you when the lights went out?
Chapter 4.1 Electricity Principles of Electricity
5
Vocabulary of Electricity
Click on a card to view the definition of a key
term. Click on a definition to reveal the key
term.
6
Vocabulary of Electricity
Click on a card to view the definition of a key
term. Click on a definition to reveal the key
term.
7
Vocabulary of Electricity
Click on a card to view the definition of a key
term. Click on a definition to reveal the key
term.
8
Vocabulary of Electricity
Insulator
Conductor
wood
silver
Material that does not allow a current to pass
through it
Material that best transports electricity
plastic
copper
graphite
rubber
carbon
alcohol
pure distilled water
water-containing ions
In a salon, most currents are carried by cords
which are copper wire (conductors) insulated by
varying amounts of rubber.
Chapter 4.1 Electricity Principles of Electricity
9
Vocabulary of Electricity
Cords on appliances should be kept straight and
free of knots, kinks and tangles to prevent
breaks.
Warning!
A break in any electrical cord can put you or
your client in contact with an active current,
causing electrical shock.
Chapter 4.1 Electricity Principles of Electricity
10
Vocabulary of Electricity


AMP
VOLT
OHM
WATT
HERTZ
  • Strength
  • Power box to house supplies amps
  • Conductors carry limited number of amps
  • Amp rating is the number of electrons flowing on
    a line
  • Pressure
  • Measures how hard electrons are pushed by the
    source
  • 110/220 volts
  • 220 volt has V prongs on plug
  • Large motors need 220 volts
  • Resistance
  • Impedance
  • Measures how difficult it is to push electrons
    through a conductor
  • OHMs rating resistance to the motion of
    electrons in a conductor
  • Amount Used
  • 1 watt small amount of energy
  • Blow dryer 1000 watts per second
  • 1000 watts one kilowatt
  • Frequency
  • Hertz Hz
  • Number of cycles, per second, a generator
    alternates the current from the source
  • 1 hertz one cycle/second

Chapter 4.1 Electricity Principles of Electricity
11
Vocabulary of Electricity
Beyond the Book
The flow of electricity in a human produces
violent muscle contractions that prevent the
person from letting go.
Receiving a shock may cause the heart to lose
its coordination or rhythm.
http//www.jlab.org
12
Electric Current
  • Two Forms
  • Direct Current (DC)
  • Electrons move at an even rate in only one
    direction
  • Alternating Current (AC)
  • Electrons flow first in one direction and then
    the other

Chapter 4.1 Electricity Principles of Electricity
13
Electric Current
  • Special Instruments
  • Converter
  • Changes direct current to alternating current
  • Rectifier
  • Changes alternating current to direct
    current

Chapter 4.1 Electricity Principles of Electricity
14
Electric Current
Sources of Electric Current
Generator
Battery
  • Has a positive () and a negative (-) terminal
  • Produces direct current only
  • Electrons flow toward positive terminal in a
    circuit
  • Produces alternating current
  • Power source most often used in salons
  • Uses mechanical energy to produce flow of
    electrons

Chapter 4.1 Electricity Principles of Electricity
15
Electric Current
How Electric Current is Produced
Two conditions necessary for an electric current
  • Source
  • Generator producing alternating current
  • Battery producing direct current
  • Circuit
  • Closed path through which electrons travel

Chapter 4.1 Electricity Principles of Electricity
16
Electric Current
How Electric Current is Produced Electron Flow
Closed
Open
  • Electrons leave the source and operate an
    appliance
  • Switch is on
  • Broken path of electron flow
  • Switch is off

Chapter 4.1 Electricity Principles of Electricity
17
Electric Current
How Electric Current is Produced
  • Parallel Wiring
  • Powers several loads at once or at different
    times
  • Install only parallel wiring in a salon
  • Series Wiring
  • Runs all loads at the same time
  • Circuit travels from one load to the next
  • Example would be Christmas lights

Chapter 4.1 Electricity Principles of Electricity
18
Electric Current
Overload and Short Circuit
  • Overload
  • Too many appliances on one circuit being operated
    at the same time
  • More current flows than the line is designed to
    carry
  • Takes 1 amp on the circuit to operate every 100
    watts of an appliance
  • 1,000 watt blow dryer needs a 10-amp circuit
  • Risk of fire occurs when an extension cord with
    multiple plugs attaches 4 or 5 appliances to one
    wall socket

Chapter 4.1 Electricity Principles of Electricity
19
Electric Current
Overload and Short Circuit
  • Short Circuit
  • A foreign conductor comes in contact with wire
    carrying current to a load
  • Commonly occurs in thermal styling tools due to
    twisting and bending of cords
  • Example dropping a blow dryer in water

Chapter 4.1 Electricity Principles of Electricity
20
Electric Current
Beyond the Book
Thomas Edison invented the first commercially
practical incandescent electric lamp. The lamp
itself was perfected on October 21, 1879 which
put into circuit the first bulb embodying the
principles known as the "Edison modern
incandescent lamp." This bulb maintained its
incandescence for over 40 hours.
http//www.thomasedison.com/Inventions.htm
21
Safety Measures
Fuse
Device containing a fine metal wire that allows
current to flow through it
  • Connected directly to the circuits in the power
    box
  • Wire melts to break current if overload occurs
  • CANNOT be reused

Chapter 4.1 Electricity Principles of Electricity
22
Safety Measures
Circuit Breaker
Reusable device that breaks the flow of current
when an overload occurs
  • Connects directly to the circuits in the power
    box
  • Contains two pieces of metal that make contact
    with each other
  • Separates the pieces to break the circuit if the
    flow of current is too high

Chapter 4.1 Electricity Principles of Electricity
23
Safety Measures
Grounding Wire
Designed to protect you when operating certain
kinds of appliances
  • 3-wire system
  • Special wire prevents excess flow of current from
    going to user
  • Any appliance requiring this protection has a
    three-prong plug

Chapter 4.1 Electricity Principles of Electricity
24
Safety Measures
Shock
If a person comes in contact with electric
current
Chapter 4.1 Electricity Principles of Electricity
25
Safety Measures
  • Local Shock
  • Immerse burn in cold water immediately wait
    until the burn is completely cold and swelling
    has stopped
  • Blot dry and apply an antiseptic cream
  • Take person to the hospital if burn is severe

Procedure
Passes through a small part of the body
Chapter 4.1 Electricity Principles of Electricity
26
Safety Measures
General Shock
Procedures
Passes through the entire body
  1. Break the circuit before touching person
  2. Dial 911
  3. Start CPR continue until emergency team arrives

Chapter 4.1 Electricity Principles of Electricity
27
Safety Measures
  • Emergency Procedures for Electrical Fires
  • Remember DO NOT PUT WATER ON IT
  • Turn off the circuit
  • Smother the fire with rug, towel, powder, or a
    fire extinguisher

Chapter 4.1 Electricity Principles of Electricity
28
Safety Measures
Beyond the Book
Some common electrical terms were named after
people.
Mary Louise Amp
James Watt
Myron Volt
Bob Transformer
29
Principles of Electricity Self-Check
  • On a sheet of paper numbered 1-8, answer the
    following questions.
  • Materials that best transport electricity
    are called conductors.
  • Materials that DO NOT allow a current to pass
    through them are called prisms.

True or False
Chapter 4.1 Electricity Principles of Electricity
30
Principles of Electricity Self-Check
True or False
  1. The unit of electric strength is called an amp.
  2. The unit of electric pressure is called an ohm.

Chapter 4.1 Electricity Principles of Electricity
31
Principles of Electricity Self-Check
  • The two forms of electrical current are
  • AC and DC
  • AD and BC
  • AB and CD
  • hot and cold
  • The name for the measure of how much
    electrical energy is being used is called
    ___________.

Chapter 4.1 Electricity Principles of Electricity
32
Principles of Electricity Self-Check
  • What type of shock passes through the nervous
    system?
  • local
  • direct
  • indirect
  • general
  • A shock that passes through a small part of
    the body is called a _________________.

Chapter 4.1 Electricity Principles of Electricity
33
Know Chart
  • As you correct your answers, evaluate your
    progress. Create a Know Chart with 2 columns.
    Place correct answers from the Self-Check under
    the I Know column. Then place incorrect
    answers under the I Need to Study column.

KNOW
CHART
I Need to Study
I Know
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.
Chapter 4.1 Electricity Principles of Electricity
34
Principles of Electricity Self-Check
  • Now check your work.
  • Materials that best transport electricity are
    called conductors.

True or False
Observe each of the False statements become True.
True
Chapter 4.1 Electricity Principles of Electricity
35
Principles of Electricity Self-Check
True or False
  1. Materials that DO NOT allow a current to pass
    through are called prisms.

Insulators are materials that DO NOT allow
currents to pass through them.
False
Chapter 4.1 Electricity Principles of Electricity
36
Principles of Electricity Self-Check
True or False
  1. The unit of electric strength is called an amp.

True
Chapter 4.1 Electricity Principles of Electricity
37
Principles of Electricity Self-Check
True or False
  1. The unit of electric pressure is called an ohm.

A volt is a unit of electric pressure. An ohm is
a unit of electric resistance.
False
Chapter 4.1 Electricity Principles of Electricity
38
Principles of Electricity Self-Check
  • The two forms of electrical current are
  • AC and DC
  • AD and BC
  • AB and CD
  • hot and cold
  • The name for the measure of how much
    electrical energy is being used is called
    ___________.

watt
Chapter 4.1 Electricity Principles of Electricity
39
Principles of Electricity Self-Check
  • What type of shock passes through the nervous
    system?
  • local
  • direct
  • indirect
  • general
  • A shock that passes through a small part of
    the body is called a _________________.

local shock
Chapter 4.1 Electricity Principles of Electricity
40

Lessons Learned
  • Vocabulary of Electricity
  • Electricity is a form of energy that produces
    light, heat, magnetic and chemical changes
  • Electric current is the movement of electricity
    along a path called a conductor
  • Load is the technical name of any electrically
    powered appliance
  • Conductor is a material that allows electricity
    to flow through it easily

?
?
?
?
Chapter 4.1 Electricity Principles of Electricity
41

Lessons Learned
  • Vocabulary of Electricity
  • Insulator is material that does not allow the
    flow of electric current
  • Amp is a unit of electric strength
  • Volt is a unit of electric pressure
  • Ohm is a unit of electric resistance
  • Watt is a measure of how much electrical energy
    is being used

?
?
?
?
?
Chapter 4.1 Electricity Principles of Electricity
42

Lessons Learned
  • Safety Measures
  • Safety devices are installed in many appliances
    and buildings because of the possibility of
    overloads and short circuits
  • Electrotherapy
  • Electrotherapy is the application of electrical
    currents during treatments to skin

?
?
Chapter 4.1 Electricity Principles of Electricity
43
ITS 2 U!
Make a diagram showing the flow of electrons
from a source to an electric appliance commonly
used in the salon.
Chapter 4.1 Electricity Principles of Electricity
44
Example
ITS 2 U!
Chapter 4.1 Electricity Principles of Electricity
45
Electricity
Effects of Electric Current
Electrotherapy
Electricity In Cosmetology
2
Light Therapy
Chapter 4.2 Electricity Electricity In Cosmetology
46
Effects of Electric Current
How is electricity used in the picture below?
Chapter 4.2 Electricity Electricity In Cosmetology
47
Effects of Electric Current
Click on the card to view the definition of the
key term. Click on the definition to reveal the
key term.
48
Effects of Electric Current
Click on the card to view the definition of the
key term. Click on the definition to reveal the
key term.
49
Effects of Electric Current
Click on the card to view the definition of the
key term. Click on the definition to reveal the
key term.
50
Effects of Electric Current
Click on the card to view the definition of the
key term. Click on the definition to reveal the
key term.
51
Effects of Electric Current
Click on the card to view the definition of the
key term. Click on the definition to reveal the
key term.
52
Effects of Electric Current
Heating
Mechanical or Magnetic
Electrochemical
  • More resistance equals more heat
  • Heating elements heat up with the flow of current
  • Push-pull effect causes motor to turn
  • Electric current travels through a water-based
    solution to produce relaxing or stimulating
    effects

Chapter 4.2 Electricity Electricity In Cosmetology
53
Effects of Electric Current
Beyond the Book
If your hair stands up in a storm, positive
charges are rising through you and reaching
toward the negatively charged part of the
storm. That's not a good sign! Your best bet is
to get yourself indoors immediately.
http//news.nationalgeographic.com
54
Electrotherapy
  • Application of special currents (modalities) that
    have certain effects on the skin
  • Electrode safe contact point through which
    current can pass to client

ALERT! A person with any potentially restrictive
medical condition should always consult a
physician before receiving electrotherapy
treatment.
Chapter 4.2 Electricity Electricity In Cosmetology
55
Electrotherapy
Galvanic Current
  • Oldest form of electrotherapy
  • Direct current of low voltage and high amperage
  • A special appliance is necessary to convert AC to
    DC
  • Chemical effects are caused by passing the
    current through acid or alkaline solutions and/or
    by passing current through body tissues and fluids

Chapter 4.2 Electricity Electricity In Cosmetology
56
Electrotherapy
Phoresis
  • Process of forcing an acid or alkali into the
    skin by applying current to the chemical
  • Most typical application of Galvanic current
  • Referred to as bleaching the skin

Chapter 4.2 Electricity Electricity In Cosmetology
57
Electrotherapy
Anaphoresis
  • Uses a negative (-) pole to force alkaline
    solutions into the skin
  • Produces alkaline reaction
  • Increases blood flow
  • Softens tissues
  • Stimulates nerves

Chapter 4.2 Electricity Electricity In Cosmetology
58
Electrotherapy
Cataphoresis
  • Uses a positive () pole to force acidic
    solutions into the skin
  • Produces acidic reaction
  • Slows blood flow
  • Hardens tissues
  • Soothes nerves

Chapter 4.2 Electricity Electricity In Cosmetology
59
Electrotherapy
Galvanic Current
  • Apply active electrode to the client
  • Instruct client to hold the inactive electrode
  • Wrap both electrodes in moist cotton
  • Never use more than one milliampere of current
  • Also used for iontophoresis and desincrustation

NEVER use the Galvanic current over an area
having many broken capillaries.
Chapter 4.2 Electricity Electricity In Cosmetology
60
Electrotherapy
Faradic Current
Alternating current, interrupted to produce a
mechanical, non-chemical reaction
  • Stimulates nerve and muscle tissue
  • Improves blood circulation
  • Improves muscle tone
  • Stimulates hair growth
  • Increases glandular activity

Chapter 4.2 Electricity Electricity In Cosmetology
61
Electrotherapy
Faradic Current
  • Indirect Method
  • Most frequently used faradic current application
  • Salon professional wears wrist band with
    moistened electrode
  • Second electrode is held by client or attached to
    lower neck
  • Salon professional places fingers on clients
    face before turning on current to prevent shock
  • Facial massage is performed when the current
    reaches desired level

Chapter 4.2 Electricity Electricity In Cosmetology
62
Electrotherapy
Faradic Current
  • Direct Method
  • Place both electrodes on clients skin
  • BE CERTAIN THAT THEY NEVER TOUCH
  • Turn on current and slowly increase only after
    electrodes are in place
  • Current travels through the motor nerves between
    the electrodes, causing muscle stimulation

Chapter 4.2 Electricity Electricity In Cosmetology
63
Electrotherapy
Sinusoidal Current
Alternating current with a mechanical effect,
much like the faradic current that produces
muscle contraction
  • Use the Indirect Method application only
  • Penetrates more deeply
  • Provides greater stimulation to treated area
  • Should not be used on unhealthy and/or broken skin

Chapter 4.2 Electricity Electricity In Cosmetology
64
Electrotherapy
Tesla Current
Alternating current that can be adjusted to
different voltages to produce heat
  • Known as the violet-ray
  • Results in relaxation or stimulation, depending
    on method of application
  • Improves blood circulation
  • Increases rate of metabolism
  • Increases sebaceous glandular activity
  • Does not produce muscle contractions

Chapter 4.2 Electricity Electricity In Cosmetology
65
Electrotherapy
Tesla Current
  • Direct Application
  • Apply electrode directly to the clients scalp or
    face
  • Indirect Application
  • Active electrode is held by client while the
    cosmetologist manually stimulates the area being
    treated
  • Turn off current before exchanging electrode with
    client
  • General Electrification
  • Hand electrode to client before activating
    current
  • Switch power on tingling or vibrating
    effect is felt by client

Chapter 4.2 Electricity Electricity In Cosmetology
66
Electrotherapy
Tesla Current
  • Cosmetology uses include
  • Dry skin facial treatment Indirect Application
  • Mild acne and/or blackhead facial treatment
    Direct Application
  • Dry scalp Indirect Application
  • Scalp treatment Direct Application

Chapter 4.2 Electricity Electricity In Cosmetology
67
Electrotherapy
Precautions
  • General
  • Always read manufacturers directions and
    follow them carefully
  • Electrodes should never touch each other
  • Galvanic, Faradic Sinusoidal Current
  • Never take current over 1 milliampere
  • Make sure current is off before beginning
    indirect application and before breaking contact
    with client
  • Sinusoidal treatment should not exceed 30 minutes

Chapter 4.2 Electricity Electricity In Cosmetology
68
Electrotherapy
Precautions
  • Tesla Current
  • Begin with mild current, increase slowly
  • Keep client out of contact with metal during
    treatment
  • Limit treatment duration to approximately 5
    minutes
  • If you use cream it should contain NO alcohol
  • Turn current on AFTER client is holding electrode
  • Turn off current before removing electrode

Chapter 4.2 Electricity Electricity In Cosmetology
69
Electrotherapy
Heat Energy
Heat always moves from a hotter body to a cooler
body and can be transferred by
  • Conduction direct contact
  • Convection liquid or gas
  • Radiation through a vacuum

Effects of heat
  • Mild relaxes muscles, increases blood
    circulation
  • Intense destroys cells and tissues
  • Pyrolysis is the chemical breakdown of the skin
    caused by intense heat

Chapter 4.2 Electricity Electricity In Cosmetology
70
Electrotherapy
Beyond the Book
Take a look at some of the first technologies
used by the father of electrical energy, Nikola
Tesla.
http//www.electrotherapymuseum.com
71
Light Therapy
Production of beneficial effects on the body
through treatments using light rays or waves.
Chapter 4.2 Electricity Electricity In Cosmetology
72
Light Therapy
Electromagnetic radiation is the wave-like
patterns caused by the transfer of heat energy by
radiation.
  • Wavelength measurement of waves from crest to
    crest
  • Shorter wavelength more energy (x-ray)
  • Longer wavelength less energy (heat lamps)
  • Electromagnetic spectrum range of all the
    wavelengths produced by radiant energy

Chapter 4.2 Electricity Electricity In Cosmetology
73
Light Therapy
Visible Light
  • Portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that
    humans can see
  • Waves are either absorbed or reflected
  • Reflected waves are interpreted as color

Chapter 4.2 Electricity Electricity In Cosmetology
74
Light Therapy
Visible Light
  • White light combination light that is broken
    into individual wavelengths by a prism
  • Visible spectrum
  • Longest wavelengths produce red
  • Shortest wavelengths produce violet
  • Two kinds of salon lights produce white light
  • Fluorescent bluer tones or cooler casts
  • Incandescent redder tones or warmer casts

Chapter 4.2 Electricity Electricity In Cosmetology
75
Light Therapy
Invisible Light
  • Eighty percent (80) of sunlight is composed of
    invisible rays beyond red (infrared)
  • Eight percent (8) of natural sunlight is
    composed of invisible rays beyond violet
    (ultraviolet)

Chapter 4.2 Electricity Electricity In Cosmetology
76
Light Therapy
Infrared Light
  • Produces heat
  • Exposure times during a facial range from 5 to 15
    minutes
  • Place light at least 30 from the clients face
  • MUST cover eyes with eye pads or protective eye
    forms

Benefits include
  • Increased circulation
  • Increased skin gland secretions
  • Relaxation of muscles
  • Stimulation of cell and tissue activity

Chapter 4.2 Electricity Electricity In Cosmetology
77
Light Therapy
Ultraviolet Light
  • Shorter wavelengths - more damaging than infrared
    rays
  • Positive effects on the skin
  • Small doses tan the skin and aid in production of
    Vitamin D
  • Kills bacteria that causes skin infections
    (germicidal)
  • Promotes healing and is used in the treatment of
    acne
  • Negative effects of overexposure
  • Sunburned skin, damaged eyes, photochemically
    damaged hair
  • Can result in skin cancer
  • Tanning in excess causes dry, leathery skin,
    peeling, itching, wrinkling, sagging and
    permanent discoloration
  • ALWAYS wear protective eyewear during UV therapy

Chapter 4.2 Electricity Electricity In Cosmetology
78
Light Therapy
Beyond the Book
Winter Blues
  • Symptoms
  • Low energy
  • Excessive sleep
  • Over-eating
  • Weight gain
  • Severe depression
  • How it works?
  • Sends images to the brain
  • Eyes tell pineal gland (small pea-sized gland
    located in the brain) when the day is over
  • Gland induces drowsiness by secreting melatonin
  • Influences moods, hunger and metabolism
  • What to do?
  • Doctors have learned to treat this seasonal
    depression and jet lag by using a simple device
    called a light box

www.eyesite.ca
79
Electricity in Cosmetology Self-Check
  • On a sheet of paper numbered 1-8, answer the
    following questions.
  • Tesla is the direct current used in
    electrotherapy treatments.
  • Cataphoresis uses a positive electrode to force
    acidic solutions into the skin without breaking
    the skin.

True or False
Chapter 4.2 Electricity Electricity in Cosmetology
80
Electricity in Cosmetology Self-Check
True or False
  1. Treatment with light rays is called light
    therapy.
  2. The chemical breakdown of the skin caused by
    intense heat is called vaporizing.

Chapter 4.2 Electricity Electricity In Cosmetology
81
Electricity in Cosmetology Self-Check
  • Which type of light can create blue or cool
    tones?
  • invisible
  • sunlight
  • fluorescent
  • incandescent
  • The average distance you should place an infrared
    lamp during a facial is about ______ inches.

Chapter 4.2 Electricity Electricity In Cosmetology
82
Electricity in Cosmetology Self-Check
  • Which of the following types of light has the
    shortest wavelength?
  • red
  • violet
  • infrared
  • ultraviolet
  • Overexposure to what type of light can result in
    skin cancer?
  • visible
  • ultraviolet
  • fluorescent
  • incandescent

Chapter 4.2 Electricity Electricity In Cosmetology
83
Know Chart
  • As you correct your answers, evaluate your
    progress. Create a Know Chart with 2 columns.
    Place correct answers from the Self-Check under
    the I Know column. Then place incorrect
    answers under the I Need to Study column.

KNOW
CHART
I Need to Study
I Know
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.8.
Chapter 4.2 Electricity Electricity in Cosmetology
84
Principles of Electricity Self-Check
  • Now check your work.
  • Tesla is the direct current used in
    electrotherapy treatments.

The direct current used in electrotherapy
treatments is galvanic current.
False
Chapter 4.2 Electricity Electricity in Cosmetology
85
Principles of Electricity Self-Check
  • Cataphoresis uses a positive electrode to force
    acidic solutions into the skin without breaking
    the skin.

True or False
True
Chapter 4.2 Electricity Electricity in Cosmetology
86
Electricity in Cosmetology Self-Check
True or False
  1. Treatment with light rays is called light
    therapy.

True
Chapter 4.2 Electricity Electricity In Cosmetology
87
Electricity in Cosmetology Self-Check
True or False
  • The chemical breakdown of the skin caused by
    intense heat is called vaporizing.

Pyrolysis is the chemical breakdown of the skin
caused by intense heat.
False
Chapter 4.2 Electricity Electricity In Cosmetology
88
Electricity in Cosmetology Self-Check
  • Which type of light can create blue or cool
    tones?
  • invisible
  • sunlight
  • fluorescent
  • incandescent
  • The average distance you should place an infrared
    lamp during a facial is about ______ inches.

30
Chapter 4.2 Electricity Electricity In Cosmetology
89
Electricity in Cosmetology Self-Check
  • Which of the following types of light has the
    shortest wavelength?
  • red
  • violet
  • infrared
  • ultraviolet
  • Overexposure to what type of light can result in
    skin cancer?
  • visible
  • ultraviolet
  • fluorescent
  • incandescent

Chapter 4.2 Electricity Electricity In Cosmetology
90

Lessons Learned
  • Effects of Electric Current
  • Effects of electric current are heating,
    mechanical or magnetic and electrochemical
  • Electrotherapy
  • Electrotherapy is the application of special
    currents (modalities) that have certain effects
    on the skin

?
?
Chapter 4.2 Electricity Electricity In Cosmetology
91
Lessons Learned
  • Electrotherapy Galvanic Current
  • Direct current of low voltage and
    high amperage
  • Chemical effects are caused by passing the
    current though particular acid or alkaline
    solutions and/or passing current through body
    tissues and fluids

?
?
Chapter 4.2 Electricity Electricity In Cosmetology
92

Lessons Learned
  • Electrotherapy Faradic Current
  • Alternating current, interrupted to produce a
    mechanical, non-chemical reaction
  • Stimulates nerve and muscle tissue
  • Electrotherapy Sinusoidal Current
  • Alternating current with a mechanical effect
  • Produces muscle contractions

?
?
?
?
Chapter 4.2 Electricity Electricity In Cosmetology
93

Lessons Learned
  • Electrotherapy Tesla Current
  • High frequency current known as violet ray
  • Relaxation or stimulation, depending on method of
    application
  • Does NOT produce muscle contractions

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Chapter 4.2 Electricity Electricity In Cosmetology
94

Lessons Learned
  • Light Therapy
  • Production of beneficial effects on the body
    through treatments using light rays or waves
  • Visible light is the portion of the
    electromagnetic spectrum that humans see
  • The wavelengths that produce red are the longest
    waves of the visible spectrum
  • Fluorescent and incandescent light are two kinds
    of light produced in the salon

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Chapter 4.2 Electricity Electricity In Cosmetology
95
ITS 2 U!
  • The following sound association activity can be
    used to help remember the differences between the
    types of electrotherapy used in the salon.
  • Galvanic current Make a low, steady hum
    sound. This will symbolize a direct current
    flowing in one, constant direction represented by
    the monotony of the low, steady hum.
  • Faradic current Make a high-pitched zit, zit
    sound similar to a high-speed drill used by a
    dentist. This is done to represent an
    alternating current which provides minimal
    penetration of the skin.

Chapter 4.2 Electricity Electricity In Cosmetology
96
ITS 2 U!
  • The following sound association activity can be
    used to help remember the differences between the
    types of electrotherapy used in the salon.
  • Sinusoidal current Make a low, guttural zoot,
    zoot sound similar to many bull frogs in a
    swamp. This is done to represent an alternating
    current capable of producing deeper penetration
    of the skin.
  • Tesla current Blow out through the lips making
    a pluugh sound similar to that of a child
    playing with a car mimicking the car engine.
    Tesla is an alternating current able to cause
    vibration. Feel the vibration of your lips as
    you make the pluugh sound.

Chapter 4.2 Electricity Electricity In Cosmetology
97

Electricity Self-Test
On a sheet of paper numbered 1-10, answer the
following questions.
  • The movement of electricity along a conductor is
    called
  • voltage
  • wattage
  • conductance
  • electric current

Chapter 4 Electricity
98

Electricity Self-Test
  • Materials such as glass and paper do not allow
    electricity to flow through them and are called
  • loads
  • insulators
  • open circuits
  • closed circuits

Chapter 4 Electricity
99

Electricity Self-Test
  • An ampere is a unit of electric
  • pressure
  • strength
  • resistance
  • frequency

Chapter 4 Electricity
100

Electricity Self-Test
  • A volt is a unit of electric
  • pressure
  • strength
  • resistance
  • frequency

Chapter 4 Electricity
101

Electricity Self-Test
  • A unit of electrical resistance is called a(n)
  • ohm
  • volt
  • watt
  • insulator

Chapter 4 Electricity
102

Electricity Self-Test
  • The two forms of electrical current are
  • AB DC
  • AC DC
  • AD BC
  • hot cold

Chapter 4 Electricity
103

Electricity Self-Test
  • Which of the following is NOT an effect of
    electric current?
  • heating effect
  • cooling effect
  • magnetic effect
  • electrochemical effect

Chapter 4 Electricity
104

Electricity Self-Test
  • The direct current used in electrotherapy
    treatments is
  • Tesla
  • Faradic
  • Galvanic
  • Sinusoidal

Chapter 4 Electricity
105

Electricity Self-Test
  • High frequency and alternating current are
    characteristics of which type of electrotherapy?
  • Tesla
  • Galvanic
  • Sinusoidal
  • direct current

Chapter 4 Electricity
106

Electricity Self-Test
  • Which type of light can create blue or cool
    tones?
  • sunlight
  • invisible
  • fluorescent
  • incandescent

Chapter 4 Electricity
107

Electricity Self-Test
Time to check the self-test
  • d. electric current
  • b. insulators
  • b. strength
  • a. pressure
  • a. ohm

Chapter 4 Electricity
108

Electricity Self-Test
Time to check the self-test
  1. b. AC DC
  2. b. cooling effect
  3. c. Galvanic
  4. a. Tesla
  1. c. fluorescent

Chapter 4 Electricity
109
Chapter 4 Electricity
  • Principles of Electricity
  • Electricity in Cosmetology

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