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PY 101 Semester Review

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PY 101 Semester Review Psychodynamics Free association Analysis of Resistance Dream analysis Analysis of Transference Person-Centered Therapy A Humanistic therapy ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: PY 101 Semester Review


1
PY 101SemesterReview
2
Psychological Perspectives on Human Behavior
  • Examination of human behavior and experience from
    a psychological perspective.
  • Application of psychological principles to
    understanding human behavior. (3 hrs)

3
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4
History Roots
  • Wilhelm Wundt
  • Edward Titchener
  • William James
  • John Watson
  • B. F. Skinner
  • Sigmund Freud
  • The Gestaltists
  • The Humanists

5
Sigmund Freud
  • Founded psychoanalysis, focused on unconscious
    thoughts in determining behavior.

6
Freudian Theory
  • Personality components
  • Id Concerned with drive satisfaction, provides
    the motive power follows the pleasure principle
    (the horse)
  • Ego Rational thought controls channels id
    follows the reality principle (the rider)
  • Superego Oversees balance between ego id
    internalized parental control much like a
    conscience

7
According to Freuds theory, People are born into
the world with which of these?
  • ID
  • EGO
  • Superego
  • Collective Unconscious

8
According to Freuds theory, People are born into
the world with which of these?
  • ID
  • EGO
  • Superego
  • Collective Unconscious

9
Carl Jung
  • Personality Theory
  • Ego
  • Personal Unconscious Like a combination of
    Freud's preconscious and unconscious
  • Collective Unconscious Inherited tendencies to
    respond in a particular way (archetypes) shared
    by all humans

10
Alfred Adler
  • Humans motivated by the need to overcome
    inferiority and strive for significance
  • Inferiority Complex Adler's term for feelings of
    inferiority that interfere with development

11
Karen Horney
  • Stressed need for safety satisfaction
  • Childhood frustration may lead to development of
    basic anxiety neurosis

Tyranny of the Should Horney's term for focusing
on an unrealistic, perfect self-image that leads
to dissatisfaction
12
Which of the following theorists would be most
likely to attribute psychological problems to the
unconscious?
  • A. FreudB. PavlovC. BreuerD. Skinner

13
Which of the following theorists would be most
likely to attribute psychological problems to the
unconscious?
  • FreudB. PavlovC. BreuerD. Skinner

14
Which of the following theorists would be most
likely to attribute human motivation to striving
for superiority?
  • A. FreudB. PavlovC. BreuerD. Adler

15
Which of the following theorists would be most
likely to attribute human motivation to striving
for superiority?
  • A. FreudB. PavlovC. BreuerD. Adler

16
Research
  • Search for Respect
  • Scientific methods

17
Science Proof
  • A deduction is proven if the general premise is
    true and the logic is valid.
  • An induction goes beyond the known data, and thus
    can never be proven.

Science, then does not prove things, because all
information about the outside observable world is
inductive.
18
Research methods
  • Naturalistic Observation
  • Laboratory Observation
  • Case Studies
  • Surveys
  • Experiments
  • Experiments of Nature

19
Correlation
The Correlation Co-efficient
HIGHER
Low
High
-1
0
1
20
Whitney realized that the less time she spent
partying, the better her grades were. This would
be a(n) ________ correlation.
  • A. interestingB. zeroC. positiveD. negative

21
Whitney realized that the less time she spent
partying, the better her grades were. This would
be a(n) ________ correlation.
  • A. interestingB. zeroC. positiveD. negative

22
Experiments
  • Involve random assignment and controlled
    manipulation
  • Causal claims possible
  • Independent variables manipulated by E
  • Dependent variables supposedly affected by
    independent variables
  • Experimental groups get the different values of
    the independent variables. Control groups do
    not.

23
Dr. Tyler provides relaxation training to half of
the Pauline tennis team prior to the national
Championships. After the matches she compares the
points the athletes were assigned for their
performances. In this study, the points are the
  • A. variable.B. independent variable.C.
    dependent variable.D. operationalized factor.

24
Dr. Tyler provides relaxation training to half of
the Pauline tennis team prior to the national
Championships. After the matches she compares the
points the athletes were assigned for their
performances. In this study, the points are the
  • A. variable.B. independent variable.C.
    dependent variable.D. operationalized factor.

25
Biology
  • Neurotransmitters
  • Brain Functioning
  • Balances

26
The Neuron
27
Neurotransmitters
  • Acetylcholine important for learning, memory,
    muscle movement
  • Serotonin influences mood and regulates food
    intake
  • Dopamine important to movement and to frontal
    lobe activity
  • GABA important in inhibiting neural activity
  • Norepinephrine maintains alertness wakefulness
  • Endorphins regulate firing of pain neurons

28
Synapse
  • Tiny gap between an axon terminal another
    neuron (or specialized cell).
  • Firing neurons release neurotransmitters that
    cross the synapse.
  • Synaptic Vesicles
  • Hold the neurotransmitter.
  • Neural firing drives them to the synapse, where
    they release their chemicals.

29
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30
Chemical compounds that facilitate sending
signals from one neuron to another are called
  • A. axons.B. dendrites.C. neurotransmitters.D.
    synapses.

31
Chemical compounds that facilitate sending
signals from one neuron to another are called
  • A. axons.B. dendrites.C. neurotransmitters.D.
    synapses.

32
Human Development
  • Child
  • Adolescent
  • Adult

33
Piagets Theory
  • Assimilation
  • Fitting new objects, events, etc. into an
    existing schema
  • Accommodation
  • Modifying a schema to fit new events, objects,
    etc.

34
Piagets Stages
  • Sensorimotor (0-2 years)
  • Preoperations (2-7 years)
  • Concrete Operations (7-12 years)
  • Formal Operations (12 and up)

35
Adolescent Cognition
  • Grasp theoretical math
  • Understand religious political philosophy
  • Decipher metaphors analogies.

36
Imaginary Audience
  • The strong focus on self leads adolescents to
    feel that everyone else is focused on them as well

37
Personal Fable
  • Adolescents assume their thoughts and feelings
    are unique (no one has ever loved so deeply, etc.)

38
During the sensorimotor stage of cognitive
development of Piaget's theory
  • A. the child becomes adept at using words,
    images, and symbols to represent the world.B.
    infants and toddlers rely on their sensory and
    motor skills to acquire practical knowledge about
    the world.C. the child acquires the principle of
    conservation.D. the child uses logic to
    systematically solve problems.

39
During the sensorimotor stage of cognitive
development of Piaget's theory
  • A. the child becomes adept at using words,
    images, and symbols to represent the world.B.
    infants and toddlers rely on their sensory and
    motor skills to acquire practical knowledge about
    the world.C. the child acquires the principle of
    conservation.D. the child uses logic to
    systematically solve problems.

40
Ericksons Stages
  • Stage Age
  • Trust vs. Mistrust 0-1
  • Autonomy vs. Shame Doubt 1-3
  • Initiative vs. Guilt 3-6
  • Industry vs. Inferiority 6-Puberty
  • Identity vs. Role Confusion Adolescence
  • Intimacy vs. Isolation Young Adult
  • Generativity vs. Stagnation Middle-Age
  • Integrity vs. Despair Old Age

41
Life Course in Women
  • 1) No children phase
  • 2) Starting a family-preschool phase
  • 3) School-age phase
  • 4) Adolescent phase
  • 5) Launching phase
  • 6) Postparental phase

(Reinke, Ellicott, Harris, 1985)
42
Later Adulthood
  • Some physical and sensory decline is common
  • Exercise slows physical decline dramatically
  • Continued sexual activity common among those over
    80

43
Intelligence Aging
  • Intellectual abilities peak in the mid-40's
  • Intellectual decline generally doesn't set in
    until the mid-60's, and is modest until the 80's

44
Later Adulthood
  • Only 13 of those over 65 are below the poverty
    line
  • The majority of people view retirement positively
  • Losing a spouse increases both mortality and
    suicide rates

45
The Kübler-Ross Stages of Dying
  • 1) Denial and Isolation
  • 2) Anger
  • 3) Bargaining
  • 4) Depression
  • 5) Acceptance

46
In Kohlberg's theory, each level of moral
reasoning is based on the
  • A. degree to which a person obeys the law.B.
    degree to which a person avoids morally
    ambivalent situations.C. person's level of
    egocentrism.D. degree to which a person conforms
    to conventional standards in society.

47
In Kohlberg's theory, each level of moral
reasoning is based on the
  • A. degree to which a person obeys the law.B.
    degree to which a person avoids morally
    ambivalent situations.C. person's level of
    egocentrism.D. degree to which a person conforms
    to conventional standards in society.

48
Personality
  • Who am I?
  • Knowing others and how to interact
  • Assessment

49
Trait Theories
  • Explain differences between people in terms of
    stable personality traits
  • Modern day psychologists have found 5 personality
    dimensions that span cultures

50
Behaviorist Theory
  • Behavior determined by
  • Reward
  • Punishment
  • Classical conditioning

51
Social Cognitive Theory
  • Bandura's Reciprocal Determinism and
    Self-Efficacy
  • Rotter's Locus of Control

52
Personality Heredity
  • Heritability can be calculated by comparing
    traits of twins reared together and twins reared
    apart

53
Assessment
  • Observation
  • Interviews
  • Rating Scales
  • Inventories
  • Projective Tests

54
Problems
  • Observations, interviews, rating scales suffer
    from reliability problems the halo effect
  • Halo Effect
  • Assuming that someone with one favorable trait
    has many others as well

55
The MMPI-2
  • The most widely-used inventory
  • Consists of 567 true-false questions

56
The CPI
  • An MMPI-like test designed for normal individuals
  • The MMPI is more useful for clinical purposes,
    the CPI for normal populations

57
Projective Tests
  • The Rorschach Inkblot Test
  • The Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)

58
The Rorschach
  • Subject tells what each blot looks like and what
    aspect of the blot triggered that response

59
The Rorschach
  • Responses scored on use of parts vs. wholes,
    movement, content, use of color
  • Criticized for lack of reliability, low validity
    (inability to predict behavior)

60
The TAT
  • Consists of 19 vague or ambiguous drawings
  • Person describes what is happening in each

61
Sentence Completion
  • A projective test requiring completion of
    open-ended sentences
  • May be more reliable than the TAT

62
The Rorschach Ink Blot test is
  • A subjective personality test
  • A projective personality test
  • A pencil and paper opinion questionnaire
  • An example of invalid tests can be

63
The Rorschach Ink Blot test is
  • A subjective personality test
  • A projective personality test
  • A pencil and paper opinion questionnaire
  • An example of invalid tests can be

64
Stress/Health
  • Theories of Stress
  • Impact on Health

65
Stress
  • The physiological psychological response to
    conditions that threaten or challenge

66
General Adaptation Syndrome
  • Discovered by Hans Selye
  • Involves the body's nonspecific response to stress

67
General Adaptation Syndrome
  • Alarm a threat mobilizes body resistance to
    stress
  • Resistance stress resistance reaches its maximum
  • Exhaustion The organism's resources for dealing
    with stress are exhausted -- stress resistance
    drops off

68
General Adaptation
(Selye, 1956)
69
Sources of Stress
  • Conflict
  • Lack of Control Unpredictability
  • Catastrophe Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

70
Coping
  • Problem-focused coping attempts to modify,
    reduce, or eliminate the source of stress
  • Emotion-focused coping attempts to alter the
    emotional response to the stressor
  • Religious belief appears to aid in coping with
    stressful events such as death of a child

71
Type A Behavior
72
An approach-avoidance conflict is caused by _____.
  • A) increasing life demands, hassles, and chronic
    stressors
  • B) an inaccurate or exaggerated response to a
    real or perceived threat to a valued relationship
  • C) having to choose between two or more
    alternatives, which both have desirable and
    undesirable results
  • D) a blocked goal

73
An approach-avoidance conflict is caused by _____.
  • A) increasing life demands, hassles, and chronic
    stressors
  • B) an inaccurate or exaggerated response to a
    real or perceived threat to a valued relationship
  • C) having to choose between two or more
    alternatives, which both have desirable and
    undesirable results
  • D) a blocked goal

74
Disorders
  • Anxiety
  • Mood
  • Psychosis

75
Obsession is to ______ as compulsion is to
_______.
  • A. behaviors behaviorsB. thoughts thoughtsC.
    behavior thoughtD. thought behavior

76
Obsession is to ______ as compulsion is to
_______.
  • A. behaviors behaviorsB. thoughts thoughtsC.
    behavior thoughtD. thought behavior

77
Anxiety Disorders
78
Panic Disorder
  • Intense, short-lived, recurring attacks of
    overwhelming anxiety or terror
  • May involve the limbic system

79
Obsessive Compulsives
Obsessions
Reduce
Compulsions
Anxiety
80
Which of these is considered a positive symptom
of schizophrenia?
  • Dull affect
  • Withdrawn and talking very little
  • Delusion

81
Which of these is considered a positive symptom
of schizophrenia?
  • Delusion

82
Schizophrenia
  • Positive Symptoms
  • Symptoms found in schizophrenics
  • Negative Symptoms
  • Normal behaviors that are absent in
    schizophrenics

83
Positive Symptoms
  • Hallucinations (mostly auditory)
  • Delusions (delusions of grandeur and persecution
    are most common)
  • Speech disturbances (including word salad)
  • Disorganized behavior (including silliness,
    weird motor behaviors)
  • Inappropriate affect (emotional responses that
    are inappropriate for the circumstances, such as
    crying at comedy shows)

84
Negative Symptoms
  • Social withdrawal, limited speech and action,
    poor hygiene, apathy
  • Flat affect (no emotional response at all)

85
Excess Dopamine
  • 2/3 of schizophrenics improve when given dopamine
    reducers
  • PET scans show excess dopamine activity in
    sufferers
  • Drugs that increase dopamine cause schizophrenic
    symptoms
  • People taking excessive L-dopa have schizophrenic
    symptoms

86
Someone who sees, hears, or feels things that are
not real would be regarded as having
  • A. delusionsB. hallucinationsC. depression with
    psychotic featuresD. depression with atypical
    features

87
Someone who sees, hears, or feels things that are
not real would be regarded as having
  • A. delusionsB. hallucinationsC. depression with
    psychotic featuresD. depression with atypical
    features

88
Mood Disorders
  • Major Depressive Disorder
  • Seasonal Affective Disorder
  • Bipolar Disorder

89
Seasonal Affective Disorder
  • A greater than normal mood fluctuation with the
    seasons
  • Related to amount intensity of light

90
Bipolar Disorder
  • Manic episodes extreme depression mixed with
    normal affect
  • Mania involves delusional levels of optimism,
    euphoria, energy
  • Equally common in both sexes
  • Sufferers make poor decisions while manic,
    withdraw when depressed

91
Causes Treatments
  • Depression
  • low norepinephrine serotonin levels
  • Mania
  • high norepinephrine levels
  • Major Depressive Disorder
  • serotonin selective reuptake inhibitors (e.g.
    Prozac)

92
Distorted Thinking
  • Includes negative views of the world, the future,
    the self
  • Tied to poor reality testing, learned helplessness

93
Schizophrenia is classified as
  • Mood disorder
  • Anxiety Disorder
  • Psychotic Disorder
  • Personality Disorder

94
Schizophrenia is classified as
  • Mood disorder
  • Anxiety Disorder
  • Psychotic Disorder
  • Personality Disorder

95
Therapy
  • Putting Theory into Action
  • Match Client Needs
  • Specific Goals

96
Therapy Types
  • Insight Therapies
  • Behavioral Therapies
  • Cognitive Therapies
  • Biological Therapies

97
Insight Therapies
  • Psychodynamics
  • Person-centered Therapy
  • Gestalt Therapy
  • Existential Therapy

98
Psychodynamics
  • Free association
  • Analysis of Resistance
  • Dream analysis
  • Analysis of Transference

99
Person-Centered Therapy
  • A Humanistic therapy
  • Founded by Rogers
  • Uses mirroring unconditional positive regard to
    promote self actualization
  • Therapist must genuinely like the client
  • Therapist must have empathy for the client

100
Humanism
  • Only the client can judge if he or she is better
  • No way to independently verify success

101
  • Estella is afraid of cats. To help her overcome
    her fear, her mother calmly pets and strokes a
    cat while Estella is watching. Her mother
    encourages her to imitate her behavior. Estellas
    mother is using_________.
  • a) reinforcement
  • b) token economy
  • c) modeling
  • d) extinction

102
  • Estella is afraid of cats. To help her overcome
    her fear, her mother calmly pets and strokes a
    cat while Estella is watching. Her mother
    encourages her to imitate her behavior. Estellas
    mother is using_________.
  • a) reinforcement
  • b) token economy
  • c) modeling
  • d) extinction

103
Behavioral Therapy
  • Problems arise from failure to learn adaptive
    behavior or learning of maladaptive behavior
  • Change through operant and classical conditioning
    techniques

104
Cognitive Theory is best explained by
  • People learn by reinforced behavior
  • People think illogically causing their own
    distress
  • People continue to be influenced by their
    childhood conflicts
  • People are frustrated because they cannot achieve
    self actualization

105
Cognitive Theory is best explained by
  • People learn by reinforced behavior
  • People think illogically causing their own
    distress
  • People continue to be influenced by their
    childhood conflicts
  • People are frustrated because they cannot achieve
    self actualization

106
Cognitive Therapies
  • Rational Emotive Therapy (Ellis)
  • Beck's cognitive therapy

107
Rational Emotive Therapy
  • Attempts to modify the irrational beliefs that
    cause distress
  • Confrontational and directive

108
Common Irrational Beliefs
  • I must be perfect
  • Everyone must love me
  • The past determines the future
  • It is catastrophic when things don't go as planned

109
Becks Cognitive Therapy
  • Automatic Thoughts Thoughts people have about
    life and the self that may be unreasonable but
    are accepted as accurate
  • Automatic thoughts create depression and anxiety
  • Goal teach patients to stop the thoughts

110
Biological Therapies
  • Psychoactive drugs highly successful in reducing
    in-patient population

111
Antipsychotic Drugs
  • Neuroleptics -- phenothiazine, butyrophenones
  • Neuroleptics may cause Tardive dyskinesia
  • Clozapine and risperidone
  • Clozapine has a risk of producing blood clots

112
Antidepressants
  • Tricyclics
  • Serotonin Selective Reuptake Inhibitors
  • SSRIs (Prozac, Anafranil) have fewer side effects
  • MAO inhibitors
  • MAO inhibitors can't be taken with certain foods

113
Tranquilizers
  • Benzodiazapines (Librium, Valium, Xanax)
  • Xanax more effective but somewhat addictive

114
Maggie's therapist is using a token economy
technique during therapy. What is the most likely
theoretical perspective of Maggie's therapist?
  • A. humanisticB. behavioralC. cognitiveD.
    psychodynamic

115
Maggie's therapist is using a token economy
technique during therapy. What is the most likely
theoretical perspective of Maggie's therapist?
  • A. humanisticB. behavioralC. cognitiveD.
    psychodynamic

116
Cognitive theories address the importance of
  • A. thoughts and beliefs.B. observable
    behaviors.C. testable behaviors.D. stimuli and
    responses.

117
Cognitive theories address the importance of
  • A. thoughts and beliefs.B. observable
    behaviors.C. testable behaviors.D. stimuli and
    responses.

118
Psychodynamic is the ________________ as
humanistic is to _______________.
  • a. unconscious conflict free will
  • b. free will unconscious conflict
  • c. repression rewards/punishment
  • d. rewards/punishment reprimand

119
Psychodynamic is the ________________ as
humanistic is to _______________.
  • a. unconscious conflict free will
  • b. free will unconscious conflict
  • c. repression rewards/punishment
  • d. rewards/punishment reprimand

120
T H E E N D
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