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Internet Voting in Estonia

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Internet Voting in Estonia Tarmo Milva Deputy project manager Estonian National Electoral Commitee E-stonia ? Population: 1.35M Everyday Internet usage: 54% Internet ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Date added: 27 December 2019
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Title: Internet Voting in Estonia


1
Internet Voting in Estonia
  • Tarmo Milva
  • Deputy project manager
  • Estonian National Electoral Commitee

2
E-stonia ?
  • Population 1.35M
  • Everyday Internet usage 54
  • Internet banking 86
  • Mobile penetration 95
  • 1000 Free Internet Access points
  • PKI penetration gt65
  • Biggest national eID card roll-out in the Europe !

3
Internet Voting?
  • In October 2005 Estonia had first-ever
    pan-national Internet Voting with binding
    results
  • 80 of voters had a chance to vote via Internet
    due to the ID-card
  • 2 of participated voters used that possibility

4
ID-card Project
  • Started in 1997
  • Law on personal identification documents Feb,
    1999
  • Digital Signature Act March, 2000
  • Government accepted plan for launching ID-card
    May, 2000
  • First card issued Jan 28, 2002
  • Apr 2006 910 000 cards have been issued

5
The Card
  • Compulsory for all residents
  • Contains
  • Personal data file
  • Certificate for authentication (along with
    e-mail address Forename.Surname_at_eesti.ee)
  • Certificate for digital signature

6
Usage of the ID-card
  • Major ID-document
  • Replacement of
  • (transportation) tickets
  • library cards
  • healt insurance card
  • driver documents
  • etc...
  • Authentication token for all major e-services
  • Digital signature tool

7
Internet Voting ?
  • Not a nuclear physics
  • Just another application for ID-card
  • ...with some special requirements measures...

8
What it takes ?
9
Legal foundation 2002
  • 1) voter can use internet for voting
  • 2) voter is authenticated using ID-card
  • 3) voter confirms his selection with digital
    signature
  • 4) e-voting takes place during absentee voting
    i.e. days 6.-4. before the Election Day

10
Big Fight in 2005
  • Amendments to the electoral law to reflect the
    reality
  • Long discussions in the Parliament
  • The President rejected the amended law twice
  • National Court decided that the amendments are
    correspondant to the Constitutional Law
  • Issue With Internet voting you can vote
    repeaditly

11
I-voting Main Principles
  • All major principles of paper-voting are followed
  • I-voting is allowed during period before Voting
    Day
  • The user uses ID-card
  • System authenticates the user
  • Voter confirms his choice with digital signature
  • Repeated e-voting is allowed
  • Only last e-ballot is counted
  • Manual re-voting is allowed
  • If vote is casted in paper during the Election
    Day, e-vote(s) will be revoked

12
Voter registration
  • Missing
  • All citizen (residents) should register their
    place of living in central population register
  • Only voters with registered addresses are
    eligible
  • Population register is used

13
  • To vote via Internet voter needs
  • An Estonian ID card with valid
    certificates and PIN-codes
  • Computer used for voting must have
  • A smart card reader
  • A driver for ID card (free to download from page
    www.id.ee/installer)
  • A Windows,Linux or MacOSX operating system

14
I Website for voting
www.valimised.ee
www.valimised.ee
15
II Authentication
  • Put your card into card reader
  • Insert PIN 1 for authentication


16
III Ballot completion
  • Choose a candidate

17
IV Authentication
  • Confirm your choice
  • Insert PIN 2


18
V Confirmation
19
Envelope scheme
E-voters
E-votes
Results
Public key
Private key
20
Architecture
Central System
List of Candidates
List of Voters
Vote Forwarding Server
Voter application
Vote Storing Server
Vote Counting Application
log
log
log
Audit
Key Management
Audit application
21
Principles for selecting technology for I-voting
  • Involve all major influencers and specialists
  • Keep it as simple as possible
  • Build it on securestable platforms (Debian)
  • No
  • Databases (engines)
  • 9GL envirmonments use C Python
  • 3rd party libraries too much

22
Managing Procedures
  • All fully documented
  • Crash course for observers-politicians
    auditors
  • All security-critical procedures
  • Logged
  • Audited observed
  • Videotaped
  • All major IS-specialists involved for
    network-monitoring 24/7 for dDOS or trojans

23
Physical Security
  • Governmental security hosting
  • Two independant departement guarding the server
    room
  • Strict requirements for entering the server
    premises
  • Auditor(s), cam-man, operator, police officer
  • Sealing of hardware

24
Some statistics
25
Lessons learned
  • I-voting is not a killer-application. It is just
    another way for people to vote
  • Peoples attitude and behavior change in decades
    and generations, not in seconds
  • I-voting will be as natural as Internet-banking
    but even more secure
  • Internet voting is there to stay

26
More information
  • http//www.vvk.ee/engindex.html val_at_riigikogu.ee
  • tarmo_at_sk.ee
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