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Title: Media Last modified by: Christina Created Date: 10/25/2006 2:24:28 AM Document presentation format: On-screen Show Company: Northwestern University – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Media

  • The 4th Branch of Government

In this Chapter you will learn
  • What is the role (function) of the media?
  • (What should it be may be different that
  • what it is)
  • How effective do you think it is?
  • How much influence does the media
  • have in shaping policy?
  • How much influence do you think the
  • media has in changing public opinion?

Take Five
  • Why do you think that the media
  • is often referred to as the 4th branch
  • of the government?

Functions of the Media
  • Entertainment
  • News
  • Agenda setting ability of the media to draw
    public attention to certain issues and to ignore
    other issues
  • Political forum place to make announcements or
    advertise government
  • Reporting on governmental policy


Brief History of the Media
  • Party Press 1770-1820
  • Press was seen as an extension of party
  • Until mid 1880s parties sold their proceedings
  • Watch dog role Jeffersons relationship with
    Sally Hemmings

Take Five
  • Give an example of the media
  • that altered an event in US History
  • Hint its yellow

Brief History of the Mediathe Penny Press and
Yellow Journalism
  • Less partisan, but not objective
  • Hearst and the Spanish American war- You furnish
    the pictures and Ill get you the war.
  • Yellow journalism- cheap yellow paper,
    sensational late 1800s
  • Muckraking- Upton Sinclair Progressive Era- media
    became to be more independent

Take Five
  • How has the media changed
  • from the 1800s to modern day?

The New Media
  • The increasing rapid pace of electronic news and
    televisions global coverage shortens the time
    frame for policy responses.
  • In 1961, when the Berlin Wall went up, President
  • Kennedy had 8 days to respond to the
  • provocative action.
  • In 1989, when the wall came down, President
  • Bush, Sr was forced to respond overnight.

Structure of Media
  • Print media newspaper, magazine, etc.
  • Oldest, being steadily replaced
  • Electronic Media radio, TV
  • TV now is the primary source of news
  • Internet instant information, any time
  • Replacing print and electronic media
  • Blogs
  • 527s groups that independently raise money and
    campaign for and against people

Media Conglomerates

Media Conglomerates
  • Gannet Co. owns USA Today and controls the
    biggest circulation in the nation owns 100
    additional papers
  • Rupert Murdoch owns 124 radio stations, New York
    Post, Weekly Standard, and FOX News

Case Study - Viacom
  • Media Conglomerate Viacom
  • CBS News
  • MTV
  • VH1
  • BET
  • Blockbuster
  • Paramount Pictures
  • Nickelodeon
  • DreamWorks
  • Showtime

The Transformation of Media
  • Radio then television transformed media
  • Televised debate between Nixon Kennedy-radio
  • listeners gave Nixon the edge, but Kennedy did
    well on tv. changed nature of campaigns
  • Youtube has brought changes-His Obamas
  • speeches play well on YouTube, which allows for
    more than the five-second sound bites that have
    characterized the television era- Marc Ambinder
    Atlantic Monthly June 2008

Television News?
  • A full transcript of the typical nightly
  • network news broadcasts foreign and
  • domestic would not fill half of the front
  • page of an average daily newspaper.
  • Yet ¾ of the American people routinely
  • depend on this source for most of their
  • foreign affairs information.

Government Regulation
  • 1st Amendment freedom of press
  • Govt cant place prior restraint on news
    (cant censor news before it is released)
  • The press is not entirely free

Media Regulations
  • FCC equity-have to sell air time equally to all
    candidates if they choose to sell any
  • BUTif one side buys more than another, then the
    media agency is in compliancethe opportunity is
  • Fairness doctrine- rule required broadcasters to
    cover events with contrasting views- NO longer in
  • effect, although talk of bringing it back

  • Federal Communications Commission (1934)
  • Controls the media, no one may operate radio or
    TV stations without their license
  • Who are they? 5 members (no more than 3 from
    the same political party) nominated by US
    President for 5 years.

Take Five
  • Until 2003, it was illegal for one
  • media organization to own different
  • media outlets such as radio and tv.

  • Control airwaves for licenses and content
  • 2003 changed rules about cross-ownership so
    companies can now own different types of media
  • Can reach 45 of national audience at any one
    time. So Time Warner can have movie, cable news
    and an entertainment show all on at same
    time-shill for one another

Telecommunications Act of 1996
  • Relaxed limitations on media ownership
  • Own up to 35 of television market
  • Own unlimited of radio
  • Remember Vanderbilt and Horizontal Integration???

Say What???
  • The media is a watch dog
  • Is the tail wagging the dog?

Roles of the Media
  • Watch dog-responsibility of media to make public
  • aware of corruption, incompetence, illegal,
  • actions by politicians
  • Agenda setter-focuses public attention on issues-
  • the tail wagging the dog?
  • The mass media may not be successful in telling
  • what to think, but they are stunningly
    successful in telling
  • their audience what to think about.
  • Average sound bite for Presidential candidate in
  • 1968 was 42 seconds by 2000 less than 10
  • seconds

Watergate and Investigative Journalism
  • Watch dog role becomes paramount-
  • Power of journalism
  • Media begins to focus on personal lives of
    politicians,had been out of bounds,
    Roosevelt,JFK, etc.
  • More sensational If it bleeds it leads

Roles of the Media
  • Score keeper- media polls drive news, candidates
  • performance constantly criticized, measured
  • Signaler- Alert the public about important
  • developments
  • Horse-race journalism- term for primaries
  • particularly-who is in lead, second etc.
  • Framing- how media presents context-KKK rally
  • more accepted if defined as civil rights story,
    less if public safety issue

Roles of the Media
  • Press release- on paper document with official
    position given to reporters
  • Press briefing- limited topic-announcements then
    brief questions State Department or DOD
  • Press Conference- statement then questions on
    wide range of topics

Presidential Press Conferences
  • Modern presidents hold fewer press conferences
    than historic presidents
  • Examples
  • FDR held 998 press conferences
  • Eisenhower held 193 press conferences
  • Kennedy held 65 press conferences
  • Clinton held 50 press conferences
  • George W. Bush held 20 press conferences

Take Five
  • How can the media print and
  • publish information that is off the
  • record?

Whats the media lingo?
  • On background- give info about rival, but wont
    be the source
  • Deep background unsourced "Deep background" This
    term is used in the U.S., though not
    consistently. Most journalists would understand
    "deep background" to mean that the information
    may not be included in the article but is used by
    the journalist to enhance his or her view of the
    subject matter, or to act as a guide to other
    leads or sources. Most deep background
    information is confirmed elsewhere before being
  • Off the record- whatever official says can be
    printed- but will get info somewhere else
  • On the record-Journalists protect sources- Judith
    Miller went to jail for refusing to name her
    source re Scooter Libby Valerie Plame info.

Impact of Media on Politics
  • sound bites second long segments
  • Stories/political messages are shortened, and
    made to seem less complex than reality

Media and Political Campaigns
  • Advertising very expensive on TV, way to reach
    many voters, raising campaign costs
  • News coverage free coverage, politicians will
    attempt to create events where media will attend
    for free publicity
  • Spin doctor one who tries to influence
    journalists with interpretations of events that
    are favorable to the candidate
  • Presidential Debates

Media and Govt Officials
  • White House Press Corp journalists whose sole
    job is to follow the President
  • White House Press Secretary responsible for
    addressing the press daily and answer questions
    for the president
  • Tony Snow, former FOX broadcaster
  • Dana Perino took over 9-14-07

Supreme Court Cases and the Media
  • New York Times v United States 1971 Secret
    Pentagon Papers published
  • Ruled that publication could NOT be blocked
  • Can not use prior restraint unless
  • justification such as military movements before
  • during war
  • New York Times v Sullivan 1964
  • Libel requires proof of actual malice- a knowing
  • reckless disregard for the truth. NY Times found
  • guilty because malice not proved. So information
  • could be wrong, but has to printed or released
  • malicious intention-difficult to prove.