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Advanced Leadership

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Title: Advanced Leadership


1
Advanced Leadership
  • Prepared by
  • Sherif Eid

2
Part 1
Session 1
3
1- Definition of Leadership
  • Directing and moving your team into a common
    goal.

4
2- Principles of Leadership
5
Influence
  • It is the ability of a leader to affect the
    decisions or beliefs of a team to direct them
    into a common goals.

6
Power
  • It is the ability to do certain changes or
    prevent them.
  • Personal Power Based on a persons individual
    characteristics, and it stays with the individual
    regardless of his or her position in the
    organizational structure.
  • Position Power Based on a managers rank in an
    organizational structure. and its given to the
    managers by superiors.

7
Legal Authority
  • It is the power given to the leader to direct his
    team.
  • This power comes from his position and his
    authorities.

8
  • 3- Effective Leader Characteristics

9
Built in characteristics
  • Optimism
  • Power
  • Balanced
  • Trust
  • Fidelity
  • Intelligence
  • Courage
  • Honesty
  • Humbleness
  • Generous
  • Firm

10
Acquired Characteristics
  • Faith
  • Knowledge
  • Self Control
  • Responsibility
  • Maturity
  • Bold
  • Ambition

11
Social Characteristics
  • Kindness
  • Gentleness
  • Equality
  • Democracy
  • Entrepreneur
  • Forgiveness
  • Anger control
  • Accepting advice

12
4- Effective Leader Skills
13
Mental Skills
  • Thinking
  • Planning
  • Innovating
  • Creating
  • Imagining

14
Personal Skills
  • Relationships
  • Communication
  • Listening Skills
  • Motivational Skills

15
Technical Skills
  • Organizing
  • Implementing
  • Decision Making
  • Problem Solving

16
5- Comparison between Leadership Management
17
Point of Comparison Leadership Management
1. Selection Selecting the best to do Selecting the best method to implement
2. Focus Defining the vision Setting hierarchy and putting systems
3. Efficacy Look after effectiveness Look after efficiency
4. Hierarchy Focus on the top of the hierarchy ( Top Management) Focus on the bottom of the hierarchy (Implementers)
5. Power Obtain from core values and principles Obtain from the organizations targets and productivities
6. Concerns Concerned about the relation between the team members Concerned about effort and productivity
7. Logic Emotion Focus on emotion Focus on logic
8. Expressing approach Prefer metaphor Prefer sticking to reality
18
Point of Comparison Leadership Management
9. Analyzing and grouping Tends to group issues Tends to analyze issues
10. Time Not limited with a time frame Limited with a time frame
11. Management Always focus on the next step Focus on the task on hand
12. Development and updating Focus on R D Focus on maintaining the existing environment
13. Questions Focus on Why and What Focus on How and When
14. Challenges Challengeable and always looking for innovation Accepts the existing situation and deals with it
15. Learning and Training Enhances his Skills through Knowledge Enhances his Skills through training
19
6- Leadership Theories
20
Theory Explanation Shapes and Types
Functional Theory Concerned on studying the tasks of leadership Shape Bureaucratic Type Individual management
Situational theory Focus on the Leaders attitudes in different situations Shape -Autocratic Type Managerial Military Individual
Trait Theory Focus on the personal characteristics and culture of a Leader ShapeConvincing Type Managerial Collective
Motivational Theory Focus on interactions and the integration and major changes in the leadership Shape Democratic Type Collective
21
Theory Explanation Kinds and Types
Inspirational Theory Focus on charisma and talents of a leader Shape Consulting Type Collective
Transitional Theory Focus on the process of exchanging between the leader and the followers. The leader tends to use the carrot and stick method with the followers. Shape Convincing Consultation - Democratic Type Collective
Principle centered Theory Focus on the principles of justice, mercy, effectiveness and efficiency Shape Convincing Consultation - Democratic Type Collective
22
Part 1
  • Session 2

23
Effective leaders Role
  • Thinking
  • Directing
  • Changing
  • Moving
  • Motivating
  • Stimulating
  • Delegating
  • Training
  • Creating the Environment
  • influencing

24
Thinking
  • Focus on grouping, analyzing and utilizing the
    information to serve thinking.
  • Clear vision and mission for the team he is
    leading.
  • Capable to see the situation from different
    angles.
  • Having a long term vision for the future.
  • Focus on the organizations core values in all
    decision making.

25
Directing
  • Capable of determining his goals, detailed plans
    and programs.
  • Own the art of delivering information to his team
    members.
  • Problem solver and able to defeat team conflicts.

26
Changing
  • R D is one of the main concerns of a leader.
  • The ability to accept challenge and any
    innovative thoughts that can help his team.
  • Defeating the fear of change by creating a
    healthy environment.

27
Moving
  • Finding potentials, utilizing and moving it
    towards targets.
  • Maintaining high team spirit.
  • Helping Individuals and motivating them to do
    their jobs.
  • Creating opportunities for healthy competition
    between team members.

28
Motivating
  • Appreciating and highlighting achievements and
    special accomplishments.
  • Encouraging and responding to human preferences.
  • Letting team members to express their emotions
    and perceptions impulsively.
  • Creating job security.

29
Stimulating
  • Using targets goals, and utilizing the human
    materialistic resource to achieve the highest
    level of efficacy.
  • Trying to achieve high level of commitment and
    loyalty from the team members.
  • Bonding the personal success to the teams
    success and not vice versa.

30
Delegating
  • Reducing the usage of position power to the
    minimum.
  • Reducing the need of the team for the leader in
    each and every detail.
  • Distributing responsibilities and letting the
    team members take ownership in the decision
    making.
  • Using delegation as a part of practical training.

31
Training
  • Focus on satisfying the actual training needs for
    the team.
  • Treat all the team members as a material that can
    be developed.
  • Using training as a motivational item to increase
    your team members delight.

32
Creating the Environment
  • Creating harmony between team members and
    confronting the factors of stress.
  • Building trust between team members, leaders and
    their organization.
  • Highlighting the positive effect of long term
    human relationships and encouraging them
    (friendship).
  • Using the art of empathic listening.
  • Seek to understand before seeking to be
    understood.

33
Influencing
  • Effective leader is more concerned about we win
    instead of I win.
  • Applying carrot and stick theory.
  • High ability to control himself with patience.
  • Has high sense of humour.
  • Understand people and deals with them despite
    their mistakes.

34
Part 1
  • Session 3

35
1- Creating and Developing a Leader
36
Choosing a leader between your team members
  • Searching
  • Experimenting
  • Evaluating
  • Preparing
  • Assigning
  • Hiring

37
Searching
  • Its the phase where the organization picks a
    group of people to study their social, cultural,
    political and educational backgrounds.

38
Experimenting
  • Its the phase where the organization tests the
    group that has been chosen in the previous
    phase.
  • The group in this phase are subjected to
    supervision and experimenting through their daily
    activities and different situations.

39
Evaluating
  • Its the phase where the organization starts
    diagnosing, reviewing and evaluating the group
    depending on a number of standards that had been
    put by the organization.
  • Evaluation is used to identify the
    characteristics and capabilities of the group,
    and it should be done by analyzing their
    performance in a scientific way.

40
Preparing
  • After recognizing the characteristics, weaknesses
    and capabilities of the group, the organization
    starts to classify the training needs according
    to the practical need.

41
Assigning
  • After preparing the chosen group of potential
    leaders through the previous stages theoretically
    and practically, and after knowing their
    capabilities better, the organization starts to
    assign various tasks and duties for a certain
    period of time.

42
Hiring
  • In this phase we start hiring the suitable
    potentials in the suitable positions according to
    the their capabilities and qualifications.

43
2- Characteristics of Future Leaders
  • Has a vision
  • Has a long term plan
  • Has high goals and scales and knows how to
    achieve his dreams
  • People respects him and he can act as a role
    model for them
  • Expresses his emotions with a human touch
  • High self confidence and self esteem
  • Not defensive and open minded
  • Proactive and self motivated
  • Problem solver
  • Good listener and know how to express others
    opinions

44
Characteristics of Future Leaders
  1. He knows how to grab peoples attention
  2. Uses metaphors and symbols
  3. Stimulate his followers mentally to get
    innovative ideas
  4. Cares about people around him especially on an
    individual level
  5. Tends to achieve his follower's needs
  6. Encourages thinking, criticizing and opposition
  7. Tends to learn new scientific techniques and
    methods
  8. Innovative and a risk taker
  9. Believes in team work

45
Part 1
  • Session 4

46
Leadership Charisma
47
Definition of Charisma
  • It is the quality that makes people want to
    follow you it is also the ability to inspire and
    influence without the use of logic.
  • "Charisma" is a Greek word meaning "gift of
    grace."

48
How to build Charisma
  1. Act with credibility- Those who are inconsistent
    in their behavior repel people while those who
    are consistent in their behavior draw people to
    them. To be influential, have integrity. Speak up
    for what you believe, then act accordingly.
  2. Be interested- Be truly interested in the other
    person. Treat him or her as the most important
    person you'll interact with that day - a VIP.
    Smile at them.
  3. Extend respect- A few interaction skills that
    make a big difference to a respectful atmosphere
    in your organization include not interrupting
    conversations, asking if the person has time to
    talk, and listening to ideas.

49
How to build Charisma
  1. Deliver sincere compliments- People you work with
    do care what you think about them. They
    appreciate your mentioning their good work. When
    you do recognize them, be specific in your
    compliments.
  2. Accept sincere compliments- Deflecting a
    compliment often draws unwanted attention and put
    down both you and the person offering the
    compliment. Just say, "Thank you." You'll be
    pleased with how sociable you become.
  3. State what you are FOR, not AGAINST- People don't
    like nor do they cooperate with people who they
    think are against them. When you are against
    something, the person thinks you are against them
    personally. When you are for something, you begin
    focusing on the potential for positive change.
    You start the process of collaboration. You
    become a powerful person.

50
How to Use Charisma to Become an Influential
Leader
  • 1. Awareness Of How You Feel  Start being more
    attentive to your actions and reactions to
    different situations in your life. Self awareness
    is essential before we can control how others
    feel or perceive us.
  • 2. Elevate Your Mood A cheerful mood is
    contagious and a powerful way to make yourself
    more magnetic.
  • 3. What Is In It For Them Try to make everyone
    else feel important. Make them feel like they are
    the most important person in the room. If you
    want to be more charismatic take the time to
    listen and get to know someone.

51
How to Use Charisma to Become an Influential
Leader
  • 4. Flaunt Your Knowledge We all have a special
    knowledge of something. Let others know what
    excites you, what motivates you to get up
    everyday. Share your ideas and beliefs. Make sure
    you keep fact and opinion separate in order to
    maintain your credibility.
  • 5. Improve Your Look Appear alluring. Personal
    hygiene, grooming, and how you dress greatly
    impact how you feel about yourself and how others
    will perceive you.
  • 6. Show Sincere Empathy Simply listening and
    conveying empathy will increase your personal
    magnetism. If you want to influence others,
    sincere empathy is probably the most important
    trait you can display. If people think that you
    don't understand them, you will have a difficult
    time influencing them.

52
How to Use Charisma to Become an Influential
Leader
  • 7. Be A Story Teller Everyone loves a good
    story. Stories make events memorable, helps in
    learning, and makes the story teller interesting.
  • 8. Make Their Name A Priority Everyone loves
    hearing their own name. Focus on saying their
    name at the introduction and when you are
    finished talking to them.
  • 9. Show Gratitude Being appreciative for what
    you have is a key to happiness and a cheerful
    disposition, both of which make you more
    attractive to others.
  • 10. Add A Little Humor All people like someone
    who makes them laugh. Some people are naturally
    funny or witty. Learn your personal style for
    using humor and use it regularly in appropriate
    settings.

53
What do Charismatic Leaders do?!
  • Have idealized vision of the future.
  • Superb communication skills (use stories
    non-verbal strategies.)
  • Inspire trust using faith and hope.
  • Make people feel capable of achieving goals.
  • Engage in emotional appeals.
  • Use drama and exceptional influence approaches.
  • lay yourself open to personal risk and self
    promote continuously.
  • Many create major changes in the situations in
    which they operate.

54
Sources of Charisma
  • Personal Power is the main source of charisma
  • Expertise,
  • Special knowledge,
  • skills,
  • experience,
  • or personal character
  • Are what attracts followers attribution about
    the characteristics of a leader (which also
    involves ongoing interactions and impression
    management)

55
Effects of Charisma
56
Positive Effect Negative Effect
Trust the leader. Deception, manipulation, and mistreatment of followers.
Begin to hold beliefs similar to those of the leader. Convince followers to take great and sometimes deadly risks.
Have affection for the leader. Followers may give up thinking for themselves and blindly obey leader.
Identify with and attempt to copy the leader. May lead followers to illegal, unethical, or socially irresponsible ends.
Emotional involvement in goals and mission of leader.
Extra-role commitment.
57
Ethics of Charismatic Leadership
  • The double-edged sword of charismatic leadership
    is eagerly seen in the impact on followers.
  • Ethical charismatic leaders convert followers
    into leaders. By expressing confidence in
    followers' abilities to accomplish collective
    goals and encouraging them to think on their own
    and question established ways of doing things,
    they create followers who are more capable of
    leading themselves.
  • Followers feel independent, confident, powerful,
    and capable. They eventually take responsibility
    for their own actions, gain rewards through
    self-reinforcement and -- like their leader --
    establish a set of internal standards to guide
    their actions and behavior.

58
Unethical Charismatic Leader
  • Uses power only for personal gain or impact
  • Promotes own personal vision
  • Criticize critical or opposing views
  • Demands that own decisions be accepted without
    question
  • One-way communication
  • Insensitive to followers' needs
  • Relies on convenient external moral standards to
    satisfy self-interests.

59
Ethical Charismatic Leader
  • Uses power to serve others
  • Aligns vision with followers' needs and
    aspirations
  • Considers and learns from criticism
  • Stimulates followers to think independently and
    to question the leader's view
  • Uses open, two-way communication
  • Coaches, Develops, and Supports followers
  • Shares recognition with others
  • Relies on internal moral standards to satisfy
    organizational and societal interests.

60
A Theatrical Perspective on Charismatic Leadership
61
Charismatic Leadership
  • Is an Impression Management process enacted
    theatrically in acts of
  • Framing,
  • Scripting,
  • Staging,
  • And Performing.

62
Charismatic Leadership
  • Framing- a quality of communication that causes
    others to accept one meaning over another.
  • Scripting- the development of a set of directions
    that define the scene, specifies the actors to be
    cast, outlines expected behavior, cues when
    events occur actors enter exit.
  • Staging- charismatic leaders stage-manage their
    performances.
  • Performing- Show time. The charismatic leader
    takes the stage to enact scripted dialog and set
    up the frame to construct their charismatic
    character.

63
Charisma test
  1. Do people tend to notice when you walk into a
    room?
  2. Can you keep calm when those around you lose
    their temper?
  3. Are you comfortable with the idea of being a
    group leader?
  4. Would you describe yourself as being open to
    unconventional ideas?
  5. Are you able to energize a group with your
    enthusiasm?
  6. Do you believe that almost any situation can be
    changed for the better?
  7. Do you find it easy to simplify complicated
    ideas?
  8. Would you describe yourself as being passionate
    about the areas of your life that matter most to
    you?
  9. Do other people tend to describe you as
    expressive?
  10. Do you find it easy to hold other people's
    attention when you are talking to them?

64
Scoring
  • Eight to 10 yes answers, highly charismatic
  • 5 to 7, average charisma
  • 0 to 4, you lack charisma.

65
Part 2
66
Evaluating Your Leadership Capabilities
67
Good Listener Risk Taker Target Oriented Curious
Active Respectable Modest Direct
Performing Self Confident Loyal Heady
Balanced Clear Open Minded Excited
Competitive Self Controlled Patient Strong
Creative Positive Innovative Happy
Resolved Social Responsible Fun
Discipline Adoptable Logical Mature
Passionate Firm Spiritual Optimistic
Fair Delighted Creditable Body Balanced
Flexible Sincere Knows his Flaws Productive
Diligent Trustworthy Has a Vision Proactive
Smart Reliable Ambitious Respect Emotions
Moderate Controlling Aware Reasonable
Emotional Vital Committed Not Insult able
Practical Far Sighted Brave Wise
68
Comparison between Leader and Manager
69
Manger Leader
Selects the best method to implement Selects the best to do
Focus on effectiveness Focus on influence
Manages Creates
Maintain and keep Develop
Focus on system and structure Focus on people
Depends on control Depends on trust
Systemize and utilize Leads to a clear direction
Focus on techniques, structure and systems Focus on philosophy, core values and common goals
Short term vision Long term vision
Asks how? And when? Asks what? And why?
Accepts the existing situation Challenges the existing situation
Focus on present time Focus on future
Develop steps and detailed schedules Develop visions and strategy
Risk avoider Risk taker
Uses position power Uses personal power
Had been given a position Takes the lead
70
Are you A Traditional Leader or A Helpful
Leader?
71
Traditional leader Helpful leader
Asks about results and work done, did you do that? What is the status of? Asks how can I help? What do you need from me? What can I provide you with to do the job better?
Measures the systematical productivity in terms of quantity as the productivity of individual per hour or profit divided on number of employees Measures productivity in terms of number of approaches leading to performance improvement without waiting for direct orders
Sees his colleagues as a very important production recourse Believes that people comes first and he cares about them personally
Sees that he is the boss Sees himself as the leader between equals
Sees himself as a profit generator for the stock holders and the owners Sees himself as a facilitator for other team members
His team sees him as the strict supervisor who is focusing on his ad the owners interests His team sees him as a wise, flexible and fun person who trust others and open minded to innovative ideas
72
Traditional leader Helpful leader
Encourages internal competition Limits internal competition and swap it with cooperation and integration
Have no time for people Always have time for people even for personal stuff
Tries to solve problems between different parties Goes the extra mile by even listening to the person who has an aggressive attitude
Tries to make his friends apply the companys policies Merges between the team to make sure that his innovative ideas would be supported to achieve companys vision
Asks obedience from his followers Sympathies with the team members but he would never accept below excellence
Thinks that the final success is all about excellent financial results Believes that the final success appears in the development of his team personally, professionally and their freedom to act and react
73
Five steps to be an Effective Leader
74
  • To be an effective leader!!!
  • To Increase your employees loyalty!!!
  • To improve performance!!!

You need to do the following 5
Steps
? ? ? ? ?
75
Step 1 Learn To Lead
  • The first thing you need to do is to proof that
    you can lead
  • Be an Effective Leader.
  • Teach your team how to think positively.
  • Help them understand the strategic vision of your
    organization.

76
Step 2 Examine Expectations
  • Employees want to see the result of their hard
    working and to share success, but most of the
    managers are results oriented, they want to
    achieve their targets, and they dont care about
    anything else!!!

77
Examine Expectation
  • Put (?) in front of what you do
  • Your Employee participates in setting his Job
    Description.
  • Your Employee participates in distrusting the
    work flow between him and his colleagues.
  • Your Employee get rewarded when he do good job.
  • Your Employee can express his opinions without
    fear.
  • Your Employee participates in taking decisions
    that are related to him.
  • Your Employee participates in define the final
    look of your products and services.
  • Your employee know your companys vision.
  • Your employee has authorized enough to do his
    job.
  • Your employee is responsible about the results of
    his decisions.
  • Everybody in your organization gains from the
    results of the correct decisions
  • You always focus on your employees satisfaction.

78
Examine expectation
  • Give yourself one point for each (?) sign.
  • Results
  • Between 11-10 (You are managing a wonderful team)
  • Between 9 8 (You are managing a good team)
  • Between 7-6 (You are managing a weak team)
  • Between 6 0 ( You dont deserve to be a leader)

79
Step 3 Be a good listener and provide them with
information
  • Listening
  • Providing Information

80
Step 4 Respect Employees feelings
  • The more you respect your employees feelings,
    emotions, even desires, the more you gain their
    loyalty.

81
Step 4 Respect Employees feelings
Ask yourself those questions, and choose one of
the following answers. ( Always3 / Usually 2
/ Sometimes 1 / Rarely Zero) Do you meet
your team everyday with a smile? Do you walk
around them, just to say Hi, or to listen to
their needs? When you talk to them, do you look
and speak to them with respect? Do you involve
them in your decisions? Do you ask them for their
advices? Do you treat all of them fairly and
equally? Do you Share your Knowledge with
them? Do you call them with the best names they
like? Do you coach them in private when they do a
mistake?
82
Results
  • Give Yourself 3 for Always/ 2 for usually/ 1 for
    Sometimes/ Zero for Rarely
  • Between 27 - 21 (You treat your team with a very
    high respect)
  • Between 20 14 (You treat your team with a
    normal respect).
  • Between 13 7 (You treat your team with a very
    low respect).
  • Between 6 0 (Revolution is very soon).

83
Step 5 Never Stifle personal growth innovation
  • Encourage personal growth and innovation.
  • Some People criticize mistakes, some other people
    suggest solution, but the best in all is help
    your team in find their solution and implement it.

84
Are You an Effective Manager
  • Rate yourself by choosing one of the following
    answers.
  • (Always3 / Usually 2 /
    Sometimes 1 / Rarely Zero)
  • I am Expert in the technical part of my job.
  • I run my business efficiently.
  • I run my business according to the companys
    system
  • I fully understand my companys vision and I am
    capable to deliver it to others.
  • I am Productive on the personal level
  • I have a system to review results and capture
    mistakes.
  • I can deal with changes and variables easily.
  • On the personal level I can work systematically
    and consistently.
  • I can handle many tasks at the same time.
  • I always encourage my team to improve the
    performance.
  • I always look for a new techniques to develop my
    business
  • I have a forecasting plan for my future business.

85
Results
  • Between 36 - 31 ( You are an effective Manager)
  • Between 30 25 ( You are a normal Manager)
  • Between 24 - 20 ( You are a weak Manager)
  • Between 19 0 ( You are not an effective
    Manager)

86
Part 3
  • Session 1

87
Leadership Communication
88
Communication
  • Is the process by which information and
    understanding are transferred between a sender
    and a receiver.

89
How Leaders Communicate
  • Leadership means communicating with others in
    such a way that they are influenced and motivated
    to perform actions that further common goals and
    lead toward desired outcomes

90
Management Communication
  • The traditional role of a manager is that of
    information processor.
  • Managers spend some 80 of each working day in
    communication with others.
  • Managers communicate facts, statistics, and
    decisions.
  • Effective managers establish themselves at the
    center of information networks to facilitate the
    completion of tasks.

91
Leader Communication
  • Leaders often communicate the big picture the
    vision- rather than the facts and pieces of
    information.
  • A leader can be seen as a Communication
    Champion.

92
A Communication Champion
  • A Communication Champion enables followers to
    live the vision in their day-to-day activities.
  • Furthermore, they visibly and symbolically engage
    in communication-based activities.
  • Whether they walk around asking questions or
    thoughtfully listen to a subordinates problem,
    the actions of Champions convey a Commitment to
    Communication.

93
Leading Strategic Conversations
94
Strategic Conversation
  • Communication that takes place across boundaries
    and hierarchical levels about the group or
    organizations vision, critical strategic themes,
    and values that can help achieve desired outcomes.

95
Leaders facilitate strategic conversation by
  1. Asking questions and actively listening to others
    to understand their attitudes and values, needs,
    personal goals, and desires.
  2. Setting the agenda for conversation by
    highlighting the key strategic themes that are
    linked to organizational success.
  3. Selecting the right communication channels and
    facilitating dialogues.

96
Creating an Open Communication Climate
97
Open Communication
  • Leaders sharing all types of information
    throughout the company and across all levels.

98
Open Communication
  • People throughout the organization need a clear
    direction and an understanding of how they can
    contribute.
  • To build an open communication climate, leaders
    break down conventional hierarchical and
    departmental boundaries that may be barriers to
    communication.
  • Trust is an essential element in effective
    leader-follower relationships because it inspires
    collaboration and commitment to common goals.

99
Part 3
  • Session 2

100
Leading Teams
  • 1- Teams in Organizations

101
What is a Team ?
  • A unit of two or more people who interact and
    coordinate their work to accomplish a shared goal
    or purpose.

102
How Teams Develop
  • Forming Stage of team development that
    includes orientation and getting acquainted.
  • Storming Stage of team development in which
    individual personalities and conflicts emerge.
  • Norming Stage of team development in which
    conflicts have been resolved and team unity
    emerges.
  • Performing Stage of team development in which
    the major emphasis is on accomplishing the teams
    goals.

103
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104
Leading Teams
  • 2- Teams Types and Characteristics

105
Traditional Types of Teams
  • Functional Team Team made up of a supervisor
    and subordinates in the formal chain of command.
  • Cross-functional Team Team made up of members
    from different functional departments within an
    organization.
  • Self-directed Team Teams made up of members who
    work with minimum supervision and rotate jobs to
    produce a complete product or service.

106
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107
Leading Teams
  • Understanding Team Characteristics

108
Understanding Team Characteristics
  • One of a leaders most important jobs is to get
    the team designed right by considering such
    characteristics as size, diversity, and
    interdependence.
  • The quality of team design has a significant
    impact on the success of teams.

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1- Size
  • Teams should be large enough to take advantage of
    diverse skills, yet small enough to permit
    members to feel an intimate part of community.
  • In general, as a team increases in size, it
    becomes harder for each member to interact with
    and influence others.
  • As a general rule, it is more difficult to
    satisfy members needs in large teams, forcing
    leaders to work harder to keep members focused
    and committed to team goals.

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Small Teams Large Teams
Show more agreement. Ask more questions. Exchange more opinions. Report more satisfaction. Enter into more personal discussions. Members feel a greater sense of cohesiveness and belonging. Members want to get along with one another. Have more disagreements and different opinions. Subgroups often form and conflicts among them may occur. Demands on leaders are increase because there is less members participation. Less friendly, and members dont feel that they are part of a cohesive community.
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2- Diversity
  • Because teams require a variety of skills,
    knowledge, and experience, it seems likely that
    diverse teams would be more effective because
    members bring various abilities and information
    to stand on a project or problem.
  • Diverse within a team can be a source of
    creativity.
  • It also can provide a healthy level of
    disagreement that sparks innovation and leads to
    better decision making.

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2- Diversity
  • However, despite the value of some conflict,
    conflict that is too strong or is not handled
    appropriately can limit team members
    satisfaction and performance.
  • Teams made up of racially and culturally diverse
    members tend to have more difficulty learning to
    work well together, BUT, with effective
    leadership and conflict resolution, the problems
    seem to dissipate over time.

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3- Interdependence
  • It is the extent to which team members depend on
    each other for information, resources, or ideas
    to accomplish their tasks.
  • There are three types of interdependence can
    affect teams

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Pooled Interdependence Sequential Interdependence Reciprocal Interdependence
The lowest form of team interdependence members are relatively independent of one another in completing work. Most of their work are done independently. Serial form of interdependence in which the output of one team member becomes the input of another team member. One member must perform well in order for the next member to perform well. Because team members have an exchange of information and resources and rely upon one another, this is a higher level of Interdependence Highest form of team interdependence members influence and affect one another in joint manner. In this form, each individual member makes a contribution, but only the TEAM as a whole Performs.
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Leading Teams
  • Handling Team Conflict

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Conflict
  • Opposed interaction in which one party attempts
    to ruin the intentions or goals of another.

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Team Conflict
  • There is an increased potential for conflict
    among team members, because of the greater
    chances for miscommunication and
    misunderstanding.
  • Whenever people work together in teams, some
    conflict in inevitable.
  • Bringing conflicts out into the open and
    effectively resolving them is one of the team
    leaders most challenging jobs.

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Causes of Conflict
  • Leaders can be aware of several factors that
    cause conflict among their teams.
  • Whenever teams compete for limited resources,
    such as money, information, or supplies, conflict
    is almost inevitable.
  • Conflict also emerges when a task
    responsibilities are unclear.
  • People might disagree about who has
    responsibility for specific tasks or who has a
    claim on resources, and leaders help members
    reach agreement.

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Causes of Conflict
  • Another reason for conflict is simply because
    individuals or teams are pursuing conflicting
    goals.
  • Finally, it sometimes happen that two people
    simply do not get along with one another and will
    never see eye to eye on any issue.
  • Sometimes the only solution is to separate the
    parties and reassign them to other teams where
    they can be more productive.

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Styles to Handle Conflict
  • Teams as well as individuals develop specific
    styles for dealing with conflict, based on the
    desire to satisfy their own concerns versus the
    other partys concerns.
  • How an individual approaches conflict is measured
    along two dimensions Assertiveness and
    Cooperation.
  • Effective leaders and team members vary their
    style to fit a specific situation, as each style
    is appropriate in certain cases.

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Part 3
  • Session 3

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Creating Vision and Strategic Direction
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Strategic Leadership
  • The ability to anticipate and envision the
    future, maintain flexibility, think
    strategically, and initiate changes that will
    create a competitive advantage fro the
    organization in the future.
  • Its responsible for the relationship of the
    external environment to choices about vision,
    mission, strategy, and their implementation.

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Leadership Vision
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Vision
  • It can be thought of as a dream for the future.
  • It is also more than a dream it is an
    attractive, ideal future that is credible yet not
    readily attainable.
  • Do u have a personal vision of your future ??

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What Vision Does
  • Visions works in a number of important ways.
  • An effective vision provides
  • A link between today and tomorrow,
  • Serves to energize and motivate employees toward
    the future,
  • And sets a standard of excellence andintegrity
    in the organization.

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1- Vision Links The Present to The Future
  • Vision connects what is going on right now with
    what the organization aspires.
  • A vision is always about the future, but it
    begins with that here and now.
  • In organization, the pressures to meet deadlines,
    make the big sales, solve immediate problems, and
    complete specific projects are very real.
  • Some have suggested that todays leaders need
    bifocal vision, the ability to take care of the
    needs of today and meet current obligations
    while also aiming toward dreams for the future.

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2- Vision Energizes People and Garners
Commitment
  • Many people commit their time and energy
    voluntarily to cause they believe in.
  • These same people often leave their energy and
    enthusiasm at home when they go to work, because
    they dont have anything to inspire them.
  • Vision needs to transcend the bottom line because
    people are willing, and even eager, to commit to
    something truly worthwhile, something that makes
    life better for others or improves their
    communities.

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3- Vision Gives Meaning to Work
  • People need to find dignity and meaning in their
    work.
  • People are drawn to companies that offer them a
    chance to do something meaningful.
  • Today, prospective employees often ask about a
    companys vision when interviewing for a job
    because they want to know what the organization
    aims for and how, or whether, they will fit in.

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4- Vision Establishes a Standard of Excellence
and Integrity
  • A powerful vision frees people from the routine
    by providing them with a challenge that requires
    them to give their best.
  • A vision is the focus button. It clarifies an
    image of the future and lets people see how they
    can contribute.
  • A vision presents a challenge, asks people to go
    where they haven't gone before. Thus, it
    encourages workers to take risks and find new
    ways of doing things.
  • It also clarifies the core values and ideals of
    the organization and thus sets a standard of
    integrity for employees.
  • A good vision brings out the best in people by
    illuminating important values, speaking to
    peoples hearts, and letting them be part of
    something bigger than themselves.

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Common Themes of Vision
  • Five themes are common to powerful, effective
    visions
  • They have broad, widely shared appeal.
  • They help organizations deal with change.
  • They encourage faith and hope for the future.
  • They reflect high ideals.
  • And they define both the organizations
    destination and the basic rules to get there.

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1- Vision Has Broad Appeal
  • Although it might be obvious that a vision can be
    achieved only through people, many visions fail
    to adequately involve employees.
  • The vision cannot be the property of the leader
    alone. The ideal vision is identified with the
    organization as a whole, not with a single leader
    or even a top leadership team.
  • It grabs people in the gut and motivates them
    to work toward a common end.
  • It allows each individual to act independently
    but in the same direction.

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2- Vision Deals with Change
  • Vision is about action and challenges people to
    make important changes toward a better future.
  • Change can be frightening, but a clear sense of
    direction helps people face the difficulties and
    uncertainties involved in the change process.
  • When employees have a guiding vision, everyday
    decisions and actions throughout the organization
    respond to current problems and challenges in
    ways that move the organization toward the future
    rather than maintain the status quo.

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3- Vision Encourages Faith and Hope
  • Visions exists only in the imagination it is a
    picture of a world that cannot be observed or
    verified in advance.
  • The future is shaped by people who believe in it,
    and a powerful vision helps people believe that
    they can be effective, that there is a better
    future they can move to through their own
    commitment and actions.
  • A powerful, clearly articulated vision helps
    people believe in a future they cannot see.

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4- Vision Reflects High Ideals
  • Good visions are idealistic.
  • Visions that portray an uplifting future have the
    power to inspire and energize people.

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5- Vision Defines the Destination and the Journey
  • A good vision for the future includes specific
    outcomes that the organization wants to achieve.
  • A good vision includes both the desired future
    outcomes and the underlying values that set the
    rules for achieving them.

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A Vision Works at Multiple Levels
  • Most of the visions we talked about so far are
    for the company as a whole. However, divisions,
    departments, and individuals also have visions,
    which are just as important and powerful.
  • Successful individuals usually have a clear
    mental picture of their vision and how to achieve
    it. People who do not have this clear vision of
    the future have less chance of success.
  • Organizational visions grow and change as well.
    Within organizations, top leaders develop a
    vision for the organization as whole, and at the
    same time a project team leader can develop a
    vision with team members for a new project or
    task they are working on.

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A Vision Works at Multiple Levels
  • When every person understands and embrace a
    vision, the organization becomes self-adapting.
    Although each individual acts independently,
    everyone is working in the same direction.
  • To develop a shared vision, leaders share their
    personal visions with others and encourage others
    to express their dreams for the future.
  • This requires openness, good listening skills,
    and the courage to connect with people on an
    emotional level.
  • A leaders ultimate responsibility is to be in
    touch with the hopes and dreams that drive team
    members and find the common ground that binds
    personal dreams into a shared vision for the
    organization.

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Mission
  • The organizations core broad purpose and reason
    for existence.
  • It defines the companys core values and reason
    for being, and it provides a basis for creating
    the vision.
  • Whereas vision is an ambitious desire for the
    future, mission is what the organization stand
    for in a larger sense.

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What Mission Does
  • Whereas vision continue to grow and change, the
    mission persists in the face of changing
    technologies, economic conditions, or other
    environmental shifts.
  • The mission is made up of two critical parts the
    core values and the core purpose.
  • The core values guide the organization no matter
    what.

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A Frame Work for Noble Purposes
  • An effective mission statement doesnt just
    describe products or services it captures
    peoples idealistic motivations for why the
    organization exists.
  • Most successful companies have missions that
    proclaim a noble purpose of some type, such as
    Motorolas applying technology to benefit the
    public.
  • Leaders are responsible for framing a noble
    purpose that inspires and leads followers to high
    performance and helps the organization maintain a
    competitive advantage.

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There are four basic approaches leaders take in
framing an organizational purpose that helps
people feel that their work is worthwhile
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Discovering
  • Many people are inspired by the opportunity to
    find or create something new.
  • Discovering for its own sake can serve as a noble
    purpose.
  • This type of purpose inspires people to see the
    adventure in their work and experience the joy of
    a pioneering or entrepreneurial spirit.

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Excellence
  • With this approach, leaders focus people on being
    the best , both on an individual and an
    organizational level.
  • Excellence is defined by the work itself rather
    than by customers. And organizations that pursue
    excellence would rather turn customers away that
    compromise their quality.
  • In companies with excellence as a guiding
    purpose, managers and employees are treated as
    valuable resources and provided with support to
    perform at their peak. People are motivated by
    the opportunity to experience intrinsic rewards
    and personal fulfillment.

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Altruism
  • Many non-profit organizations are based on a
    noble purpose of altruism, but businesses can use
    this approach as well.
  • Any company that puts a high premium on customer
    service can be considered to fall in this
    category as well.
  • Marriott encapsulates its purpose in the slogan,
    The Spirit to Serve.
  • The basis of action for this type of purpose is
    to increase personal happiness. Most people feel
    good when they are doing something to help others
    or make their communities or the world a better
    place.

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Heroism
  • The final category, heroism, means the companys
    purpose is based on being strong, aggressive, and
    effective.
  • Companies with this basis of noble purpose often
    reflect almost an obsession with winning.
  • For example, Bill Gates imbued Microsoft with a
    goal of putting the Windows operating system into
    every personal computer.

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A Frame Work for Noble Purposes
  • Companies that remain successful over the long
    term have top executives who lead with a noble
    purpose.
  • A well-chosen noble purpose taps into the
    emotions and instincts of employees and customers
    and can contribute to better morale, greater
    innovativeness, and higher employee and higher
    organizational performance.

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Opening a Window to a Brighter Future
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  • A blind man was brought to the hospital. He was
    both depressed and seriously ill.
  • He shared a room with another man, and one day
    asked, What is going on outside?
  • The man in the other bed explained in some
    details about the sunshine, the gusty winds, and
    the people walking along the sidewalk.

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  • The next day, the blind man again asked, please
    tell me what is going on outside today.
  • The room-mate responded with a story about the
    activities in a park across the way. The ducks on
    the pond and the people feeding them.

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  • The third day and each other day thereafter for
    two weeks, the blind man asked about the world
    outside and the other man answered, describing a
    different scene.
  • The blind man enjoyed these talks, and he grew
    happier learning about the world seen through the
    window.

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  • Then the blind mans room-mate was discharged
    from the hospital. A new room-mate wheeled in- a
    tough minded business man who felt terrible, but
    wanted to get work done.
  • The next morning, the blind man said, Will you
    please tell me what is going on outside?
  • The business man didnt feel well, and he didnt
    want to be bothered to tell stories to a blind
    man. So he responded assertively, What do you
    mean? I cant see outside. There is no window
    here. Its only a wall.

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  • The blind man again became depressed, and a few
    days later he took a turn for the worse and was
    moved to intensive care.
    The End

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Style Usage Dimension
1. The Competing Style When quick, decisive action is vital on important issues or unpopular actions. Reflects Assertiveness.
2. The Avoiding Style When an issue is minor. When there is no chance of winning. When delay to gather more information is needed. When a disruption would be costly. Reflects neither assertiveness nor cooperativeness.
3. The Compromising Style When goals on both sides are equally important. When opponents have equal power and both sides want to split the difference. When people need to arrive at temporary or practical solutions under time pressure. Reflects a moderate amount of both assertiveness and cooperativeness.
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Style Usage Dimension
4. The Accommodating Style When people realize they are wrong. When an issue is more important to others more than oneself. When building social credits for use in later discussions. When maintaining cohesiveness is especially important. Reflects a high degree of cooperativeness
5. The Collaborating Style When both sets of concerns are too important to be compromised. When insights from different people might need to be merged into an overall solution. When the commitment of both sides is needed for a consensus. Reflects a high degree of assertiveness and of cooperativeness. This style enables both parties to win, although it may require substantial dialogue and negotiation.
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Mostly False Mostly True
1. I cant describe a compelling image of my future. ( ) ( )
2. Life to me seems more exciting than routine. ( ) ( )
3. I have created very clear life goals and aims. ( ) ( )
4. I feel that my personal existence is very meaningful. ( ) ( )
5. In my life, I see a reason for being here. ( ) ( )
6. I have discovered a satisfying calling in life. ( ) ( )
7. I feel that I have a unique life purpose to fulfill. ( ) ( )
8. I will know when I will have achieved my purpose. ( ) ( )
9. I talk to people about my personal vision. ( ) ( )
10. I know how to harness my creativity and use my talents. ( ) ( )
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Scoring
  • 7 to above indicates that you are in great shape
    with respect to personal vision.
  • 4 8 average.
  • 3 to below indicates that you have not given much
    thought to a vision for your life.

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The Big Picture
  • Leadership seems to be the marshaling of skills
    possessed by a majority but used by a minority.
    But its something that can be learned by anyone,
    and taught to everyone.
  • Warren Bennis and Burt Nanus
  • Author of Leaders

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Dos Donts
  • A CHECK LIST FOR LEADRS.
  • Remember that having the title of leader doesnt
    make you one. First, you must earn the trust of
    your people.
  • Dont lead without a vision
  • Do communicate your vision to your staff.
  • Dont hide bad news.
  • Do recognize that people need to be managed as
    well as led.
  • Dont assume that success energizes employees as
    it does you.
  • Do communicate frequently with employees to let
    them know their efforts will be rewarded and
    follow up on your promises.

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A Leaders Framework for Noble Purpose
Purpose Description Basis for Action Examples
Discovering Finding the new Pioneer, entrepreneur IBM, Virgin
Excellence Being the best Fulfillment Apple, BMW
Altruism Providing service Happiness Service Master, Wal-Mart
Heroism Being effective Achievement Microsoft, Dell, Exxon Mobile
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