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WORLD WAR II

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WORLD WAR II Part 2 BACKGROUND The U.S. was basically unprepared for war in December 1941. FDR had used the PWA (Public Works Administration) to build aircraft carriers. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: WORLD WAR II


1
WORLD WAR II
  • Part 2

2
BACKGROUND
  • The U.S. was basically unprepared for war in
    December 1941. FDR had used the PWA (Public Works
    Administration) to build aircraft carriers. We
    had instituted the first peacetime draft and
    begun the Good Neighbor policy in the Western
    Hemisphere, but these were only small steps.

3
THE WAR IN EUROPE
  • U.S. was in a 2 front war against the Axis Powers
    (Germany, Italy and Japan) from the beginning.
  • It was necessary to prioritize and our 1 goal
    was to defeat Hitler in Europe.

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Timeline of Events in Europe
  • 9/39-6/40 Nazi blitzkrieg (lightening warfare) of
    Poland and western Europe
  • Summer/Autumn 1940 Battle of Britain (Luftwaffe
    vs. Royal Air Force (RAF)
  • Hitler unable to gain air control so postpones
    planned invasion.

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  • Believed Britain would wither on the vine 1st
    MISTAKE.
  • Britain was now led by Prime Minister Winston
    Churchill.
  • US began policy of Lend-Lease Aid
  • Spring 1941 Successful German invasion of
    Eastern Europe and North Africa with Italian aid

8
Winston Churchill
9
  • June 1941 German invasion of USSR Operation
    Barbarossa 2nd MISTAKE
  • U.S. offered Lend-Lease to USSR
  • Early success first 6 months problems in winter
  • Scorched Earth policy denied supplies
  • Train gauge not compatible
  • Split forces
  • Seasonal timing bitter cold
  • Guerilla counteroffensive
  • Soviet Leader Joseph Stalin

10
Joseph Stalin
11
  • 12/41 German/Italian declaration of war on U.S.
    3rd MISTAKE
  • Spring/Summer 1942 Nazis regain momentum in USSR
  • 9/42 Maximum Nazi Control Europe, North Africa,
    Mediterranean Sea, Atlantic Ocean and ready for
    Egypt Britain and Soviets barely hanging on

12
  • 10/42 the Battle of El Alamein
  • German Afrika Korps (tanks) led by Field Marshall
    Erwin Rommel (Desert Fox) v. British general
    Bernard Montgomery
  • Goals oil fields and Suez Canal

13
Erwin Rommel
14
  • 11/42 TURNING POINT IN THE WAR
  • Invasion of North Africa-Operation Torch First
    time Allies attack U.S. General Dwight D.
    Eisenhower (Ike) appointed supreme commander HQ
    Casablanca invasion sites at Morocco and
    Algeria Field commander U.S. General George S.
    Patton German surrender 5/43

15
Dwight D. Eisenhower
16
George S Patton
17
  • Stalingrad has been under Nazi siege since 9/42
    Russian counterattack force German surrender
    2/43 German losses 1,000,000
  • Spring 1943 Allies control Mediterranean
    Battle of the Atlantic begins goal control of
    shipping lanes- convoys v. Wolfpack (German
    subs) New technology sonar

18
  • 6/43 Patton takes Sicily
  • 7/43 Russia slowly forcing Germans out of USSR
    Battle of Kursk
  • 9/43 INVASION OF ITALY Battle of Anzio -
    Mussolini forced out, new leader Badoglio
    promised easy surrender heavy American
    casualties victory in Rome 6/5/44 but fighting
    continues on the peninsula for some time

19
  • June 6, 1944 D-Day Normandy Invasion
    Operation Overlord
  • Ike as Supreme Commander of Allied Forces in ETO
    (European Theatre of Operations)
  • Largest amphibious invasion ever jointly with
    British, Canadians, and Free French

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  • Nazi Advantages commanded by Rommel heavily
    fortified and dug in
  • Allied Advantages access to weather reports
    air power
  • 5 Beaches Gold, Juno, Sword, Utah and Omaha
  • War now just a matter of time Victory is assured

24
  • July 1944 daily air bombing of Germany
    attempted assassination of Hitler by German
    Officers
  • August 1944 liberation of Paris by Patton and
    Free French under Charles De Gaulle
  • 12/44- 1/45 Battle of the Bulge in Belgium
    last German offensive

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  • 3/45 Invasion of Germany begins East and West
  • 4/30/45 Hitler and Eva Braun Hitler (married
    4/29/45) commit Suicide both took poison
    capsules Hitler shot himself in the head.
  • Their bodies were partially cremated and buried,
    later found by Russian soldiers, taken and
    reburied in an unmarked grave in Magdeburg,
    Germany. 1970 exhumed, burned ashes dumped in
    the Elbe River.
  • May 8, 1945 V-E Day (Victory in Europe)
    Germany surrenders

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30
THE HOMEFRONT
  • War effort is organized under New Deal type
    organizations
  • Office of War Mobilization coordinates agencies
    (umbrella)
  • Selective Service Commission (draft board)
    eligible from age 18 to 35

31
  • Office of Price Administration price controls
    and rationing of products for civilians
  • Office of War Information propaganda news
  • War Labor Board strike control
  • War Manpower Commission labor for munitions
    factories
  • War Production Board Military needs are 1

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  • War good for the economy
  • Full employment 30 million in war production
    jobs, many women (Rosie the Riveter) 15 million
    in military service 2 to 1 ratio
  • US spends 400 billion on the war with 2/3 raised
    from the sale of war bonds

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  • FDR re-elected to 3rd term (1940) 4th term
    (1944) Dont Change Horses in the Middle of the
    Stream
  • Harry Truman takes over when FDR dies in April
    1945
  • Battle of Production refers to the ability of the
    US to produce more munitions than the enemy
    this is the single most important factor in the
    allied victory

37
Harry Truman
38
  • Tremendous public support of the war effort
    jobs, service, bonds, songs, victory gardens
    scrap drives
  • Internment of Japanese-Americans from West Coast
    17,600 fought in Italy
  • Lasting effects on US
  • Opportunities for women
  • End of the Great Depression
  • Science atomic bomb, jets, rockets medicine

39
Internment Camps
40
Internment Camps
41
WAR IN THE PACIFIC
  • Japanese pattern of aggression
  • seizure of Korea in 1910
  • attack on Chinese Manchuria in 1931
  • attacks on the remainder of China in 1937
  • attack on the French colony of Indochina in June
    1941

42
  • President Roosevelt responded
  • forbid the sale of oil, iron and steel to Japan
  • froze their bank accounts in the US.
  • Japanese leaders were following a policy aimed at
    conquering all of Asia and eventually the rest of
    the world. This was to be done to honor the
    emperor Hirohito. To do this they needed oil.
    Only the US stood in their way.

43
  • The attack on Pearl Harbor
  • December 7, 1941
  • Attempt to remove the US from the Pacific long
    enough to seize the East Indies claim the
    islands of the Pacific. The Japanese expected to
    be so strongly in place by the time the US
    rebuilt that the US would simply have to accept
    it
  • Was ordered by Japanese War Minister Hideji Tojo
  • Was planned by chief naval strategist Isoroku
    Yamamoto

44
That mornings map.
45
Attack Visual
  • The first attacks would hit the USS Oklahoma,
    West Virginia,
  • Arizona, and Nevada.
  • The second attack would hit USS Pennsylvania, and
    cruisers
  • San Francisco, and New Orleans.

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USS Arizona
  • Positioned in Battle Row.
  • Hit within 10 min. after attack began.
  • Bomb crashed through the 2 armored deck, igniting
    its magazine.
  • Went down with 1,300 lives.

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USS Arizona Memorial
  • Created to honor the survivors of Pearl Harbor,
    their families and friends, and to all those who
    died.
  • The ship has been preserved as a tomb for those
    who went down with the ship.
  • Erected in 1962.

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  • Was launched from aircraft carriers
  • Was not followed by an invasion
  • December 8, 1941 April 1942
  • American owned Philippines was attacked and
    invaded
  • Commander Douglas MacArthur was ordered to
    evacuate to Australia
  • Promised his men that I will return
  • The Americans left behind were defeated at
    Corregidor (the biggest US military defeat in
    history)

52
Douglas MacArthur
53
  • Bataan Death March
  • American POWs and captured Filipino fighters
  • Forced to march 65 miles
  • 12,500 died
  • Survivors were sent to Korea on what the men
    called Hell Ships
  • Worked as slave labor for the Japanese

54
  • May 42
  • Japan controlled the Pacific Ocean and was poised
    to attack either Australia, India or Hawaii.
  • They headed south in attempt to invade Australia
    from the eastern coast.
  • The US Navy forced them back at the Battle of the
    Coral Sea
  • This was the first Japanese setback

55
  • June 42
  • Japan turned east to take out the rest of the
    American Navy
  • TURNING POINT OF THE WAR IN THE PACIFIC BATTLE
    OF MIDWAY
  • American cryptographers had broken large portions
    of the Japanese code.
  • Our analysis machine was code named Magic

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  • Using these intercepts Admiral Chester Nimitz
    knew the Japanese air craft carriers were headed
    toward either the island of Midway or Hawaii
  • American forces located the Japanese fleet and
    sank 4 Japanese carriers
  • We only lost 1
  • This battle was the last Japanese offensive

58
Chester Nimitz
59
  • From this point on the Battle of Production
    became a major factor
  • We could replace ships and build additional ships
  • The Japanese were not able to do this
  • Strategy against Japan was planned by the Joint
    Chiefs of Staff in Washington, chaired by Gen.
    George Marshall

60
George Marshall
61
  • It involved a three pronged attack
  • Attack across the Central Pacific Nimitz
    Supreme Commander of the Central Pacific navy
    and marines
  • Attack from Australia to New Guinea to the
    Philippines army led by MacArthur, Supreme
    Commander of the Southwest Pacific
  • Regain China under Chaing Kai Shek (Communist
    leader Mao Zedong also fought the Japanese)

62
Chaing Kai Shek
63
  • American and other allied forces did not
    generally fight in the same campaigns, but
    British and Australian troops were active against
    Japan in the Pacific, India and Burma areas
  • 8/42 Battle of Guadalcanal in the Solomon Islands
    was the first US offensive in the Pacific
  • 9/43 MacArthur takes New Guinea

64
  • 1944
  • Close in on Japan using island hopping campaign
    take the easier islands in a chain and surround
    them all with navy, then use planes to continue
    bombing the remaining islands while the rest of
    the navy moves to the next chain and on toward
    Japan (p 580)

65
  • Battle of the Philippine Sea (Marianas Turkey
    Shoot) only kamikazes now left for Japanese air
    force
  • Battle of Leyte Gulf destroyed Japanese navy
    MacArthur returns to the Philippines victory
    in 2/45
  • 2/45 Iwo Jima (sulfur island) Marine Memorial
    27 Medals of Honor only 1,000 out of 22,000
    Japanese survive

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Michael Strank
  • b. 1919 Jarabenia, Czechoslovakia. d. 1945 Iwo
    Jima, Japan.
  • Their leader and Sergeant, it was Mike who got
    the order to climb Mt. Suribachi. Mike picked his
    "boys" and led them safely to the top. Mike
    explained to the boys that the larger flag had to
    be raised so that "every Marine on this cruddy
    island can see it." It was Mike who gave the
    orders to find a pole, attach the flag and
    "put'er up!"
  • At home as a boy, Mike was studious, had a
    photographic memory, played the French Horn and
    once slugged a baseball out of Points Stadium in
    Johnstown. In 1936, Mike ran down to the river to
    see for himself the terrible Johnstown flood. He
    brought this report back to his family "Don't
    worry--it will recede."
  • Mike's right hand is the only hand of a
    flagraiser not on the pole. His right hand is
    around the wrist of Franklin Sousley, helping the
    younger man push the heavy pole. This is typical
    of Mike, the oldest of the flagraisers, always
    there to help one of his boys. Two months before
    the battle Mike's Captain tried to promote him
    but Mike turned it down flat "I trained those
    boys and I'm going to be with them in battle," he
    said.
  • Mike died on March 1, 1945. He was hit by a
    mortar as he was diagramming a plan in the sand
    for his boys. Mike is buried in Arlington
    National Cemetery.

68
Harlon Block
  • b. 1924 Yorktown, Texas.  d. 1945 Iwo Jima,
    Japan.
  • Harlon was an outgoing daredevil with many
    friends at Weslaco High School. A natural
    athlete, Harlon led the Weslaco Panther Football
    Team to the Conference Championship. He was
    honored as "All South Texas End." Harlon and
    twelve of his teammates enlisted in the Marine
    Corps together in 1943.
  • Harlon was Sgt. Mike's second-in-command. He took
    over the leadership of his unit when Sgt. Mike
    was killed. Harlon was killed by a mortar blast
    hours later on March 1 at the age of 21.
  • When his mother Belle saw the Flag Raising Photo
    in the Weslaco Newspaper on Feb. 25, she
    exclaimed, "That's Harlon" pointing to the figure
    on the far right. But the US Government
    mis-identified the figure as Harry Hansen of
    Boston. Belle never wavered in her belief that it
    was Harlon insisting, "I know my boy." No
    one--not her family, neighbors, the Government or
    the public--had any reason to believe her. But
    eighteen months later in a sensational front-page
    story, a Congressional investigation revealed
    that it was Harlon in the photo, proving that
    indeed, Belle did "know her boy."
  • Harlon is buried beside the Iwo Jima Monument in
    Harlingen, Texas.

69
Franklin Sousley
  • b. Sept. 19, 1925 Hilltop, KY.  d. March 21,
    1945 Iwo Jima, Japan.
  • Franklin was a red-haired, freckle-faced "Opie
    Taylor" raised on a tobacco farm. His favorite
    hobbies were hunting and dancing. Fatherless at
    9, Franklin became the main man in his mother's
    life. Franklin enlisted at 17 and sailed for the
    Pacific on his 18th Birthday. All that's left of
    Franklin is a few pictures and two letters
    Franklin wrote home to his mother
  • July 1944, Letter from Training Camp "Mother,
    you said you were sick. I want you to stay in out
    of that field and look real pretty when I come
    home. You can grow a crop of tobacco every
    summer, but I sure as hell can't grow another
    mother like you."
  • Feb. 27, 1945 Letter from Iwo Jima "My regiment
    took the hill with our company on the front line.
    The hill was hard, and I sure never expected war
    to be like it was those first 4 days. Mother, you
    can never imagine how a battlefield looks. It
    sure looks horrible. Look for my picture because
    I helped put up the flag. Please don't worry and
    write."
  • Franklin was the last flag-raiser to die on Iwo
    Jima, on March 21 at the age of 19. When word
    reached his mother that Franklin was dead, "You
    could hear her screaming clear across the fields
    at the neighbor's farm."
  • Franklin is buried at Elizaville Cemetery,
    Kentucky

70
Ira Hayes
  • b. January 12, 1923 Sacaton, Arizona d. January
    24, 1955 Bapchule, Arizona
  • Ira Hayes was a Pima Indian. When he enlisted in
    the Marine Corps, he had hardly ever been off the
    Reservation. His Chief told him to be an
    "Honorable Warrior" and bring honor upon his
    family. Ira was a dedicated Marine. Quiet and
    steady, he was admired by his fellow Marines who
    fought alongside him in three Pacific battles.
  • When Ira learned that President Roosevelt wanted
    him and the other survivors to come back to the
    US to raise money on the 7th Bond Tour, he was
    horrified. To Ira, the heroes of Iwo Jima, those
    deserving honor, were his "good buddies" who died
    there.
  • At the White House, President Truman told Ira,
    "You are an American hero." But Ira didn't feel
    pride. As he later lamented, "How could I feel
    like a hero when only five men in my platoon of
    45 survived, when only 27 men in my company of
    250 managed to escape death or injury?"
  • The Bond Tour was an ordeal for Ira. He couldn't
    understand or accept the adulation . . . "It was
    supposed to be soft duty, but I couldn't take it.
    Everywhere we went people shoved drinks in our
    hands and said 'You're a Hero!' We knew we hadn't
    done that much but you couldn't tell them that."
  • Ira went back to the reservation attempting to
    lead an anonymous life. But it didn't turn out
    that way . . . "I kept getting hundreds of
    letters. And people would drive through the
    reservation, walk up to me and ask, 'Are you the
    Indian who raised the flag on Iwo Jima"
  • Ira tried to drown his "Conflict of Honor" with
    alcohol. Arrested as drunk and disorderly, his
    pain was clear . . . "I was sick. I guess I was
    about to crack up thinking about all my good
    buddies. They were better men than me and they're
    not coming back. Much less back to the White
    House, like me."
  • In 1954, Ira reluctantly attended the dedication
    of the Iwo Jima monument in Washington. After a
    ceremony where he was lauded by President
    Eisenhower as a hero once again, a reporter
    rushed up to Ira and asked him, "How do you like
    the pomp circumstances?" Ira just hung his head
    and said, I don't."
  • Ira died three months later after a night of
    drinking. As Ira drank his last bottle of whiskey
    he was crying and mumbling about his "good
    buddies." Ira was 32.

71
Rene Ganon
  • b. Manchester, N.H. March 7, 1925  d.
    Manchester, N.H. October 12, 1979 
  • Rene Gagnon was the youngest survivor and the man
    who carried the flag up Mt. Suribachi. He was the
    first survivor to arrive back in the US.
  • Rene was modest about his achievement throughout
    his life.
  • Rene is honored with a special room in New
    Hampshire's prestigious WrightMuseum.
  • Rene is buried in Arlington National Cemetery,
    the Flag Raiser buriedclosest to the Marine
    Corps Memorial.

72
John Bradley
  • b. July 10, 1923 Antigo, WI. d. January 11, 1994
    Antigo, WI.
  • "Doc" Bradley was a Navy Corpsman who "just
    jumped in to lend a hand." He won the Navy Cross
    for heroism and was wounded in both legs.
  • Bradley, a quiet, private man, gave just one
    interview in his life. In it he said . . .
    "People refer to us as heroes--I personally don't
    look at it that way. I just think that I happened
    to be at a certain place at a certain time and
    anybody on that island could have been in
    there--and we certainly weren't heroes--and I
    speak for the rest of them as well. That's the
    way they thought of themselves also."
  • "Of the surviving Flag Raisers, only Bradley was
    successful in putting his life back together
    after the war."  ---From the best-selling
    "Immortal Images" by Tedd Thomey
  • John Bradley returned to his home town in the
    Midwest after the war, prospered as the owner of
    a family business, and gave generously of his
    time and money to local causes. He was married
    for 47 years and had eight children.
  • While Bradley had a public image as a war hero,
    he was a very private person. He avoided
    discussion of his war record saying only that the
    real heros were the men who gave their lives for
    their country.
  • The Global Media reported the death of a World
    War II icon on January 11, 1994 at the age of 70.
    But his hometown newspaper best captured the
    essence of Bradley's life after the war
  • "John Bradley will be forever memorialized for a
    few moments action at the top of a remote Pacific
    mountain. We prefer to remember him for his life.
    If the famous flag-raising at Iwo Jima symbolized
    American patriotism and valor, Bradley's quiet,
    modest nature and philanthropic efforts shine as
    an example of the best of small town American
    values." ---Editorial, "The Antigo Daily Journal"

73
  • Spring 45 bombers freed from Europe begin
    massive raids on Japan fire bombing of Tokyo
  • 6/45 Okinawa heavy casualties last island
    before Japan itself

74
  • 7/45 Truman issues Potsdam Ultimatum
    surrender or else
  • Manhattan Project begun 1939 at suggestion of
    scientist Albert Einstein successfully tested at
    Los Alamos under the direction of Dr. Robert
    Oppenheimer
  • 8/6/45 atomic bomb dropped from the Enola Gay
    on the city of Hiroshima (Little Boy)

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  • Prime rationale for use shorten the war and
    save American lives critics say it was
    unnecessary, Japan was defeated already and we
    were really trying to send a message to the
    Soviet Union supporters point out that Japan
    refused to surrender and was arming for a
    suicidal defense of the home islands

81
  • 8/8/45 Soviet Union declares war on Japan
  • 8/9/45 city of Nagasaki bombed (Fat Man)
  • 8/10/45 informal surrender of Japan announced
    8/14/45 V-J day
  • 9/2/45 formal surrender papers signed in Tokyo
    Bay MacArthur

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  • 50,000,000 people died in World War II
  • Soviets highest losses at 20,000,000
  • US losses between 250,000 and 300,000

85
PLANNING THE POSTWAR WORLD
  • Big Three
  • Joseph Stalin Soviet Union
  • Winston Churchill Great Britain
  • Franklin D. Roosevelt US
  • Churchill and Roosevelt had held a meeting even
    before US entered the war Atlantic Charter no
    land would be gained as a result of the victory
    in the war

86
  • Roosevelt had given Lend-Lease Aid to both
    nations. Four freedoms speech (speech, religion,
    want, fear) proceeded this
  • 4 major wartime conferences
  • 1/43 Casablanca agree that Axis must give
    unconditional surrender agree to Italian
    Campaign as next move. USSR preferred France but
    was outvoted by US Britain
  • 11/43 Teheran agree to Normandy Campaign in
    1944

87
  1. 2/45 Yalta USSR agrees to declare war on
    Japan 3 months after the defeat of Germany
    German occupation zones agreed on (Soviet,
    British, American and France) German capital
    city of Berlin to be divided as well. Free
    elections to be held in Poland general
    guidelines for formation of United Nations
    (Dumbarton oaks in San Francisco 6/45) finalize)
    FDR the sick old man of Yalta

88
Winston Churchill, Franklin Delano Roosevelt,
Joseph Stalin
89
  • 7/45 Potsdam Truman, Stalin and Clement
    Attlee (replaced Churchill) agree on details of
    German occupation and ultimatum to Japan

90
Winston Churchill, Harry Truman, Joseph Stalin
91
Clement Attlee, Harry Truman, Joseph Stalin
92
THE HOLOCAUST
  • Defined The deliberate intent of the Nazis to
    seek out and kill any and every Jew regardless of
    Sex, Age, Religion, Education, Occupation, or
    National loyalty in any and every place he could
    be found

93
  • Five Roles
  • Perpetrator planned it Hitler, SS chief
    Heinrich Himmler, Adolf Eichman, Rudolf Hess, Dr.
    Josef Mengele very small group believed in
    Aryan purity, a master race
  • Collaborator didnt plan it, but willingly
    cooperated and saw it as a means of personal
    advancement Camp Guards, drove trains,
    identified Jews

94
  1. Bystander saw what was happening and did
    nothing to try to stop it largest group
  2. Victims 11 million people 6,000,000 of them
    Jews Elie Wiesel Author of Night
  3. Rescuers people with the moral courage to try
    to help smallest group only 9,500 Righteous
    Gentiles Corrie ten Boom, Oskar Schindler, over
    500 from a Dutch Village. Nation of Denmark did
    the most 7,200 Jews rescued

95
  • Anti-Semitism had existed in Europe long before
    Hitler. It was based on Religion, Economics,
    Social, and Political reasons. But never before
    had there been the intention to kill all Jews

96
  • Hitler used progressive actions
  • Boycott of Jewish businesses 1933
  • Removal of Jews from government jobs 1933
  • Nuremburg Laws no inter marriage 1935
  • Add Sara or Israel to all Jewish names 1938
  • Kristallnacht 1938
  • No emigration 1941
  • Wear yellow arm band - 1941

97
  • Ultimate goal of total extermination definite by
    1941
  • Every Jew that we can lay our hands on is to be
    destroyed now during the war, without exception.
    Rudolf Hess
  • Hitler wrote of 3 goals in Russian campaign
    territory, destroy Communism, destroy Jews
  • Hard for Jews to know what to do language, job,
    parents, hope, change, attachment to home, cant
    afford, where do you go?

98
  • France helped identify Jews for the Nazis 95
    died
  • Poland large number helped run camps
  • England and US Jews just one aspect of total
    war beating Hitler and Tojo was the one
    priority

99
  • Jews crowded into Ghettoes survival based on
    profitability, but even that was no guarantee.
    Warsaw largest only 200 calories a day. Jewish
    government within ghetto Jupenrat tried to
    save as many as possible but hard choices Do
    you sacrifice some to save the rest? Who do yuou
    sacrifice? goal was survival, but whose
    survival individual or collective and at what
    price?

100
  • Resistance sabotage of equipment, hiding, false
    papers, armed rebellion (Warsaw)
  • 11,000 camps not all were considered death
    camps 50 German factories operated almost
    entirely on Jewish slave labor
  • Jews were considered consumable raw material
    (hair, ashes, even urine)

101
  • Auschwitz largest camp
  • Majdanek 360,000 deaths crematoria burned
    1,000 a day
  • Treblinka 800,000 deaths in 18 months 13 gas
    chambers 2,000 people at a time within 10-15
    minutes

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  • Nuremburg Trials special court for war
    criminals but many lesser figures escape in
    confusion after war
  • Almost 1/3 of survivors came to US after war 2/3
    to newly created Israel.
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