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Restoration History Series


Restoration History Series Brief introduction to Restoration History Barton W. Stone Alexander Campbell Leaders, Colleges, and Organizational Questions – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Restoration History Series

Restoration History Series
  • Brief introduction to Restoration History
  • Barton W. Stone
  • Alexander Campbell
  • Leaders, Colleges, and Organizational Questions

Brief Introduction to Restoration History Lesson
  • April 2014

Why Study Restoration History?
  • Is often misunderstood
  • Is even more often incorrectly defined
  • Is more and more seen as a divergent view
  • Is an inspiring study men willing to confront
    and battle, men loyal to conviction

Original Purpose
  • Restore original Christianity, primitive practice
  • Two pillars Scripture and unity
  • Return to Scripture, strong concept of
    inspiration (rationalism, human understanding)
  • Build unity, time when division was deplored
  • Desire to increase morality
  • Desire to be independent, without creed, without
    authoritative overseeing group

Questionsthen and now
  • Is it desirable and necessary?
  • Can it be done?
  • What means should be used to accomplish it?
  • Who wants it? (we live in a different time)

Not new questionshow answer?
  • Alexander Campbell answered with three principles
  • Distinguish faith and opinion
  • Faith acceptance of facts AND trust
  • Opinioncognition without sufficient evidence for
    faith, thus inconclusive therefore, opinion
    should not be preached as dogma
  • The silence of Scripture
  • Importance of using proper biblical terminology

Pragmatic Questions
  • Is the plea valid?
  • What do you restore?
  • Not the externals, but the essence
  • What is the essence, what is incidental?
  • What is permanent, what is temporary?
  • What are appropriate boundaries of fellowship?
    Who decides? What MUST one do/believe?

Pragmatic Questions
  • How do you do it?
  • By rejecting human creeds and traditions,
  • Follow only the Bible
  • Is first century Christianity monolithic enough
    to be restored?

What is substance of Reformers plea?
  • Robert Richardson, Millennial Harbinger, 1854
  • Proclaim the gospel
  • Emphasize morality
  • The Holy Spirit works in word and conversion
  • Bible is the source of faith

Frontier Issues (Frederick Turner Jackson)
  • Fostered spirit of individualism
  • Spirit of self-reliance
  • Frontier was democratic, voice of the people
  • Emotionalism
  • Pugnacious

Frontier Issues (William Warren Sweet)
  • Dominated by fear
  • Gullible people, superstition
  • Denigrated education and culture, ridiculed high
  • Self-reliance (applied to religion)
  • Promoted free will (Arminianism)
  • Lay preachers
  • Religion should be felt

Frontier Issues
  • Frontier religion was less formal
  • Preaching was more conversational
  • There are was questioning, debating
  • Emphasized the individualyou can respond to God
  • Restoration Plea fit well in this situation

Frontier Issues
  • Why Restoration Plea fit well
  • Message was strongly anti-clerical and
  • Debating was used, often to depend oneself
  • Conversational style of preaching
  • Simple organization

Frontier Issues
  • Why Restoration Plea fit well
  • Strongly individualistic (revivalism)
  • Immediate action was preached
  • The democratic spirit revolted against creeds
  • When people obeyed, had strong sense of security

Barton W. Stone
  • April 2014

Barton W. Stone
  • RevivalismFocusing the Hope for the Future

Cane Ridge
Barton W. Stone Cane Ridge
  • Revivalism in early 19th century
  • Presbyterian conflicts
  • Converging interests

National Religious Development
  • Early 1800s
  • The Second Great Awakening
  • Revivals Baptists and Methodists
  • Challenges to Calvinism
  • Revolt against increasing church controls

Barton W. Stone--Early History
  • Born Dec 24, 1772
  • Remembered Revolutionary War
  • Stone was stirred fervor wore off
  • Began studies to become lawyer, enrolled in Dr.
    David Caldwells Log School
  • Schools classics and linguistics

Religious Milieu
  • Liberal Presbyterian not as Calvinistic, more
  • Calvinism all credit to God
  • Revivalism human response
  • Just thinking where are we?

Personal Religious Development
  • Stones Conversion
  • At Caldwells school a great religious excitement
    stirred at the preaching ofJames MGready.
  • Sovereignty of God PLUS human response
  • Revivalism something done only by God (waiting)
    or is human involvement possible/necessary?

Personal Religious Development
  • Stone attended services to hear MGready preach
  • After a long struggle, he at length obtained
    peace of mind in a retired wood, to which he had
    resorted with his Bible (Richardson, Memoirs)

Call to Ministry
  • Felt great desire to preach gospel but had no
    divine call to do so.
  • 1793 left Caldwells school, went to Georgia to
    teach in school of Hope Hall
  • 1796 Stone became a candidate for the ministry
    in the Orange Presbytery
  • Permission to preach, but not yet ordained
  • Stones mother was Methodist now

Call to Ministry
  • Stone went to Fort Nashboro
  • John Anderson told him of Cane Ridge (KY) where
    Robert Findlay was leaving
  • Stone went on preaching tour to Kentucky
  • Cane Ridge, Bourbon County, KY
  • So successful they asked him to stay.
  • Opened school, trained several

Call to Ministry
  • Needed to be ordained as licensing period was
    almost up
  • Had to seek ordination in a new presbytery.
  • Agreement with Westminster Creed
  • As far as I see it consistent with the word of

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Cane Ridge
Early Ministry
  • Stone was at Cane Ridge 1796-1800
  • Went to raise money for Transylvania College in
  • Went back to KY with B. F. Hall
  • Hall had received a letter asking him to go to
    Logan County for a MGready revival

Cane Ridge Church
  • The revivals in Kentucky were led by MGready
  • Spring of 1801
  • Camp meetings in Logan County.
  • strange agitations...which had formerly occurred
    under the preaching of Whitefield and others
    (as in First Great Awakening)

Cane Ridge
Cane Ridge Camp Meeting (1801)
  • Cane Ridge church protracted meeting for August
    of that year (1801)
  • More than 20,000 people attended, with some
    estimates as high as 30,000.
  • Presbyterians, Methodist and Baptists, with all
    preachers witnessing the agitations as a result
    of their preaching
  • More than 1,000 were struck down
  • Some struck down were infidels.

Cane Ridge Camp Meeting (1801)
  • People of all ages were struck down as in
    battle, remaining for hours motionless, and then
    reviving in the agonies of remorse or in the
    ecstasies of spiritual joy.
  • Stone believed these were work of God.
  • Similar things happened via his own preaching.
  • Interest in religion permeating the area, which
    led to other religious groups coming to the

Conflicts with the Presbyterians
  • In Lexington, the first synod was being formed
  • Leadership did not agree with Liberal
    Presbyterian thought, especially as taught at
    Cane Ridge
  • But the Cane Ridge group was in 1801-1802 added
    to Washington Presbytery
  • Transylvania Presbytery questioned this

Conflicts with the Presbyterians
  • So the Kentucky Synod heard the case in 1803, but
    Stone and his friends wrote before the hearing
    that they were leaving the Presbyterian system
  • Formed the Springfield Presbytery in fall 1803
  • Established 6 congregations immediately
  • Had period conferences, evangelistic tool, did
    not settle much doctrinally

The Last Will and Testament of the Springfield
  • That the Bible is a sure guide
  • That the Bible is complete, authority, rule of
    faith and practice
  • That the source of division is from men, not from
  • That human inventions and traditions can be laid
  • That men should unite on the Bible
  • That human creeds and inventions are unnecessary
    and harmful

Converging Interests
  • Rice Haggard, Methodist circuit rider from VA
  • Samuel Davies (d. 1761) of Princeton had been
    great orator
  • Read sermon of Grosvenor (Anglican) from 1728 on
    the name Christian
  • Davies preached similar sermon and printed it
  • Rice Haggard read Davies sermon, adapted it and
    began preaching it
  • Thus Rice Haggard suggested the name to OKelly
    in 1793

Converging Interests
  • In New England, Elias Jones and Abner Smith were
    using the name Christian
  • The Christian Connection was mostly a New
    England affair, although independent
  • By the 1830s there were 900 preachers in the
    Christian connection in New England
  • Did not see baptism as compulsory

A Continuing Story
  • Rice Haggard visited KY in March 1804
  • Stone studied with Haggard and adopted the name
  • Stone and baptism a long story
  • 1810 Stones wife died, married a widow, moved
    to TN
  • Moved back to KY in 1816 to be school teacher and
  • 1834 Illinois, Antioch church, common name

Joining Forces
  • Stone and John T. Johnson
  • Raccoon John Smith and Samuel Rodgers
  • December 1832
  • AC was unable to attend
  • Union made without consent of AC
  • AC was unhappy about it
  • Too many differences
  • Forced to recognize it

Disciple vs. Christian
  • 1833 joint hymnbook, edited by Stone, Walter
    Scott, Campbell, and D. P. Henderson
  • Division over name of book, disciples vs.
  • AC, Millennial Harbinger, 1839 advocates use of
    proper nameDisciples of Christ
  • Has priority chronologically, used in gospel
  • Christian has connotation of Christian
    connection, then going to Unitarianism

Disciple vs. Christian
  • Stone was hurt, wrote Campbell
  • Almost divisive wedge, even Walter Scott was
    upset with Campbell
  • But in Kentucky, Christian was retained with a
    lot of resentment against Campbell

Cane Ridge
Cane Ridge
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