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Arts History 1750-1900

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Arts History 1750-1900 Classical Period Romantic Period Classical Period: Artwork Many sonatas are written for the piano, the instrument showcased in this painting. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Arts History 1750-1900


1
Arts History1750-1900
  • Classical Period
  • Romantic Period

2
Classical Period
Classical Period
1750-1820
3
Compare and ContrastBaroque Period and
Classical Period
  • Baroque Period
  • Rhythm
  • A continuous, perpetual motion
  • Mood
  • Music with a single emotion
  • Texture
  • Homophonic and polyphonic
  • Dynamics
  • Abrupt shifts in dynamics
  • Keyboards
  • The harpsichord and organ were the main
    instruments
  • Classical Period
  • Rhythm
  • Unexpected pauses, many changes in tempo
  • Mood
  • Music that fluctuates in mood
  • Texture
  • Homophonic
  • Dynamics
  • Gradual changes in dynamics
  • Keyboards
  • The piano was the main keyboard instrument

4
Compare and ContrastBaroque Period and
Classical Period
  • Compare the first movement of Vivaldis Spring
    from The Four Seasons with the second movement of
    Mozarts Piano Concerto No. 21. Can you
    differentiate between Baroque and Classical
    concertos? Try to answer these questions
  • How are the two orchestras different?
  • Which concerto has more songlike melodies?
  • Which concerto exhibits the more dramatic
    contrasts of dynamics, texture, and density?
  • How do the roles of solos and accompaniment
    differ in the two concertos?
  • Which concerto uses the more subtle dynamic
    shading?
  • Answers
  • The Mozart orchestra is larger and makes use of
    woodwind tone colors in addition to the strings.
  • The Mozart concerto
  • The Vivaldi concerto
  • In the Vivaldi concerto, there is a clear
    differentiation between the sections where the
    soloists play and when the orchestra plays. The
    Mozart is a more subtle integration between
    soloists and orchestra.
  • The Mozart concerto

5
Classical PeriodArtwork
  • Look at this famous painting from the Classical
    period.  The woman is dressed like a classic
    Greek statue.  There is just the lamp and couch,
    no other furniture.  The colors are not bright
    and shocking, but soft and gentle.  The overall
    image is sharp, simple, calm, elegant, and
    orderly.  Many of the paintings of the Classical
    period had these traits. 
  • Music of the Classical period was clean, elegant,
    balanced, controlled, and simple, just like the
    painting above.  

6
Classical Period 1750-1820
  • The Classical period is also known as the Age of
    Reason. This was an era of intellectual
    enlightenment that begun during the Baroque
    period. Reason was seen as the best guide for
    human conduct.
  • Although the Classical Era lasted for only 70
    years, there was a substantial change in the
    music that was being produced.
  • Classical music placed a greater stress on
    clarity with regard to melodic expression and
    instrumental color. Although opera and vocal
    music (both sacred and secular) were still being
    written, orchestral literature was performed on a
    much broader basis.
  • The orchestra gained more color and flexibility
    as clarinets, flutes, oboes, and bassoons became
    permanent members of the orchestra.

7
Classical Period 1750-1820
  • The Classical style can be reflected in this
    English garden.
  • Perfect form
  • Mirrored image
  • Symmetry
  • Simple and elegant
  • The classical style was dominated by homophonic
    texture, which consisted of a single melodic line
    and an accompaniment. New forms of composition
    were developed to adapt to this style.
  • The piano replaces the harpsichord as the main
    keyboard instrument of the Classical period.

8
Classical PeriodArtwork
  • Many sonatas are written for the piano, the
    instrument showcased in this painting.
  • Based on the dreamy colors and hazy lines, what
    type of music do you think the girl at the
    piano is playing?

Two Young Girls at the Piano, 1892
9
Classical PeriodTerms
  • Countermelody melodic idea that accompanies a
    main theme
  • Sonata a work in several movements for one or
    more instruments
  • Symphony orchestral composition, usually in
    four movements (fast, slow, minuet, fast)
    typically lasting between 20 and 45 minutes
  • String Quartet composition for two violins, a
    viola, and a cello
  • Chamber Music music using a small group of
    musicians, with one player to a part
  • Theme and Variation a basic musical idea that
    is repeated over and over each time

10
Classical PeriodImportant Figures and Events
  • Industrial Revolution - a period in the late 18th
    and early 19th centuries when major changes in
    agriculture, manufacturing, production, mining,
    and transportation had a profound effect on the
    socioeconomic and cultural conditions in Britain.
    The changes subsequently spread throughout
    Europe, North America, and eventually the world.
    The onset of the Industrial Revolution marked a
    major turning point in human society almost
    every aspect of daily life was eventually
    influenced in some way.

11
Classical PeriodImportant Figures and Events
  • United States Declaration of Independence - a
    statement adopted by the Continental Congress
    on July 4, 1776, which announced that the
    thirteen American colonies then at war with
    Great Britain were now independent states, and
    thus no longer a part of the British Empire.
  • George Washington elected first President of
    the United States of America in 1789

12
Classical PeriodComposers
  • Franz Joseph Haydn (1732-1809)
  • The most famous composer of his time. He helped
    develop new musical forms, like the string
    quartet and the symphony. In fact, even though he
    didn't invent it, Haydn is known as the Father
    of the Symphony. He wrote more than 100!
  • Haydn was born in the tiny Austrian town of
    Rohrau, where his father made huge wooden carts
    and wagonwheels. His mother was a cook. When he
    was 8, Joseph went to Vienna to sing in the choir
    at St. Stephen's Cathedral, and to attend the
    choir school. Joseph could never resist a playing
    a joke, which got him in trouble at school.
  • At first, Haydn struggled to earn a living as a
    composer. Then, he got a job with a rich,
    powerful family named Esterhazy. It was Haydn's
    job to write music for the Esterhazy princes, and
    to conduct their orchestra. Haydn composed
    symphonies, operas, string quartets, and all
    kinds of other music for performance at the
    Esterhazy court.
  • Haydn was also a good businessman. Music
    publishing made him and his music famous all over
    Europe. After he retired from working for the
    Esterhazy family, Haydn made two very successful
    trips to England, where audiences at concerts of
    his music treated him like a superstar.

13
Classical PeriodFranz Joseph Haydn (1732-1809)
14
Classical PeriodComposers
  • Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756-1791)
  • Born in Salzburg, Austria, where his father
    Leopold was a violinist and composer. Wolfgang
    was a child prodigy. He composed his first piece
    of music at age five he had his first piece
    published when he was seven and he wrote his
    first opera when he was twelve. By the time
    Wolfgang was 6, he was an excellent pianist and
    violinist. He and his sister Maria Anna traveled
    all over Europe performing for royalty.
  • When he grew up, Mozart moved to Vienna, and
    tried to earn a living as a pianist and composer.
    But he had a lot of trouble handling the fact
    that he was no longer a child prodigy. Mozart was
    still a musical genius, but after he stopped
    being a cute kid, people stopped making a big
    fuss over him. Back then, musicians were treated
    like servants, but Mozart did not, and could not
    think of himself as a servant.
  • Mozart was only 35 when he died. During his short
    life, he composed in all different musical forms,
    including operas, symphonies, concertos, masses,
    and chamber music. He composed over 600 works!
    Today, he is still considered a genius.

15
CompositionsDon Giovanni - Act I
  • Spain, 1600s. At night, outside the
    Commendatore's palace, Leporello grumbles about
    his duties as servant to Don Giovanni, a
    dissolute nobleman. Soon the masked Don appears,
    pursued by Donna Anna, the Commendatore's
    daughter, whom he has tried to seduce. When the
    Commendatore himself answers Anna's cries, he is
    killed in a duel by Giovanni, who escapes. Anna
    now returns with her fiancé, Don Ottavio. Finding
    her father dead, she makes Ottavio swear
    vengeance on the assassin.
  • At dawn, Giovanni flirts with a high-strung
    traveler outside a tavern. She turns out to be
    Donna Elvira, a woman he once seduced in Burgos,
    who is on his trail. Giovanni escapes while
    Leporello distracts Elvira by reciting his
    master's long catalog of conquests. Peasants
    arrive, celebrating the nuptials of their friends
    Zerlina and Masetto when Giovanni joins in, he
    pursues the bride, angering the groom, who is
    removed by Leporello. Alone with Zerlina, the Don
    applies his charm, but Elvira interrupts and
    protectively whisks the girl away. When Elvira
    returns to denounce him as a seducer, Giovanni is
    stymied further while greeting Anna, now in
    mourning, and Ottavio. Declaring Elvira mad, he
    leads her off. Anna, having recognized his voice,
    realizes Giovanni was her attacker.

16
CompositionsDon Giovanni - Act I (con.)
  • Dressing for the wedding feast he has planned for
    the peasants, Giovanni exuberantly downs
    champagne.
  • Outside the palace, Zerlina begs Masetto to
    forgive her apparent infidelity. Masetto hides
    when the Don appears, emerging from the shadows
    as Giovanni corners Zerlina. The three enter the
    palace together. Elvira, Anna and Ottavio arrive
    in dominoes and masks and are invited to the
    feast by Leporello.
  • During the festivities, Leporello entices Masetto
    into the dance as Giovanni draws Zerlina out of
    the room. When the girl's cries for help put him
    on the spot, Giovanni tries to blame Leporello.
    But no one is convinced Elvira, Anna and Ottavio
    unmask and confront Giovanni, who barely escapes
    Ottavio's drawn sword.

17
CompositionsDon Giovanni - Act 2
  • Under Elvira's balcony, Leporello exchanges
    cloaks with Giovanni to woo the lady in his
    master's stead. Leporello leads Elvira off,
    leaving the Don free to serenade Elvira's maid.
    When Masetto passes with a band of armed peasants
    bent on punishing Giovanni, the disguised rake
    gives them false directions, then beats up
    Masetto. Zerlina arrives and tenderly consoles
    her betrothed.
  • In a passageway, Elvira and Leporello are
    surprised by Anna, Ottavio, Zerlina and Masetto,
    who, mistaking servant for master, threaten
    Leporello. Frightened, he unmasks and escapes.
    When Anna departs, Ottavio affirms his confidence
    in their love. Elvira, frustrated at her second
    betrayal by the Don, voices her rage.

18
CompositionsDon Giovanni - Act 2 (con.)
  • Leporello catches up with his master in a
    cemetery, where a voice warns Giovanni of his
    doom. This is the statue of the Commendatore,
    which the Don proposes Leporello invite to
    dinner. When the servant reluctantly stammers an
    invitation, the statue accepts.
  • In her home, Anna, still in mourning, puts off
    Ottavio's offer of marriage until her father is
    avenged.
  • Leporello is serving Giovanni's dinner when
    Elvira rushes in, begging the Don, whom she still
    loves, to reform. But he waves her out
    contemptuously. At the door, her screams announce
    the Commendatore's statue. Giovanni boldly
    refuses warnings to repent, even in the face of
    death. Flames engulf his house, and the sinner is
    dragged to hell.
  • Among the castle ruins, the others plan their
    future and recite the moral such is the fate of
    a wrongdoer.

19
Classical PeriodComposers
  • Ludwig van Beethoven (1770-1827)
  • Born in Bonn, Germany. His father, who was a
    singer, was his first teacher. After a while,
    even though he was still only a boy, Ludwig
    became a traveling performer, and soon, he was
    supporting his family.
  • In his early twenties, Beethoven moved to Vienna,
    where he spent the rest of his life. Beethoven
    was one of the first composers to make a living
    without being employed by the church or a member
    of the nobility.
  • At first, he was known as a brilliant pianist.
    But when he was around 30 years old, Beethoven
    started going deaf. Even though he could no
    longer hear well enough to play the piano,
    Beethoven composed some of his best music after
    he was deaf!
  • Beethoven is considered one of the greatest
    musical geniuses who ever lived. He may be most
    famous for his nine symphonies, but he also wrote
    many other kinds of music chamber and choral
    music, piano music and string quartets, and an
    opera.

20
CompositionsSymphony No. 5
  • Beethovens Symphony No. 5 premiered in Vienna in
    December 1808 on the same night as the composers
    Symphony No. 6 and Piano Concerto No. 4. It was
    an instant success with the critics and audience.
    They responded to the storytelling nature of the
    music and its dramatic impact. The ominous
    opening C minor motif transforming into the C
    major fanfare of the finale appealed to the new
    Romantic ideal of the age.
  • The symphony, and the four-note opening motif in
    particular, are well known worldwide, with the
    motif appearing frequently in popular culture,
    from disco to rock and roll, to appearances in
    film and television. During World War II, the BBC
    used the four-note motif to introduce its radio
    news broadcasts because it evoked the Morse code
    letter "V" ( , "victory").

21
CompositionsSymphony No. 5
  • From the director of Disneys Fantasia
  • When I listened to the music, it sounded like a
    great controversy was going on between good and
    evil, It was pretty clear to me that a battle was
    going on. There was a little bit of melody and a
    lot of power. I came up with these triangular
    shapes to represent the two sides. The good
    shapes would move like butterflies the bad ones
    would move more like bats. I didnt want to be
    too literal. Its more fun to let that reveal
    itself. The music and the tempo are so fast, you
    dont really have a lot of time to study things.
    You get hit with all this passion and when its
    over you take a breath. The good shapes are
    multicolored and attracted to the light. The bad
    shapes, represented in dark colors, want to
    attack them and stop them from reaching the
    light.

22
CompositionsSymphony No. 9
  • The Symphony No. 9 in D minor, Op. 125 "Choral"
    is the last complete symphony composed by Ludwig
    van Beethoven. Completed in 1824, the choral
    Ninth Symphony is one of the best known works of
    the Western repertoire, considered both an icon
    and a forefather of Romantic music, and one of
    Beethoven's greatest masterpieces.
  • Symphony No. 9 incorporates part of "Ode to Joy",
    a poem by Friedrich Schiller written in 1785,
    with text sung by soloists and a chorus in the
    last movement. It is the first example of a major
    composer using the human voice on the same level
    with instruments in a symphony, creating a work
    of a grand scope that set the tone for the
    Romantic symphonic form.

23
CompositionsSymphony No. 9
Ode To Joy" is an ode written in 1785 by the
German poet, playwright and historian Friedrich
Schiller. The poem celebrates the ideal of unity
and brotherhood of all mankind.
  • Oh friends, not these tones!
  • Let us sing more cheerful songs,
  • And more joyful.
  • Joy! Joy!
  • Joy, beautiful spark of gods
  • Daughter of Elysium,
  • We enter drunk with fire,
  • Heavenly one, your sanctuary!
  • Your magic binds again
  • What custom strictly divided.
  • All men become brothers,
  • Where your gentle wing rests.
  • Whoever has had the great fortune
  • To be a friend's friend,
  • Whoever has won a devoted wife,
  • Join in our jubilation!
  • Indeed, whoever can call even one soul,

Glad, as His suns fly Through the Heaven's
glorious design, Run, brothers, your race,
Joyful, as a hero to victory. Be embraced,
millions! This kiss for the whole world!
Brothers, above the starry canopy Must a loving
Father dwell. Do you bow down, millions? Do you
sense the Creator, world? Seek Him beyond the
starry canopy! Beyond the stars must He dwell.
Finale repeats the words Be embraced, you
millions! This kiss for the whole world!
Brothers, beyond the star-canopy Must a loving
Father dwell. Be embraced, This kiss for the
whole world! Joy, beautiful spark of gods,
Daughter of Elysium, Joy, beautiful spark of
gods
24
Romantic Period
1820-1900
25
Romantic PeriodArtwork
  • This painting was made at the end of the
    Classical period of music, in 1824.  The girl's
    face is not calm like in the painting above. 
    This girl is afraid.  There are more colors in
    this painting, and they are more vivid. 
  • Do you see the crosses at the bottom of the
    image?  The girl is sitting in a graveyard. 
    This painting has more emotion and is more
    intense than the image above.  
  • The artist, Delacroix, is considered a painter of
    the Romantic period because of the use of bold
    colors and strong emotions found in his
    paintings.

26
Romantic Period1820-1900
  • The Romantic period was a period during the
    nineteenth century and early twentieth century
    when composers created music that often exploded
    with emotion.
  • Romanticism rejected Classicisms attempt to
    impose laws on nature. Rather, its goal was to
    emancipate human feeling from delicate and
    intimate expressions to the most colossal,
    world-shaking emotional outbursts.
  • The problem in the nineteenth century was how far
    to go with this new freedom. The opposite of
    complete intellectual rule is complete emotional
    rule. Both extremes present disadvantages and
    difficulties.
  • Instead of working for wealthy bosses, composers
    were for the first time able to work for
    themselves.
  • New instruments, or ones that had been modified
    in some way, allowed composers to write music for
    entirely new sounds and for new instrument
    combinations.

27
Romantic PeriodTerms
  • Rubato a slight holding back or pressing
    forward of tempo
  • Art Song a composition for solo voice and piano
  • Program music instrumental compositions that
    attempt to convey a specific idea without using
    lyrics
  • Program symphony a pictorial or descriptive
    orchestral work in several movements
  • Idee fixe a fixed melodic idea that recurs
    throughout all movements of a symphony
  • Nationalism music created with a specific
    national identity, folk songs, dances, or history
    of their homelands

28
Romantic PeriodImportant Figures and Events
  • Charles Darwin (1809-1882) an English naturalist
    who realized and presented compelling evidence
    that all species of life have evolved over time
    from common ancestors, through the process he
    called natural selection.

29
Romantic PeriodComposers
  • Hector Berlioz (1803-1869)
  • Berlioz was not a child prodigy, did not start
    serious study of music until he was an adult,
    and, unlike most other composers, never learned
    to play the piano or any other instrument.
  • At his fathers wish, he enrolled in medical
    school instead. While in Paris studying for this
    degree, he became very interested in opera and
    started taking composition lessons. Furious, his
    father cut off all financial support. Still,
    through hard work, various musical successes and
    study at the Paris Conservatory, Berlioz achieved
    his ambition to be a composer.
  • Berlioz was noted for his orchestral writing and
    is credited with creating the modern orchestra.
    His ideas were quite grand his Requiem uses an
    orchestra of 190, four additional brass and
    percussion ensembles, and a 210-voice chorus!
    Berlioz new style of musical composition led
    directly to the Romantic era.
  • Although he wrote several major musical works,
    Berlioz was better known in his lifetime as a
    music critic than as a composer. He also
    conducted most performances of his own works, not
    trusting this responsibility to anyone else.

30
CompositionsSymphonie Fantastique
  • Berlioz was a passionate man, and he poured his
    emotions into his scores. Symphonie Fantastique
    is a strong example of how Berlioz translated
    his life into music.
  • The impact that Beethoven had on Berlioz is
    evident in the work, but no less evident is
    Berliozs originality in opening up new paths
    that Beethoven had not explored, and the sound
    world of Berlioz is entirely his own.
  • His infatuation with actress Harriet Smithson
    is revealed by the recurring love theme in the
    piece (idee fixe).

31
Romantic PeriodComposers
  • Franz Schubert (1797-1828)
  • Franz Schubert was born in Vienna, Austria. In
    addition to playing several instruments, Franz
    also sang very well. When he was 10, he was
    accepted at the Imperial and Royal Seminary,
    which trained boys for the Court Chapel Choir.
    That choir still exists today as the Vienna Boys'
    Choir.
  • Schubert wrote his first symphonies for his
    school orchestra, and for friends of the family
    who used to get together to play -- the whole
    Schubert family was very musical.
  • Schubert also wrote piano, choral, and chamber
    music, but he is probably most famous for
    composing over 600 lieder songs (German art
    songs). He had a profound ability to capture the
    emotional essence of a poem in his music.
  • Schubert led a disorganized life and had a
    difficult time publishing works and making a
    living.

32
CompositionsThe Erlking
  • Who rides in the dark through cold and
    wind? My handsome boy, will you come with
    me?It is a father with his young son For my
    lovely daughters are waiting nowHe hold the
    sick child close to his chest, They will lead a
    series of dances each night,He holds him tightly
    to keep him warm. And cheer you with sweet songs
    to give you delight, And cheer you with
    sweet songs to give you delight. My son, what
    causes such fear in your face? Oh, Father,
    there, the Erlking is near. Oh Father, oh
    Father, do you not see thereI see the Erlking
    with crown and robe! The Erlkings daughters
    peer through the dark?My son, you see just fog
    and mist. My son, my son, I see it so
    clear An old willow tree shines dimly and
    gray.My lovely child, come, go with me!
    For splendid fun and games we will play I
    love you, child, your delicate figure
    delightsAll shades of flowers grow along the
    shore If you are not willing, then I shall use
    force.And my mother has some clothes made of
    gold. Oh Father, oh Father, hes reaching for
    me! Erlking has hurt me, he grabs my
    hands !Oh Father, oh Father, can you hear him
    now, The Erlking whispering magic to? The
    father shudders, he rides swiftly onPlease
    calm down, please be quiet, my child He
    clutches closer the weak moaning child,You hear
    the cool breeze rustling dead leaves. To reach
    the house with toil and dread Only to find
    that his son. . .is dead.
  • The Erlking is a narrative ballad and is an
    example of an art song. The text is from a poem
    of the same title by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe.
    The poem describes a struggle between a father of
    a gravely ill son and the phantom figure,
    Erlking. The Erlking, who symbolizes death,
    wants to claim the child. In Schuberts work, a
    rapid triplet pattern of repeated notes is
    sounded on the piano. This could signify the
    frantic struggle for possession of the child.

33
Romantic PeriodComposers
  • Frederic Chopin (1810-1849)
  • He was one of the greatest pianists of his day.
    He is known as the poet of the piano. Chopin
    was born in a town just outside of Warsaw,
    Poland. His mother introduced him to the piano
    by the time he was six, Chopin played extremely
    well and was starting to compose. He gave his
    first concert at the age of eight.
  • When Chopin was 20, he left Poland to seek fame
    and fortune in other European cities. When Chopin
    got to Paris, he decided to stay.
  • There's a story that when Chopin left his native
    country, his friends gave him some Polish soil,
    which he carried around with him for the rest of
    his life. That's probably not true, but Chopin
    did continue to be passionately patriotic about
    Poland, even though he never went back there.
  • Chopin was never healthy, and he was only
    thirty-nine when he died of tuberculosis. When he
    was buried -- in France -- a special box of earth
    was brought from Poland to sprinkle on his grave.
    But Chopin's heart is in Poland -- literally. His
    heart was put in an urn and taken to the Church
    of the Holy Cross in Warsaw.

34
Romantic PeriodFrederic Chopin (1810-1849)
Nocturne in E flat Major
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